Quzhou

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Quzhou

衢州市
衢州南湖 - panoramio (1).jpg
Location of Quzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
Location of Quzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
Quzhou is located in China
Quzhou
Quzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 28°57′N 118°52′E / 28.950°N 118.867°E / 28.950; 118.867Coordinates: 28°57′N 118°52′E / 28.950°N 118.867°E / 28.950; 118.867
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceZhejiang
County-level divisions6
Government
 • MayorShang Qing (尚清)
 • Party SecretaryChen Xin (陈新)
Area
 • Total8,846 km2 (3,415 sq mi)
Population
(2010)
 • Total2,122,700
 • Density240/km2 (620/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
324000
Area code(s)0570
ISO 3166 codeCN-ZJ-08
GDP¥98.3 billion
GDP per capita¥46,267 (2012)
License Plate Prefix浙H
City treeCamphor
City flowerOsmanthus
Websitequzhou.gov.cn
Quzhou
Chinese衢州
Literal meaningSeat of the Highway Prefecture

About this soundQuzhou [a] is a prefecture-level city in western Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Sitting on the upper course of the Qiantang River, it borders Hangzhou to the north, Jinhua to the east, Lishui to the southeast, and the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui to the south, southwest and northwest respectively.

Chinese Actress and Singer Zhou Xun is born in Quzhou.

History[edit]

Maps of "Kiu-tcheou-fou" and "Pinghou-hien" from Du Halde's 1736 Description of China, based on Jesuit accounts

Descendants of Confucius[edit]

During the Southern Song dynasty the descendant of Confucius at Qufu, the Duke Yansheng Kong Duanyou fled south with the Song Emperor to Quzhou, while the newly established Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in the north appointed Kong Duanyou's brother Kong Duancao who remained in Qufu as Duke Yansheng.[3] From that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, once in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan dynasty Emperor Kublai Khan. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation,[4][5] so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. The southern branch still remained in Quzhou where they lived to this day. Confucius's descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000.[6] The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the southern branch at Quzhou by a Ming Emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke Yansheng.[7][8] Kong Ruogu 孔若古 aka Kong Chuan(孔傳)[9] 47th generation[10] was claimed to be the ancestor of the Southern branch after Kong Zhu died by Northern branch member Kong Guanghuang.[11] The leader of the southern branch is 孔祥楷 Kong Xiangkai.[12]

Second World War[edit]

During the Second World War, Japanese troops used bacteriological weapons in Quzhou, spreading plague, typhoid and other diseases in Quzhou, as well as in Ningbo and Changde. As a result, between 1940 and 1948 more than 300,000 Chinese civilians in the area contracted the plague and other diseases, and an estimated 50,000 died in Quzhou alone.[13]

Administration[edit]

The prefecture-level city of Quzhou administers 2 districts, 1 county-level city, and 3 counties.

Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin
1 Kecheng District 柯城区 Kēchéng Qū
2 Qujiang District 衢江区 Qújiāng Qū
3 Jiangshan City 江山市 Jiāngshān Shì
4 Changshan County 常山县 Chángshān Xiàn
5 Kaihua County 开化县 Kāihuà Xiàn
6 Longyou County 龙游县 Lóngyóu Xiàn

Geography[edit]

The centre of Quzhou sits on a broad agricultural plain based on the Qiantang River. The river is known locally as the Qu River (衢江). It flows roughly southwest for 81.5 km (50.6 mi) and is flanked on both sides by hills. Almost all the rivers of Quzhou feed into the Qiantang system, which ultimately empties into Hangzhou Bay.

The terrain is higher in the west and the east. The territory of Quzhou Municipality is made up of plains (15%), hills (36%), and mountains (49%). In the north is the Qianli Gang (千里岗) mountain range and in the west the Yu Mountains (玉山脉). The highest mountains, the range known as the Xianxia Ling (仙霞岭), lie in the south. The highest point in the city is at Dalong Gang (大龙岗), which rises to 1,500 m above sea level.

70.7% of the land is covered with forest. The rest is densely irrigated and farmed, producing citrus fruits, tea and mulberry leaves.

