List of heads of government of the Central African Republic and Central African Empire
|Prime Minister of the
Central African Republic
as Acting President of the Central African Republic
|Inaugural holder||David Dacko|
|Formation||13 August 1960|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Central African Republic
This is a complete list of the heads of government of the Central African Republic and Central African Empire. There have been 23 heads of government of Central African Republic and the Central African Empire.
History of the position
The office of Prime Minister, the head of government, was created when the Central African Republic became an autonomous territory of France in December 1958. It was originally the highest post of the Central African Republic, though France did maintain a governor in the territory.
After the Central African Republic declared its independence and became a republic on 13 August 1960, David Dacko held both the Prime Minister and newly created President of the Central African Republic posts briefly before eliminating the Prime Minister position and placing all executive power in the office of the President.
President Jean-Bédel Bokassa restored the office of Prime Minister to assist him in governing the country in 1975, shortly before he declared himself Emperor. He selected Elisabeth Domitien to become Africa's first female head of government. After Domitien was removed from office, Bokassa named Ange-Félix Patassé to become his next Prime Minister. Patassé continued serving as Prime Minister after Bokassa declared the establishment of the Central African Empire in December 1976.
Henri Maïdou succeeded Patassé and continued serving as Prime Minister after Bokassa was overthrown from power. During the following two years of Dacko's presidency, three more politicians served as Prime Minister. The post was abolished when Dacko was overthrown from the presidency by Andre Kolingba on 1 September 1981.
The position, as it exists today, was recreated in 1991, when President Kolingba was forced to relinquish some of the executive power. The President has the authority to name the Prime Minister and can remove them from office at any time. The Prime Minister is the head of the government; within days of being appointed, they must select individuals for their Cabinet, who they will work with to coordinate the government.
According to a ceasefire agreement signed between the government and the Séléka rebel coalition on 11 January 2013, President François Bozizé was required to appoint a new Prime Minister from the political opposition after the National Assembly of the Central African Republic is dissolved and legislative elections are held. According to the agreement, this will happen on 11 January 2014 at the latest. Nicolas Tiangaye, who was selected as Prime Minister by the opposition and rebels, was appointed as Prime Minister on 17 January 2013.
For heads of government with multiple affiliations, the political party listed first is the party the person was affiliated with at the beginning of his tenure.
Heads of government
|Central African Republic (Territorial autonomy)|
|Portrait||Entered office||Left office||Political affiliations||Notes|
|8 December 1958[A]||29 March 1959[B]||MESAN||Founder of the MESAN party; negotiated for the independence of Oubangui-Chari and named the country the "Central African Republic".|
|30 March 1959||30 April 1959||MESAN||Served as Acting Prime Minister; had an internal struggle for power with Dacko after Boganda's death.|
|1 May 1959||13 August 1960||MESAN||Seized power from Goumba, with the support of high commissioner Roger Barberot, the Bangui chamber of commerce and Boganda's widow.|
|Central African Republic (Independent)|
|French: République centrafricaine, Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka|
|13 August 1960||14 August 1960[C]||MESAN||Also served as head of state (President) upon independence.|
|Post abolished (14 August 1960 – 1 January 1975)|
|2 January 1975[D]||7 April 1976[E]||MESAN||First female head of government in Africa.|
|Vacant (8 April 1976 – 4 September 1976)|
|5 September 1976||3 December 1976[F]||MESAN||Later served as President (1993–2003).|
|Central African Empire|
|French: Empire centrafricain|
|8 December 1976||14 July 1978||MESAN|
|14 July 1978||21 September 1979||MESAN||Wrote a letter on 4 September 1979 to the French government officials, asking them to put an end to Bokassa's tyrannical rule. Less than three weeks later, the French successfully executed Operation Barracuda, toppling the Bokassa regime.|
