Location of Jackson, Tennessee
|Named for||Andrew Jackson|
|• Mayor||Jerry Gist (since 2007)|
|• Total||49.5 sq mi (128.2 km2)|
|• Land||49.5 sq mi (128.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||410 ft (125 m)|
|• Density||1,317/sq mi (508.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1289178|
|Website||City of Jackson Official Website|
Jackson is the county seat of Madison County, Tennessee. Its total population was 65,211 at the 2010 census. Jackson is the primary city of the Jackson, Tennessee metropolitan area, which is included in the Jackson-Humboldt, Tennessee Combined Statistical Area. Jackson is Madison County's largest city. It is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for West Tennessee.
Jackson was the seventh largest city in Tennessee until 2013, when Franklin surpassed Jackson in population. Jackson is now eighth.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Government
- 3 History
- 4 Notable people
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Education
- 8 Crime
- 9 Recreation, sports, and entertainment
- 10 Climate
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Jackson is located at (35.633132, -88.820805).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.5 square miles (128 km2), all land.
The city charter also provides for a legislative body of nine members, each elected by and representing a unique district.
Jackson's city court judge serves an eight-year term with a fixed salary during each term. Its current judge is Blake Anderson. The court may dispose of misdemeanors and hold a preliminary hearing for felonies. If the judge holds that probable cause is established for felonies, then the decision is sent to the grand jury for indictment, and then to circuit court.
European-American settlement of Jackson began along the Forked Deer River before 1820. Originally named Alexandria, the city was renamed in 1822 to honor General Andrew Jackson, a hero of the War of 1812. He was later elected as President of the United States.
The City of Jackson was founded by an act of the Tennessee General Assembly, passed in 1821, entitled an "act to establish a seat of justice for Henry, Carroll, Henderson and Madison Counties." The act required 50 acres (20 ha) of land to be deeded to the commissioners. The commissioners chosen by the Legislature were Sterling Brewer and James Fentress. The places considered for the seat of justice were Alexandria, Golden’s Station, and Jackson. The larger portion of the settlers at that time were living on Cotton Grove Road, and as Jackson was closer to them than either of the other settlements, the city was looked upon as the more suitable site for the seat of justice.
The Tennessee Supreme Court is required to meet in Jackson because at the time of the second Tennessee State Constitution in 1834, Memphis had not yet developed and Jackson was the most significant city in West Tennessee at the time.
Between December 11, 1862 and January 1, 1863, an engagement at Jackson occurred during Confederate Brigadier General Nathan Bedford Forrest's expedition into West Tennessee. Forrest wished to disrupt the rail supply line to Ulysses S. Grant's army, campaigning down the Mississippi Central Railroad. If Forrest destroyed the Mobile & Ohio Railroad running south from Columbus, Kentucky through Jackson, Grant would have to curtail or halt his operations altogether.
Forrest's 2,100-man cavalry brigade crossed the Tennessee River on December 17. Grant ordered a soldier concentration at Jackson under Brigadier General Jeremiah C. Sullivan and sent a cavalry force under Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll. Forrest's soldiers destroyed the Union cavalry in Lexington, Tennessee on December 18. As Forrest continued his advance the following day, Sullivan ordered Colonel Adolph Englemann to take a small force northeast of Jackson.
At Old Salem Cemetery, acting on the defensive, Englemann's two infantry regiments repulsed a Confederate mounted attack, then withdrew a mile closer to the city. The fight amounted to no more than a feint and show of force intended to hold Jackson's Union defenders in position, while two mounted columns destroyed railroad track to both the north and south of the town, then returned. Forrest withdrew from the Jackson area to attack Trenton and Humboldt after this mission was accomplished.
Before 1989, Jackson had a city commission government consisting of a mayor and two commissioners; however, as a result of a lawsuit which declared that at-large elections served to dilute the voting power of the city's African-American residents, the city switched to election by districts. The dissolution of the former government also created the need for an elected city school board since the mayor and commissioners had formerly served in that capacity. In 1990, the city school system consolidated with the Madison County school system.
Between 1999 and 2008, several violent tornadoes struck large portions of the city including the downtown area, which was devastated in May 2003 by an F4 tornado. Parts of the Union University campus were damaged in November 2002, and many dormitories at the campus were demolished in a storm in February 2008. The McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport was also severely damaged in January 1999. The 1999 storm resulted in eleven fatalities, while the 2003 storm resulted in eight fatalities. The 1999 tornado also damaged the 30-acre (120,000 m2) Riverside Cemetery, where 40 known Confederate soldiers, 140 unknowns, and many families of the founders of Jackson are buried. The cemetery's acres of old trees and many of the statues, monuments, and graves were damaged during the tornado.
