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CAS number90880-95-8

Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides [Met]enkephalin, and to a lesser extent, [Leu]enkephalin.[1] Upon cleavage, each proenkephalin peptide results in the generation of four copies of [Met]enkephalin, two extended copies of [Met]enkephalin, and one copy of [Leu]enkephalin.[1] Contrarily, [Leu]enkephalin] is predominantly synthesized from prodynorphin, which produces three copies of it per cleavage, and no copies of [Met]enkephalin. Other endogenous opioid peptides produced by proenkephalin include adrenorphin,[2] amidorphin,[3] BAM-18,[4] BAM-20P,[5] BAM-22P,[5] peptide B,[6] peptide E,[7] and peptide F.[8]

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  1. ^ a b Donald W. Pfaff (2002). Hormones, brain, and behavior. Elsevier. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-12-532109-9. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  2. ^ Matsuo H, Miyata A, Mizuno K (1983). "Novel C-terminally amidated opioid peptide in human phaeochromocytoma tumour". Nature. 305 (5936): 721–3. doi:10.1038/305721a0. PMID 6633641.
  3. ^ Seizinger BR, Liebisch DC, Gramsch C, et al. (1985). "Isolation and structure of a novel C-terminally amidated opioid peptide, amidorphin, from bovine adrenal medulla". Nature. 313 (5997): 57–9. doi:10.1038/313057a0. PMID 3965972.
  4. ^ Hurlbut DE, Evans CJ, Barchas JD, Leslie FM (June 1987). "Pharmacological properties of a proenkephalin A-derived opioid peptide: BAM 18". European Journal of Pharmacology. 138 (3): 359–66. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(87)90474-2. PMID 3040439.
  5. ^ a b Mizuno K, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (December 1980). "A new family of endogenous "big" Met-enkephalins from bovine adrenal medulla: purification and structure of docosa- (BAM-22P) and eicosapeptide (BAM-20P) with very potent opiate activity". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 97 (4): 1283–90. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(80)80005-2. PMID 7213356.
  6. ^ Micanovic R, Kruggel W, Ray P, Lewis RV (1984). "Purification and sequence of a non-opioid peptide derived from ovine proenkephalin: implications for possible species specific processing". Peptides. 5 (5): 853–6. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(84)90105-0. PMID 6504720.
  7. ^ Boarder MR, Evans C, Adams M, Erdelyi E, Barchas JD (December 1987). "Peptide E and its products, BAM 18 and Leu-enkephalin, in bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells: release in response to stimulation". Journal of Neurochemistry. 49 (6): 1824–32. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb02443.x. PMID 3681299.
  8. ^ Jones BN, Stern AS, Lewis RV, et al. (October 1980). "Structure of two adrenal polypeptides containing multiple enkephalin sequences". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 204 (1): 392–5. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(80)90048-X. PMID 7425644.

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