Chancellor of Germany (1949–)
|Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
|Appointer||The Federal President
In accordance with a vote in the Bundestag
|Constituting instrument||Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany|
|First holder||Konrad Adenauer|
The Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (known in German as Bundeskanzler(in), literally meaning "Federal Chancellor", or Kanzler for short) is, under the German 1949 constitution, the head of government of Germany. It is historically a continuation of the office of Chancellor (German: Kanzler, later Reichskanzler) that was originally established as the office of Chancellor of the North German Confederation in 1867. The 1949 constitution increased the role of the Chancellor compared to the 1919 Weimar Constitution by making the Chancellor more independent of the influence of the Federal President and granting the Chancellor the right to set the guidelines for all policy areas. The role is generally comparable to that of Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.
There have been eight chancellors since 1949. The current Chancellor of Germany is Angela Merkel, who was elected in 2005. She is the first female Chancellor since the establishment of the original office in 1867, and known in German as Bundeskanzlerin, the feminine form of Bundeskanzler. Merkel is also the first Chancellor elected since the fall of the Berlin Wall to have been raised in the former East Germany.
History of position
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The office of Chancellor has a long history, stemming back to the Holy Roman Empire. The title was at times used in several states of German-speaking Europe. The power and influence of this office varied strongly over time. Otto von Bismarck in particular had a great amount of power, but it was not until 1949 that the Chancellor was established as the central executive authority of Germany.
Due to his administrative tasks, the head of the chapel of the imperial palace during the Holy Roman Empire was called Chancellor. The Archbishop of Mainz was German Chancellor until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 while the Archbishop of Cologne was Chancellor of Italy and the Archbishop of Trier of Burgundy. These three Archbishops were also Prince-electors of the empire. Already in medieval times the Chancellor had political power like Willigis of Mainz (Archchancellor 975–1011, regent for Otto III 991–994) or Rainald von Dassel (Chancellor 1156–1162 and 1166–1167) under Frederick I.
The modern office of Chancellor was established with the North German Confederation, of which Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor (German, Bundeskanzler) in 1867. After unification of Germany in 1871, the office became known in German as Reichskanzler ("Reich Chancellor"). Since the adoption of the current constitution of Germany in 1949 the formal title of the office in the German language is once again Bundeskanzler.
In the now defunct German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), which existed from 7 October 1949 to 3 October 1990 (when the territory of the former GDR was reunified with the Federal Republic of Germany), the position of Chancellor did not exist. The equivalent position was called either Minister President (Ministerpräsident) or Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR (Vorsitzender des Ministerrats der DDR). (See Leaders of East Germany.)
West Germany's 1949 constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), invests the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) with central executive authority. Since the 1961 election, the two major parties (CDU/CSU and SPD) call their leading candidates for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (Kanzlerkandidat), although this is not an official term and any party can nominate a Kanzlerkandidat (even if there is no chance at all to lead or even become part of a coalition). The Federal Government (Bundesregierung) consists of the chancellor and his or her cabinet ministers.
The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and from his or her status as leader of the party (or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the Bundestag (federal parliament). With the exception of Helmut Schmidt, the chancellor has usually also been chairman of his or her own party. This was the case with Chancellor Gerhard Schröder from 1999 until he resigned the chairmanship of the SPD in 2004.
The first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, set many precedents that continue today. He arrogated nearly all major decisions to himself, and established the chancellorship as the clear focus of power in Germany. He often treated his ministers as mere extensions of his authority rather than colleagues. While his successors have tended to be less domineering, the chancellor has acquired enough power that Germany is often described as a "chancellor democracy."
The chancellor determines the composition of the Federal Cabinet. The President formally appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers, at the recommendation of the chancellor; no parliamentary approval is needed. According to the Basic Law, the chancellor may set the number of cabinet ministers and dictate their specific duties. Chancellor Ludwig Erhard had the largest cabinet, with twenty-two ministers in the mid-1960s. Helmut Kohl presided over 17 ministers at the start of his fourth term in 1994; the 2002 cabinet, the second of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, had 13 ministers and the Angela Merkel cabinet as of 22 November 2005 has 15.
Article 65 of the Basic Law sets forth three principles that define how the executive branch functions:
- The "chancellor principle" makes the chancellor responsible for all government policies which is also known as the Richtlinienkompetenz (roughly translated as "guideline setting competence"). Any formal policy guidelines issued by the chancellor are legally binding directives that cabinet ministers must implement. Cabinet ministers are expected to introduce specific policies at the ministerial level that reflect the chancellor's broader guidelines.