|Central African Republic|
|French: République centrafricaine, Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka|
|21 September 1979||26 September 1979[G]||MESAN|
|26 September 1979||22 August 1980[H]||MESAN||Previously served as a Minister of Economy.|
|Vacant (23 August 1980 – 11 November 1980)|
|12 November 1980||4 April 1981||UDC||Minister of Economy and Finance in Gaombalet's government from 2003–2004.|
|Simon Narcisse Bozanga
|4 April 1981||1 September 1981||UDC||Served as secretary general and Minister of Justice in the Dacko government.|
|Post abolished (2 September 1981 – 14 March 1991)|
|15 March 1991||4 December 1992||RDC||Served as the president of the Central African Republic Supreme Court. Declared Patassé the winner of the 1993 presidential election.|
|4 December 1992||26 February 1993[J]||FC||Minister of the National Economy in Bokassa's government and Minister of State under Dacko.|
|Enoch Derant Lakoué
|26 February 1993||25 October 1993||PSD||Candidate from the PSD in the 1993 and 1999 presidential elections. Later served as the head of the national administration of the Bank of Central African States (BEAC).|
|25 October 1993||12 April 1995[K]||MLPC||Minister of Health under Kolingba and Vice President of the MLPC.|
|12 April 1995||6 June 1996||MLPC||Inspector in the civil service prior to becoming Prime Minister.|
|6 June 1996||30 January 1997||PUN||Former ambassador to France.|
|30 January 1997[L]||4 January 1999||Nonpartisan||Previously served as Foreign Minister.|
|4 January 1999||1 April 2001[M]||Nonpartisan||Minister of Finance and Budget in Gbezera-Bria's government.|
|1 April 2001||15 March 2003[N]||MLPC||Finished second place to incumbent François Bozizé in the first round of the 2005 presidential elections, but lost the second round run-off. Elected to three-year term as President of MLPC in June 2007.|
|23 March 2003||11 December 2003[O]||FPP||Acting Prime Minister following Boganda's death in 1959. Vice President from 11 December 2003 to 15 March 2005.|
|12 December 2003||11 June 2005[P]||Nonpartisan||Former director-general of Union Bank in Central Africa (UBAC), worked for the Development Bank of Central African States in Congo, headed the Moroccan-Central African People's Bank (BMPC). Subsequently the Speaker of the National Assembly.|
|13 June 2005||18 January 2008[Q]||Nonpartisan||Became Finance Minister in September 2006 cabinet reshuffle, while maintaining his post as Prime Minister.|
|22 January 2008||17 January 2013 ||Nonpartisan||Holds two doctoral degrees in mathematics. Served as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Bangui from May 2004 until being appointed as Prime Minister.|
|17 January 2013||10 January 2014[R]||Nonpartisan||Served as President of the National Transitional Council (CNT) from 2003 to 2005.|
|25 January 2014||10 August 2014||Nonpartisan||Serving as Acting Prime Minister; former secretary-general of the African Development Bank and vice president of the Development Bank of Central African States.|
|10 August 2014||Incumbent||Nonpartisan||Heading a transitional government until the full implementation of the peace deal|
- A Goumba had served as President of the Government Council since 26 July 1958. When the Central African Republic became a territorial autonomy, he served as the acting leader the government from 1 December 1958 to 8 December 1958.
- B Boganda was killed in a mysterious plane crash on 29 March 1959, while en route to Bangui. The exact cause of the crash was not determined, but sabotage was widely suspected. Experts found a trace of explosives in the plane's wreckage, but revelation of this detail was withheld. Although those responsible for the crash were never identified, people have suspected the French secret service, and even Boganda's wife, of being involved.
- C Dacko removed the Prime Minister position and consolidated power in the Presidency.
- D President for Life Jean-Bédel Bokassa established a new government on 2 January 1975 and reintroduced the position of Prime Minister. He appointed Domitien as president of MESAN and Prime Minister of the Central African Republic.
- E Domitien was removed from office because she publicly expressed her disapproval of Bokassa's plans to establish a monarchy in the Central African Republic. Bokassa then had her placed under house arrest.
- F On 4 December 1976, Bokassa instituted a new constitution and declared the republic a monarchy, the Central African Empire.