Climate[edit]

Quzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.31 °C (63.2 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 5.4 °C (41.7 °F) in January to 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,705 millimetres (67.1 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. The frost-free period lasts 251–261 days. Winds along the Qiantang River valley are predominantly north-easterly and north-east-easterly. Occasionally typhoons blow in from the Pacific Ocean. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 25% in March to 59% in August, the city receives 1,810 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Quzhou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
28.2
(82.8)
34.2
(93.6)
34.6
(94.3)
36.8
(98.2)
39.0
(102.2)
40.9
(105.6)
41.2
(106.2)
39.6
(103.3)
36.1
(97)
31.9
(89.4)
26.4
(79.5)
41.2
(106.2)
Average high °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
11.0
(51.8)
15.0
(59)
21.6
(70.9)
26.4
(79.5)
29.2
(84.6)
33.5
(92.3)
33.1
(91.6)
28.5
(83.3)
23.7
(74.7)
18.0
(64.4)
12.5
(54.5)
21.8
(71.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
6.9
(44.4)
10.8
(51.4)
17.0
(62.6)
21.8
(71.2)
25.1
(77.2)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
24.1
(75.4)
18.9
(66)
13.1
(55.6)
7.5
(45.5)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.9
(39)
7.6
(45.7)
13.3
(55.9)
18.1
(64.6)
21.8
(71.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24.7
(76.5)
20.7
(69.3)
15.2
(59.4)
9.3
(48.7)
3.7
(38.7)
13.8
(56.8)
Record low °C (°F) −10.4
(13.3)
−8.9
(16)
−2.9
(26.8)
2.1
(35.8)
9.4
(48.9)
14.4
(57.9)
19.3
(66.7)
18.0
(64.4)
12.0
(53.6)
2.1
(35.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
−7
(19)
−10.4
(13.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 79.8
(3.142)
111.5
(4.39)
202.7
(7.98)
214.8
(8.457)
235.2
(9.26)
316.3
(12.453)
153.1
(6.028)
101.6
(4)
99.9
(3.933)
76.9
(3.028)
62.0
(2.441)
51.2
(2.016)
1,705
(67.126)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13.7 14.5 19.0 18.1 16.8 16.8 11.7 12.1 10.3 9.7 8.2 8.6 159.5
Average relative humidity (%) 80 80 82 80 79 82 77 76 79 78 77 76 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.3 90.2 92.8 118.0 145.5 150.2 237.9 239.6 181.5 166.1 145.1 141.6 1,809.8
Percent possible sunshine 31 29 25 31 35 36 56 59 49 47 45 44 41
Source: China Meteorological Administration, retrieved 2010-10-07

Tourism[edit]

  • Ancestral Temple of the Southern Confucian Clan
  • Lanke Mountain, 10 km (6.2 mi) southeast of the city proper. It features green peaks and clear waters, and the huge rocks on top of the mountain support a horizontal rock to form a natural arch, the Tiansheng Bridge ("Nature-Formed").

Demographics[edit]

As of 2003, Quzhou municipality registered a population of 2,413,500. The vast majority are Han Chinese (99.16%) but there are also small minorities of She (0.73%) and Hui, Zhuang, Manchu and Miao (together making up 0.1%). Most of the people in Quzhou are engaged in agriculture (2,035,100). The genders are roughly evenly split. Population density is 273 people per km². At any given time there are a handful of foreign (mainly European and Australian) teachers at the schools and university of Quzhou, as well as alleged but never seen Russian Military Personnel who work and advise at the military base.

Transportation[edit]

Quzhou is well served by both railways and highways. The city of Quzhou is a major connection hub between the three provinces of Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian, with the Zhegan Railroad running through southern Quzhou and the Qu River flowing past northern Quzhou. A local saying goes: "Four provinces through Qu, it's the head of five roads" (四省通衢、五路总头).

