Madho Lal Hussain
Madho Lal Hussain
مادھو لال حسین
The Shrine of Madho Lal Hussain in Lahore
Lahore, Mughal Empire, now Punjab, Pakistan
near Ravi River, Lahore, Mughal Empire, now Punjab, Pakistan
|Resting place||Durbar Madho Lal Hussain, Baghbanpura, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan|
Shah Hussain (Urdu: شاہ حسین) was a 16th century Punjabi Sufi poet who is regarded as a pioneer of the Kafi form of Punjabi poetry. Hussain's love for a Hindu boy named "Madho" has resulted in them being referred to as a single person with the composite name of "Madho Lal Hussain" (Urdu: مادھو لال حسین).
Shah Hussain is also often known as Shah Hussain Faqir - Faqir meaning Dervish ( mendicant ) and Shah means King. So due to his extremely humble Sufi personality, people called him The Dervish King, a person who was a King and a Dervish at the same time.
His tomb and shrine is located at the Baghbanpura precincts, adjacent to the Shalimar Gardens Lahore, Pakistan. His Urs (annual death anniversary) is celebrated at his shrine every year during the "Mela Chiraghan" ("Festival of Lights"). Madho's tomb lies next to Hussain's in the shrine.
Kafis of Shah Hussain
Hussain's poetry consists entirely of short poems known as Kafis. A typical 'Hussain Kafi' contains a refrain and some rhymed lines. The number of rhymed lines is usually between four and ten. Only occasionally is a longer form adopted. Hussain's Kafis are also composed for, and the singing of them have been set to music based on Punjabi folk music. Many of his Kafis are part of the traditional Qawwali repertoire. His poems have been performed as songs by Kaavish, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Abida Parveen, Ghulam Ali, Hamid Ali Bela, Amjad Parvez, Junoon and Noor Jehan, among others. "It may be asserted that poetry is often written to be sung. And all poetry carries, through manipulation of sound effects, some suggestion of music".
Here are three examples, which draw on the famous love story of Heer Ranjha:
Ni Mai menoon Khedeyan di gal naa aakh
Do not talk of the Khedas to me, mother.
Sajjan bin raatan hoiyan whadiyaan
The nights are long without my beloved.
Two Kafis that are addressed to his converted Hindu disciple Madho Lal Hussain need a special mention:
Madho Lal! Piyaare ki parwaasa dam da?
Madho Lal! My dear what is this trust on life?
- Sufis - Wisdom against Violence (profile of Madho Lal Hussain on the-south-asian.com website) Retrieved 5 November 2018
- Annual Mela Chiraghan (Festival of Lights) in Lahore, Pakistan Dawn (newspaper), Published 4 April 2016, Retrieved 5 November 2018
- Lal, Mohan. (2006) Encyclopaedia of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, p. 3940. ISBN 81-260-1221-8.
- Hussain, Shah (1987). Kafiyan Shah Hussain: Kalaam Aur Urdu Tarjumah.
- "Hamid Ali Bela sings Shah Hussain poem". dailymotion.com. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "Profile of 'Shah Hussain'". travel-culture.com. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Amin Naqshbandy, Sheikh Parvaiz (2001). Hazrat Maadho Laal Hussain. the University of Michigan: Umar Publications. p. 120.
- Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab, by R. M. Chopra, Iran Society, Kolkata, 1999.
- Verses of a Lowly Fakir poetry of Madho Lal Hussein translated by Naveed Alam 2016. ISBN 0670088277
- Complete works of Shah Hussain in Punjabi (Shahmukhi) language, Academy of the Punjab in North America (APNA) website
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