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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1620s 1630s 1640s – 1650s – 1660s 1670s 1680s|
|Years:||1654 1655 1656 – 1657 – 1658 1659 1660|
|1657 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2410|
|English Regnal year||8 Cha. 2 – 9 Cha. 2
— to —丁酉年十一月廿七日
|- Vikram Samvat||1713–1714|
|- Shaka Samvat||1579–1580|
|- Kali Yuga||4758–4759|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||657–658|
|Japanese calendar||Meireki 3
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||255 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2200|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1657|
- January 8 – Miles Sindercombe and his group of disaffected Levellers are betrayed in their attempt to assassinate Oliver Cromwell by blowing up the Palace of Whitehall in London and arrested.
- February 4 – Oliver Cromwell gives Antonio Fernandez Carvajal the assurance of the right of Jews to remain in England.
- February 10 – Christina, former Queen of Sweden, has Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi killed in her presence at the Palace of Fontainebleau.
- February 23 – In England, the Humble Petition and Advice offers Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
- March 2 – The Great Fire of Meireki in Edo, Japan, destroys most of the city and damages Edo castle, killing an estimated 100,000 people.
- March 23 – Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660): By the Treaty of Paris, France and England form an alliance against Spain; England will receive Dunkirk.
- April 20
- May 8 – Lord Protector Cromwell confirms his refusal of the crown of England, preferring the title "Lord Protector".
- June 1
- July 13 – Following his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to Oliver Cromwell, English army leader John Lambert is ordered to resign his commissions.
- August 20 – The ship Les Armes d'Amsterdam arrives at Quebec, New France. Among the passengers is Michel Mathieu Brunet dit Lestang (1638–1708), colonist, explorer and co-discoverer of what is today Green Bay, Wisconsin. He is the ancestor of the Brunet, Lestang and Carisse families of North America.
- September – Shah Jahan becomes ill, allowing his son to take control of the Mughal Empire.
- September 19 – Brandenburg and Poland sign the Treaty of Wehlau.
- September 24 – The first autopsy and coroner's jury verdict are recorded in the Colony of Maryland.
- October 1 – Treaty of Raalte: William III, Prince of Orange is no longer stadtholder of Overijssel.
- October 3 – French troops occupy Mardyck.
- November 6 – Brandenburg and Poland sign the Treaty of Bromberg.
- December 27 – The Flushing Remonstrance is signed in New Amsterdam at the site of the future (1862) Flushing Town Hall in New York.
 Date unknown
- The Accademia del Cimento is founded in Florence, Italy.
- England's first chocolate house is opened in London.
- Coffee is introduced to France.
- Christiaan Huygens writes the first book to be published on probability theory, De ratiociniis in ludo aleae ("On Reasoning in Games of Chance").
- Andreas Gryphius' drama Katharina von Georgien is published.
- Thomas Middleton's tragedy Women Beware Women is published posthumously.
- February 11 – Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, French scientist and man of letters (d. 1757)
- March 1 – Samuel Werenfels, Swiss theologian (d. 1740)
- March 18 – Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni, Italian composer (d. 1743)
- March 24 – Arai Hakuseki, Japanese politician and writer (d. 1725)
- June 10 – James Craggs the Elder, English politician (d. 1721)
- July 11 – King Frederick I of Prussia (d. 1713)
- August 18 – Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena, Italian architect/painter (d. 1743)
- September 17 – Sophia Alekseyevna, regent of Russia (d. 1704)
- November 26 – William Derham, English minister and writer (d. 1735)
- date unknown
- March – Edward Hopkins, politician (b. 1600)
- March 7 – Hayashi Razan, Japanese neo-Confucianist scholar (b. 1583)
- April 2 – Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (born 1608)
- May 9 – William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Colony (b. 1590)
- May 10 – Gustaf Horn, Swedish soldier and politician (b. 1592)
- May 16 – Andrzej Bobola, Polish Jesuit missionary (b. 1591)
- June 3 – William Harvey, English physician (b. 1578)
- August 6 – Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Ukrainian Cossack Hetman (b. c. 1595)
- August 14 – Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, 57th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1560)
- August 17 – Robert Blake, British admiral (b. 1599)
- August 29 – John Lilburne, English dissenter (b. c. 1614)
- September 7 – Arvid Wittenberg, Swedish field marshal and statesman (b. 1606)
- September 13 – Jacob van Campen, Dutch artist (b. 1596)
- date unknown – Willem Ysbrandtsz Bontekoe, Dutch sea captain (b. 1587)
- "1657". British Civil Wars. Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-60. 2010-06-07. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
- Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6765. Retrieved 2012-02-17. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Blusse, Leonard; Vaillé, Cynthia (2005). The Deshima Dagregisters, Volume XII 1650-1660. Leiden.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 267–268. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "Chocolate Arrives in England". Cadbury. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2012-02-17.