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The rubiscolins are a group of opioid peptides that are formed during digestion of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) protein from spinach leaves. Rubiscolins mimic the effects of opiates and, therefore, influence the brain. These peptides have much in common with the better-known gluten exorphins.

There are 2 known rubiscolins with known structure:


  • Structure: H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-OH
  • Chemical formula: C30H45N5O9
  • Molecular weight: 619.70 g/mol


  • Structure: H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Thr-OH
  • Chemical formula: C39H54N6O10
  • Molecular weight: 766.87 g/mol

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