Jackson developed rapidly just prior to the Civil War as a railroad junction and maintenance shop for several early railroads, including the Mississippi Central, the Tennessee Central and the Mobile and Ohio lines. Located over seventy miles east of Memphis, Jackson lies along the shortest rail route between Cairo, IL, Jackson, MS (Mississippi’s capitol) and New Orleans. As the railroad was extended from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, Jackson was perfectly situated to be a station along the north-south line; and, to serve as a junction between the north-south line, and lines east & west between Memphis and Nashville, TN.
The first was the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, which began in October, 1849 in Mobile, Alabama. The line first entered Jackson in 1851. These tracks were completely destroyed during the Civil War. The line merged with the Gulf, Mobile and Northern Railroad in 1940 to become the Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad. The second railroad to enter Jackson was the Mississippi Central & Tennessee. In 1873, the line was contracted and later controlled by the Illinois Central Railroad.
On December 29, 1886, the Tennessee Midland Railway received a charter to build a railroad from Memphis, Tennessee to the Virginia state line. The line from Memphis to Jackson was completed on June 1, 1888. In 1893, the Tennessee Midland went into receivership and was sold at foreclosure to the L&N Railroad. Around 1968 the remainder of the Tennessee Midland was abandoned east of Cordova with the exception of some track in Jackson, Tennessee. That track is now used to deliver goods to Jackson's east and west industrial parks.
The Tennessee Midland Railway Company line from Memphis to Jackson was the forerunner of the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway. This line was often referred to as the “NC” by locals. Like all other railroads to enter Jackson, it was built with funds subscribed by citizens and investors of Jackson. The first passenger train to enter Jackson from Memphis was on June 1, 1888. The highly profitable railroad was merged into the Louisville and Nashville Railroad following WWII. After only a few years, the L&N was merged into and is now part of CSX Transportation.
A charter was granted by the State of Tennessee on August 16, 1910 and construction began on July l, 1911. The first sector extended from Jackson to the station of Tigrett and by April 20, 1912, 38 miles (61 km) of the line were ready for operations. On June 16 the remaining 11-mile (18 km) sector was set into service, connecting Dyersburg, Tennessee with Jackson. When the line began operations in 1912 it had as its president Isaac B. Tigrett, a prominent young banker of Jackson. The road immediately became an important local thoroughfare, moving much of the produce of the region to market in Jackson and Dyersburg. The Birmingham and Northwestern Railway Company had 4 locomotives, 5 passenger cars, and 92 freight cars. When Isaac B. Tigrett became President of the GM&N in 1920, he ceased to direct the affairs of the Birmingham and Northwestern Railroad Company. After he became president of the GM&O, the railroad was purchased merged to become the Dyersburg branch.
During the 1930s through the 1960s one could board fifteen regularly scheduled passenger trains at the two depots in Jackson. The names of some of those trains were The Rebel, Gulf Coast Rebel, The Sunchaser, The Floridian, The Seminole, The City of Memphis, and The City of Miami. Without change of train, one could travel to Memphis, Nashville, Meridian, Montgomery, Mobile, Birmingham, Jacksonville, Daytona, Orlando, Miami, Centralia, Champaign-Urbana, Springfield, Chicago, St. Louis, and New Orleans.
- Micajah Autry, a hero of The Alamo, practiced law in Jackson from 1831–35
- Allison Leigh Alderson DeMarcus, former Miss Tennessee
- Dick Davis, football player
- Whitney Duncan, American country music artist
- Members of the rock band Full Devil Jacket
- Greg Goff, baseball coach at Louisiana Tech
- Jabari Greer, football player
- Joe Hunter, pianist, one of the Funk Brothers studio band who played on many Motown hits in the 1960s)
- Luther Ingram, singer
- Casey Jones, the Illinois Central engineer who, before colliding with a stalled freight train near Vaughn, Mississippi, told his fireman to jump to safety. Jones died at the throttle and saved the lives of all his passengers.
- Ed "Too Tall" Jones, football player
- Denise LaSalle, blues singer and present Queen of the Blues, has been a resident and business owner in Jackson for many years.
- Wink Martindale, game show host
- Carl Perkins, singer, lived for years in Jackson and the Civic Center is named for him.