- G President Dacko appointed Maïdou as Vice President on 27 September 1979.
- H Prime Minister Ayandho was dismissed from office on 22 August 1980 by Dacko, who saw him as a political threat, and placed under house arrest.
- I Dacko created the Central African Democratic Union in February 1980 as the country's only political party.
- J Malendoma was removed as Prime Minister and replaced by Lakoué.
- K In April 1995, Mandaba resigned as Prime Minister, preempting a threatened vote of no-confidence from his own party, following accusations of incompetence and corruption.
- L Gbezera-Bria was named Prime Minister on 30 January 1997 to replace Ngoupande, who had been accused of siding with disgruntled soldiers, who had sparked a mutiny on 15 November 1996 to demand higher wages. Ngoupande also didn't strongly support President Patassé's decision to call in French troops to suppress the soldier uprising.
- M President Patassé fired Dologuélé on 1 April 2001 and replaced him with Ziguélé, a senior diplomat who had served as ambassador to Benin for the last two years. Patassé did not provide an explanation for his decision, but political observers state that the nonpartisan Dologuélé had become widely unpopular with the ruling MLPC party.
- N Ziguélé left office when François Bozizé seized power on 15 March 2003.
- O On 11 December 2003, Goumba was dismissed as Prime Minister and was appointed as Vice President.
- P Gaombalet resigned as Prime Minister on 11 June 2005 after being elected as Speaker of the National Assembly on 7 June.
- Q In mid-January 2008, members of the National Assembly filed a censure motion against the Doté government, in response to countrywide civil service strike initiated by trade unions to protest the government's failure to pay arrears to government employees. On 18 January, Doté announced his resignation as Prime Minister.
- R Tiangaye resigned with President Michel Djotodia in N'Djamena, Chad on 10 January 2014.
- Emperor of Central Africa
- List of heads of state of the Central African Republic and Central African Empire
- List of colonial heads of Central Africa
- Lists of office-holders
- Appiah, K. Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., eds. (1999), Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (1st ed.), New York: Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-00071-1, OCLC 41649745.
- Clark, John F.; Gardinier, David E., eds. (1997), Political Reform in Francophone Africa, Boulder: Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-2785-7, OCLC 35318507.
- Kalck, Pierre (2005), Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic (3rd English ed.), Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-4913-5, OCLC 55487416.
- Lentz, Harris M. (1994), Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-89950-926-6, OCLC 30075961.
- Marsden, Hilary, ed. (1987), Whitaker's Almanack, 1988, London: J Whitaker and Sons, ISBN 0-85021-178-6, OCLC 17305204.
- Murison, Katharine, ed. (2003), Africa South of the Sahara 2004 (33rd ed.), London: Europa Publications, ISBN 1-85743-183-9, OCLC 52621809.
- Stewart, John (1989), African States and Rulers: An Encyclopedia of Native, Colonial and Independent States and Rulers Past and Present, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-89950-390-X, OCLC 18781224.
- Titley, Brian (1997), Dark Age: The Political Odyssey of Emperor Bokassa, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1602-6, OCLC 36340842.
- Mehler, Andreas (2005), Villalón, Leonardo A.; VonDoepp, Peter, eds., The Fate of Africa's Democratic Experiments: Elites and Institutions, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-34575-8, OCLC 57414663.
- "Central African Republic ceasefire signed". BBC News. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Patrick Fort, "Tiangaye named Central African PM, says 'hard work' begins", Agence France-Presse, 17 January 2013.
- Kalck 2005, p. 135.
- Kalck 2005, p. 27
- Kalck 2005, p. 198.
- Kalck 1971, p. 107.
- Kalck 2005, p. xxxii.
- Kalck 2005, p. 199.
- Lentz 1994, p. 153.
- Titley 1997, p. 83.
- Kalck 2005, p. xxxiv.
- Munié, Vincent (29 May 2008), Central African Republic: France's Long Hand, AllAfrica.com, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Stewart 1989, p. 58.
- Kalck 2005, p. 124.
- Lentz 1994, p. 154.