Airport

Quzhou Airport, ranked as class 4C, is located 3 km (1.9 mi) away from east side of city centre,[14] and this airport was built in 22nd year of Republic of China (1933).The destinations are Beijing, Xiamen and Shenzhen. Airplane timetable and more information can be found on Quzhou airport official website. The nearest large-scale airport is Hangzhou International Airport, and its information can be found on Hangzhou International Airport Official Website

Railway

One of the most famous railway passes through the city is Shanghai-Kunming Railway with a speed of 200 km/h (120 mph). This railway has three stations in city, which are Longyou Station, Quzhou Station, Jiangshan Station. More information can be found on Quzhou Railway Website

Highway

Quzhou South Station, also named as Quzhou Express Station (衢州快客站),located in No.209 Shang Street, has 27 buses to Hangzhou, 18 to Jinhua, 8 to Ningbo, 6 to Wenzhou, and 3 to Shanghai daily. Another Express Station is located in He Hua Middle Road (荷花中路), on the south of newly built train station, and its destinations cover most cities in Jiangxi Province and Fujian Province. More bus information can be found on https://web.archive.org/web/20111231062848/http://www.icha.com.cn/RailwayStation/130.Html

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In addition to the pinyin and Wade-Giles romanizations of the name given above, Quzhou also appears in historical accounts as Kyu-tcheou-fou[1] and Kiu-tcheou-fou, [2] based on French transcriptions of its name and former status as a prefectural seat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ E.g.: An historical, geographical, and philosophical view of the Chinese empire: comprehending a description of the fifteen provinces of China, Chinese Tartary; tributary states; natural history of China; government, religion, laws, manners and customs, literature, arts, sciences, manufactures, &c (2 ed.). p. 83.
  2. ^ Murray, Hugh; Crawfurd, John; Gordon, Peter (1843), An historical and descriptive account of China: its ancient and modern history, language, literature, religion, government, industry, manners, and social state ... (3 ed.), Oliver & Boyd, pp. 25–26
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2016-05-03.; "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03.; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-07-24.; https://www.asian-studies.org/absts/1995abst/china/csess45.htm http://archive Archived 2013-07-12 at the Wayback Machine.. is/hOXhs; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248653434_The_Ritual_Formation_of_Confucian_Orthodoxy_and_the_Descendants_of_the_Sage; http://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/temple.html; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04.; http://kfz.freehostingguru.com/article20.php; http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-09/29/content_699183.htm; http://www.china.org.cn/english/2006/Sep/182656.htm; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-06-10. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03. p. 14.; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248653434_The_Ritual_Formation_of_Confucian_Orthodoxy_and_the_Descendants_of_the_Sage p. 572.; "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  5. ^ Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-90-04-27151-7.
  6. ^ "Nation observes Confucius anniversary". China Daily. 2006-09-29.; "Confucius Anniversary Celebrated". China Daily. September 29, 2006.
  7. ^ Thomas A. Wilson (2002). On Sacred Grounds: Culture, Society, Politics, and the Formation of the Cult of Confucius. Harvard University Asia Center. pp. 69, 315. ISBN 978-0-674-00961-5.
  8. ^ Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-90-04-27151-7.; "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03. p. 14.; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248653434_The_Ritual_Formation_of_Confucian_Orthodoxy_and_the_Descendants_of_the_Sage p. 575.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03. p. 5.
  10. ^ http://js.ifeng.com/humanity/his/detail_2015_03/27/3712847_0.shtml; http://www.zjfeiyi.cn/lvyou/detail/2-124.html; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2018-04-04.; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-09-23. Retrieved 2016-05-09.; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-06-05. Retrieved 2016-05-21.; http://www.inee.edu.mx/c/bcok.php?xVZ2/9t1z4.html[permanent dead link]; http://www.kong.org.cn/BBS2/a/a.asp?B=74&ID=123[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248653434_The_Ritual_Formation_of_Confucian_Orthodoxy_and_the_Descendants_of_the_Sage p. 575.; Wilson, Thomas A.. 1996. “The Ritual Formation of Confucian Orthodoxy and the Descendants of the Sage”. The Journal of Asian Studies 55 (3). [Cambridge University Press, Association for Asian Studies]: 559–84. doi:10.2307/2646446. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2646446 p. 575.; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  12. ^ Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-90-04-27151-7.
  13. ^ Jonathan Watts: Japan guilty of germ warfare against thousands of Chinese The Guardian, 28 August 2002; Justin McCurry: Japan's sins of the past The Guardian, 28 October 2004.
  14. ^ "Quzhou Airport Official Website". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.

External links[edit]