- The "principle of ministerial autonomy" entrusts each minister with the freedom to supervise departmental operations and prepare legislative proposals without cabinet interference so long as the minister's policies are consistent with the chancellor's broader guidelines.
- The "cabinet principle" calls for disagreements between federal ministers over jurisdictional or budgetary matters to be settled by the cabinet.
Every four years, after national elections and the convocation of the newly elected members of the Bundestag, the chancellor is elected by a majority of the members of the Bundestag upon the proposal of the President (Bundespräsident). This vote is one of the few cases where a majority of all elected members of the Bundestag must be achieved, as opposed to a mere majority of those that are currently assembled. This is referred to as the Kanzlermehrheit (chancellor's majority), and is designed to ensure the establishment of a stable government. It has in the past occasionally forced ill or pregnant members to have to attend parliament when a party's majority was only slim.
Unlike regular voting by the Bundestag, the vote to elect the chancellor is by secret ballot. This is intended to ensure that the chancellor's majority does not depend on members of his or her party only outwardly showing support.
If the nominee of the President is not elected, the Bundestag may elect its own nominee within fourteen days. If no-one is elected within this period, the Bundestag will attempt an election. If the person with the highest number of votes has a majority, the President must appoint him or her. If the person with the highest number of votes does not have a majority, the President may either appoint them or call new elections for the Bundestag. As all chancellors have been elected in the first vote as yet (1949–2010) neither of these constitutional provisions has been applied.
The chancellor is the only member of the federal government elected by the Bundestag. The other cabinet ministers are chosen by the chancellor himself or herself, although they are formally appointed by the President on the chancellor's proposal.
Votes of no-confidence
- For more details, see Constructive Vote of No Confidence.
Unlike in other parliamentary legislatures, the Bundestag cannot remove the chancellor simply with a Motion of No Confidence. Instead, the early removal of a chancellor is only possible when it simultaneously agrees on a successor. In order to garner legislative support in the Bundestag, the chancellor can also call for a regular Motion of Confidence, either combined with a legislative proposal or as a standalone vote. Only if such a vote fails may the President dissolve the Bundestag.
This procedure exists to avoid the situation that existed in the Weimar Republic, when votes of no-confidence were over-used or abused by parties.
Style of address
The correct style of address in German is Herr Bundeskanzler (male) or Frau Bundeskanzlerin (female). Use of the mixed form "Frau Bundeskanzler" was deprecated by the government in 2004 because it is regarded as impolite.
Living former Chancellors
There are three living former German Chancellors:
served 1974–1982, born 1918
served 1982–1998, born 1930
served 1998–2005, born 1944
List of Chancellors
Holding the third-highest state office available within the Federal Republic of Germany, the Chancellor of Germany receives €220,000 per annum and a €22,000 bonus, i.e. one and two thirds of Salary Grade B11 (according to § 11 (1) a of the Federal Law on Ministres – Bundesministergesetz, BGBl. 1971 I p. 1166 and attachment IV to the Federal Law on Salaries of Officers – Bundesbesoldungsgesetz, BGBl. 2002 I p. 3020).
- Air transports of heads of state and government
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- Politics of Germany
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- President of Germany
- Leaders of East Germany
- Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)
- List of Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany by time in office
- List of state leaders
- "Acting in accordance with the constitution". Regierungonline. The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "Frau Bundeskanzler" oder ... "Frau Bundeskanzlerin"? - n-tv.de
- Klein, Herbert, ed. 1993. The German Chancellors. Berlin: Edition.
- Padgett, Stephen, ed. 1994. The Development of the German Chancellorship: Adenauer to Kohl. London: Hurst.
- Harlen, Christine M. 2002. "The Leadership Styles of the German Chancellors: From Schmidt to Schröder." Politics and Policy 30 (2 (June)): 347–371.
- Helms, Ludger. 2001. "The Changing Chancellorship: Resources and Constraints Revisited." German Politics 10 (2): 155–168.
- Mayntz, Renate. 1980. "Executive Leadership in Germany: Dispersion of Power or 'Kanzler Demokratie'?" In Presidents and Prime Ministers, ed. R. Rose and E. N. Suleiman. Washington, D.C: American Enterprise Institute. pp. 139–71.
- Smith, Gordon. 1991. "The Resources of a German Chancellor." West European Politics 14 (2): 48–61.
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