- Lewis, Flora (24 September 1979), "Barred By France, Bokassa Flies Off For African Nation", The New York Times: A1, A12.
- Stewart 1989, p. 59.
- "RCA: le ministre de l'Économie a remis sa démission", Agence France-Presse (in French), 13 August 2004, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Kalck 2005, p. 33.
- Kalck 2005, p. 200.
- Clark & Gardinier 1997, p. 119.
- Kalck 2005, p. 125.
- Rapport de la Mission Exploratoire en vue des Elections Presidentielles et Legislatives du 22 aout 1993 (PDF) (in French), Le Conseil Permanent de la Francophonie, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Rapport de la Mission D’observation des Elections Presidentielles du 19 septembre 1999 (PDF) (in French), l'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "Présidentielle en RCA: seuls cinq candidats admis à se présenter", Agence France-Presse (in French), 30 December 2004, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Kalck 2005, p. xlviii.
- Murison 2004, p. 200.
- New Central African premier named, Agence France-Presse, 12 April 1995
- Mehler 2005, p. 136.
- "Central African leader names new PM under reconciliation pact", Agence France-Presse (in French), 30 January 1997.
- "Central African Republic Prime Minister Forms New Government", Agence France-Presse (in French), 15 January 1999.
- Kalck 2005, p. lv.
- Samson, Didier (31 March 2005), "Second tour: Bozizé face à Ziguélé", Radio France Internationale (in French).
- "Bozizé fait coup double aux élections", Agence France-Presse (in French), 25 May 2005.
- Soupou, Jérémie (30 June 2007), "Martin Ziguélé face à la presse", Agence Centrafrique Presse (in French), retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Bozize appoints prime minister, 24 March 2003, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Geslin, Jean-Dominique (21 December 2003), "Que peut faire Gaombalet?", Jeune Afrique (in French).
- "New parliament meets, elects speaker", IRIN, 9 June 2005, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2007), The CIA World Factbook, New York: Skyhorse Publishing, p. 124, ISBN 1-60239-080-0, OCLC 181228013.
- "Central Africa's government reshuffled", Agence France-Presse, 3 September 2006 .
- "Centrafrique: le recteur de l'université de Bangui nommé Premier ministre", Agence France-Presse (in French), 22 January 2008.
- "Prime minister booted from job in Central African Republic, part of peace deal with rebels". The Washington Post. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Profile of new Central African Prime Minister, Faustin Touadera", African Press Agency, 23 January 2008, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Central African Republic's PM, cabinet resign — state radio Reuters Africa. 5 August 2014
- "André Nzapayéké, un technocrate à la tête du gouvernement de République centrafricaine" (in French). Radio France Internationale. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "New CAR PM says ending atrocities is priority". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- "African Leader Found Dead in Crashed Plane", The New York Times, 1 April 1959: 10.
- Kalck 2005, p. 27.
- Titley 1997, p. 16.
- Paxton, Pamela; Hughes, Melanie M. (2007), Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective, Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, p. 83, ISBN 1-4129-2742-0, OCLC 71348673
- Uglow, Jennifer S.; Hinton, Frances (1982), The International Dictionary of Women's Biography, New York: Macmillan Publishers, p. 148, ISBN 0-8264-0192-9, OCLC 8410986.
- Kalck 2005, pp. xxxiv–xxxv.
- Kalck 2005, p. xxxvii.
- Kalck 2005, p. xlvii.
- Benamsse, Joseph (30 January 1997), "New prime minister named in Central African Republic", Associated Press.
- Benamsse, Joseph (1 April 2001), "President of Central African Republic fires prime minister", Associated Press.
- "New premier forms government, Goumba appointed VP", IRIN, 15 December 2003, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "Bozize inaugurated, prime minister appointed", IRIN, 13 June 2005, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Kreutzer, Tino (19 January 2008), "CAR government resigns amid wages crisis", AfricaNews, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "Maths professor becomes CAR PM", News24, 22 January 2008, retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "CAR interim President Michel Djotodia resigns". BBC News. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.