- Lauren Pritchard, American soul singer, songwriter and actress who played the role of the 15-year-old runaway "Ilse" in the hit Broadway show Spring Awakening
- Trey Teague, football player
- Al Wilson, football player
- Fred Lane, football player attended Lane College in Jackson.
- Jacoby Jones, football player attended Lane College in Jackson.
Aviator Steve Fossett, the first man to fly solo nonstop around the world in a hot air balloon, was born in Jackson. Lauren Pritchard (singer) was born and spent her childhood in Jackson. Actor Christopher Jones was born in Jackson. Jackson was also the original home of Monroe Dunaway Anderson, a cotton trader and capitalist, whose financial endowment helped found the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas), and of Isaac Burton Tigrett, co-founder of the Hard Rock Cafe chain of themed restaurants. Musician Gil Scott-Heron was born in Chicago, Illinois, but spent his early childhood in Jackson, the home of his maternal grandmother., Blues harmonica player John Lee Curtis Williamson, better known as Sonny Boy Williamson, was born in Jackson. Environmental advocate, civil rights activist, and lawyer Van Jones was born in Jackson. Thomas Harris, an American author most famous for The Silence of the Lambs, was born in Jackson.
Jackson is the larger principal city of the Jackson-Humboldt CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Jackson metropolitan area (Chester and Madison counties) and the Humboldt micropolitan area (Gibson County), which had a combined population of 165,108 at the 2010 census.
As of the census of 2010, there were 65,211 people, 25,191 households, and 15,951 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,317 people per square mile (423.4/km²). There were 28,052 housing units at an average density of 566.3 per square mile (218.9/km²). Since the 2010 Census, the City has added 9.4459 (24.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.2% White, 45.07% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.
There were 25,191 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 21.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.7% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.59% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.03.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 13.4% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.8 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,169, and the median income for a family was $45,938. Males had a median income of $41,085 versus $30,436 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,762. About 15.6% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36% of those under age 18 and 8.24% of those age 65 or over.
Interstate 40 goes through the city in an east-west direction, and U.S. Route 45 in a north-south direction. Interstate 40 has seven exits in the city. The Jackson Transit Authority line provides intra-city bus service, while the Greyhound Bus line provides inter-city service.
U.S. Route 45, locally known as Highland Street) runs north to south to Gibson County and Chester County. A bypass route of US 45 (known as the Keith Short Bypass) goes through the western part of the city.
U.S. Route 70 or State Route 1 runs east to west to Huntington and Brownsville.
Colleges and universities
- Jackson State Community College
- Lane College
- Tennessee College of Applied Technology at Jackson
- Union University
- West Tennessee Business College
- University of Memphis
- Jackson Central-Merry High School
- Jackson Christian School
- Jackson Preparatory School
- Liberty Technology Magnet High School
- Madison Academic Magnet High School
- North Side High School
- Sacred Heart of Jesus High School
- South Side High School
- Trinity Christian Academy
- University School of Jackson
- Vann Drive Christian Academy
- Northeast Middle School
- Rose Hill Middle School
- Tigrett Middle School
- West Middle School
- North Parkway Middle School
- Academic Academy at Northeast Middle School
According to Morgan Quitno's 2010 Metropolitan Crime Rate Rankings  the Jackson metropolitan area had the 13th highest crime rate in the United States.
The Morgan Quitno list of the "Top 25 Most Dangerous Cities of 2007", ranked Jackson's as the 9th most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States. In 2006, it had been listed as the 18th most dangerous.
Recreation, sports, and entertainment
The West Tenn Diamond Jaxx, a Class AA minor league baseball team in the Southern League, and an affiliate of the Seattle Mariners, played in Jackson from 1998 to 2010. The team changed its name for the 2011 season to the Jackson Generals, recalling the same name of the minor league team that played in Jackson in the Texas League in the early 20th century. The Generals play their home games at The Ballpark at Jackson (formerly Pringles Park).
Jackson is home to the Miss Tennessee Pageant, the official state finals to Miss America.
West Tennessee Healthcare Sportsplex is a travel baseball and softball complex completed in 2007. It hosts numerous tournaments throughout the year and has contributed to the growth explosion of the northeast corridor of the city.
The climate in this area is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jackson has a Humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
|Climate data for Jackson, Tennessee|
|Average high °C (°F)||10
|Average low °C (°F)||−1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||163
|Source: Weatherbase |
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- "Flooding and 14 Tornadoes across the Mid-South on May 1 & 2, 2010". National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Simer, Tracie (1 May 2010). "SUBMERGED: Flash floods cause outages, sink holes, road closings". The Jackson Sun. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
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