Alexander Severus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Alexander Severus
26th Emperor of the Roman Empire
Alexander Severus Musei Capitolini MC471.jpg
Bust of Severus Alexander
Reign 11 March 222 – 18/19 March 235
Full name Marcus Julius Gessius Bassianus Alexianus
(from birth to adoption);
Caesar Marcus Aurelius Alexander (from adoption to accession);
Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus
(as emperor)
Born (208-10-01)1 October 208
Birthplace Arca Caesarea, Syria Phoenicia Province (modern Akkar, Lebanon)
Died 18 or 19 March 235 (aged 26)
Place of death Moguntiacum, Germania Superior
Predecessor Elagabalus
Successor Maximinus Thrax
Consort to Sallustia Orbiana
Sulpicia Memmia
Royal House Severan
Father Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus
Mother Julia Avita Mamaea
Roman imperial dynasties
Severan dynasty
Severan dynasty - tondo.png
The Severan Tondo
Chronology
Septimius Severus 193198
—with Caracalla 198209
—with Caracalla and Geta 209211
Caracalla and Geta 211211
Caracalla 211217
Interlude: Macrinus 217218
Elagabalus 218222
Alexander Severus 222235
Dynasty
Severan dynasty family tree
All biographies
Succession
Preceded by
Year of the Five Emperors
Followed by
Crisis of the Third Century

Severus Alexander (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus;[1] 1 October 208 – 18 or 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy.

Alexander was the heir apparent to his cousin, the eighteen-year-old Emperor who had been murdered along with his mother by his own guards, who, as a mark of contempt, had their remains cast into the Tiber river.[2] He and his cousin were both grandsons of the influential and powerful Julia Maesa, who had arranged for Elagabalus' acclamation as emperor by the famous Third Gallic Legion. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of Elagabalus and his mother.[3]

As emperor, Alexander's peace time reign was prosperous. However militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids, but when campaigning against Germanic tribes of Germania, Alexander attempted to bring peace by engaging in diplomacy and bribery. This apparently alienated many in the legions and led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him.

Persian and German wars[edit]

On the whole, however, the reign of Alexander was prosperous until the rise, in the east, of the Sassanids.[4] Of the war that followed there are various accounts. According to Herodian, the Roman armies suffered a number of humiliating setbacks and defeats,[5] while according to the Historia Augusta[6] as well as Alexander's own dispatch to the Roman Senate, he gained great victories.[7] Making Antioch his base, he marched at the head of his troops towards Ctesiphon,[4] but a second army was destroyed by the Persians,[8] and further losses were incurred by the retreating Romans in Armenia.[9]

Nevertheless, although the Sassanids were checked for the time,[7] the conduct of the Roman army showed an extraordinary lack of discipline.[10] In 232 there was a mutiny in the Syrian legion, who proclaimed Taurinus emperor.[11] Alexander managed to suppress the uprising, and Taurinus drowned while attempting to flee across the Euphrates.[12] The emperor returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph in 233.[7]

The following year he was called to face German invaders in Gaul, who had breached the Rhine frontier in several places, destroying forts and over-running the countryside.[13] Alexander mustered his forces, bringing legions from the eastern provinces, and crossed the Rhine into Germany on a pontoon bridge.[14] Initially on the advice of his mother, he attempted to buy the German tribes off, so as to gain time.[10]

Whether this was a wise policy or not, it caused the Roman legionaries to look down on their emperor as one who was prepared to commit unsoldierly conduct.[15] Herodian says "in their opinion Alexander showed no honourable intention to pursue the war and preferred a life of ease, when he should have marched out to punish the Germans for their previous insolence".[16] These circumstances drove the army to look for a new leader. They chose Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus, a soldier from Thrace who had worked his way up through the ranks.[17]

Death[edit]

Following the nomination of Maximinus as emperor, Alexander was assassinated (on either 18 or 19 March 235), together with his mother, in a mutiny of the Legio XXII Primigenia at Moguntiacum (Mainz) while at a meeting with his generals.[17] These assassinations secured the throne for Maximinus.[18]

The death of Alexander is sometimes seen as the end of the Principate system established by Augustus.[10] Although the Principate continued in theory until the reign of Diocletian, Severus Alexander's death signalled the beginning of the chaotic period known as the Crisis of the Third Century which brought the empire to near collapse.[10]

Legacy[edit]

Denarius of Severus Alexander.

Alexander was the last of the Syrian emperors. Under the influence of his mother, he did much to improve the morals and condition of the people, and to enhance the dignity of the state.[18] His advisers were men like the famous jurist Ulpian, the senator and historian Cassius Dio and a select board of sixteen senators;[19] a municipal council of fourteen assisted the urban prefect in administering the affairs of the fourteen districts of Rome.[20] Excessive luxury and extravagance at the imperial court were diminished.[21]

Upon his accession he reduced the silver purity of the denarius from 46.5% to 43% — the actual silver weight dropping from 1.41 grams to 1.30 grams; however, in 229 he revalued the denarius, increasing the silver purity and weight to 45% and 1.46 grams respectively. The following year he decreased the amount of base metal in the denarius while adding more silver – raising the silver purity and weight again to 50.5% and 1.50 grams.[22] Also during his reign taxes were lightened; literature, art and science were encouraged; the lot of the soldiers was improved;[23] and, for the convenience of the people, loan offices were instituted for lending money at a moderate rate of interest.[24]

In religious matters Alexander preserved an open mind. It is said that he was desirous of erecting a temple to Jesus, but was dissuaded by the pagan priests.[25] He allowed a synagogue to be built in Rome, and he gave as a gift to this synagogue a scroll of the Torah known as the Severus Scroll.[26]

Marriage[edit]

Alexander was married three times. His most famous wife was Sallustia Orbiana, Augusta, whom he married in 225.[18] He divorced and exiled her in 227, after her father, Seius Sallustius, was executed after being accused of attempting to assassinate the emperor.[12] Another wife was Sulpicia Memmia. Her father was a man of consular rank; her grandfather's name was Catulus.[27]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Alexander's name would be inscribed as MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ALEXANDER AVGVSTVS.
  2. ^ Dio, 60:20:2
  3. ^ Herodian, 5:8:5
  4. ^ a b Southern, pg. 61
  5. ^ Herodian, 6:5–6:6
  6. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 55:1–3
  7. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 62
  8. ^ Herodian, 6:5:10
  9. ^ Herodian, 6:6:3
  10. ^ a b c d Canduci, pg. 61
  11. ^ Victor, 24:2
  12. ^ a b Canduci, pg. 59
  13. ^ Herodian, 6:7:2
  14. ^ Herodian, 6:7:6
  15. ^ Zonaras, 12:15
  16. ^ Herodian, 6:7:10
  17. ^ a b Southern, pg. 63
  18. ^ a b c Benario, Alexander Severus
  19. ^ Southern, pg. 60
  20. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 33:1
  21. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 15:1
  22. ^ Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate"
  23. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 21:6
  24. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 21:2
  25. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 43:6–7
  26. ^ 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia article "Alexander Severus"
  27. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Severus Alexander, 20:3

References[edit]

Primary[edit]

Secondary[edit]

Attribution

External links[edit]

Media related to Severus Alexander at Wikimedia Commons

Alexander Severus
Born: 1 October 208 Died: 18/19 March 235
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Elagabalus
Roman Emperor
222–235
Succeeded by
Maximinus I (Thrax)
Political offices
Preceded by
Gaius Vettius Gratus Sabinianus,
Marcus Flavius Vitellius Seleucus
Consul of the Roman Empire
222
with Elagabalus
Succeeded by
Marius Maximus,
Luscius Roscius Aelianus Paculus Salvius Julianus
Preceded by
Tiberius Manilius Fuscus,
Servius Calpurnius Domitius Dexter
Consul of the Roman Empire
226
with Gaius Aufidius Marcellus
Succeeded by
Marcus Nummius Senecio Albinus,
Marcus Laelius Fulvius Maximus Aemilianus
Preceded by
Quintus Aiacius Modestus Crescentianus,
Marcus Pomponius Maecius Probus
Consul of the Roman Empire
229
with Cassius Dio
Succeeded by
Lucius Virius Agricola,
Sextus Catius Clementinus Priscillianus