Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (August 2014)|
|Full name||Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab|
|Died||1792 (aged 88–89)
Emirate of Diriyah
|School or tradition||Wahhabi Islam|
|Notable ideas||Views on innovations within Islam (bid'ah), Islamic monotheism (Tawhid) and polytheism (shirk), Takfeer of Associanists who supplicate to dead saints and prophets for divine providence|
Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الوهاب; 1703 – 22 June 1792) was an Arabian Islamic scholar and founder of a movement that sought to eradicate anti-Islamic practices that had cropped up in Arabia in the 18th century (examples being seeking solace on the graves and burial grounds of various individuals, etc.). Detractors of this movement, especially those outside of the Arabian Peninsula ended up coining the totally alien term "wahabi" or "wahabism" - neither Mohammed ibn Abdul Wahab nor any of the participants of this reform effort in any span of time ever coined the term or referred to themselves or their efforts as "wahabis" or "wahabism". ]". His pact with Muhammad bin Saud helped to establish the first Saudi state and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state, dominating the state's clerical institutions.
Early life and education
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab is generally acknowledged to have been born in 1703 into the Arab tribe of Banu Tamim (the Banu Tamim were not a nomadic bedouin tribe) in 'Uyayna, a village in the Najd region of the modern Saudi Arabia.
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab reportedly spent some time studying with Muslim scholars in the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina after performing Hajj (Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi) and in Basra (in southern Iraq).
In Mecca, the Hanbali mufti, Ibn Humaydi, perceived Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to be a poor student, and arrogant and defiant with his teachers, which upset his father. Consequently, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab did not complete his studies.
Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab's teacher Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sayf introduced the relatively young man to Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi in Medina and recommended him as a student. Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and al-Sindi became very close and Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab stayed with him for some time. Scholars have described Muhammad Hayya as having an important influence on Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, who taught Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to utilize informed individual analysis (ijtihad). Muhammad Hayya also taught Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab to reject popular religious practices associated with walis and their tombs that resembles later Wahhabi teachings. Muhammad Hayya and his milieu are important for understanding the origins of at least the Wahhabi revivalist impulse.[not in citation given]
Following his early education in Medina, Abdul Wahhab traveled outside of the peninsula, venturing first to Basra. He then went to Baghdad, where he said to have got married to a woman of Najdi origin and settled down for five years. Most sources agree that Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab's reformist ideas were formulated while living in Basra. He returned to 'Uyayna in 1740.
After his return home, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to attract followers, including the ruler of 'Uyayna, Uthman ibn Mu'ammar. With Ibn Mu'ammar, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab came to an agreement to support Ibn Mu'ammar's political ambitions to expand his rule "over Najd and possibly beyond", in exchange for the ruler’s support for Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's religious teachings. ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to implement some of his ideas for reform. First, citing Islamic teachings forbidding grave worship, he persuaded Ibn Mu'ammar to help him level the grave of Zayd ibn al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, whose grave was revered by locals. Secondly, he ordered the cutting down of trees considered sacred by locals, cutting down "the most glorified of all of the trees" himself. And last he personally organised the stoning of a woman who confessed to having committed adultery.
These actions gained the attention of Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr of the tribe of Bani Khalid, the chief of Al-Hasa and Qatif, who held substantial influence in Najd. Ibn Ghurayr threatened Ibn Mu'ammar with denying him the ability to collect a land tax for some properties that Ibn Mu'ammar owned in Al-Hasa if he did not kill or drive away Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. Consequently Ibn Mu'ammar forced Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to leave.
Pact with Muhammad bin Saud
Upon his expulsion from 'Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad bin Saud. After some time in Diriyah, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded his second and more successful agreement with a ruler. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud agreed that, together, they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the "true" principles of Islam as they saw it. According to one source, when they first met, bin Saud declared:
"This oasis is yours, do not fear your enemies. By the name of God, if all Nejd was summoned to throw you out, we will never agree to expel you."—Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia: 16
Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab replied:
"You are the settlement's chief and wise man. I want you to grant me an oath that you will perform jihad (Struggle to spread Islam) against the unbelievers. In return you will be imam, leader of the Muslim community and I will be leader in religious matters."—Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia: 16
The agreement was confirmed with a mutual oath of loyalty (bay'ah) in 1744. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab would be responsible for religious matters and Ibn Saud in charge of political and military issues. This agreement became a "mutual support pact" and power-sharing arrangement between the Al Saud family, and the Al ash-Sheikh and followers of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, which has remained in place for nearly 300 years, providing the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion.
Emirate of Diriyah
The 1744 pact between Muhammad bin Saud and Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab marked the emergence of the first Saudi state, the Emirate of Diriyah. By offering the Al Saud a clearly defined religious mission, the alliance provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion. First conquering Najd, Saud's forces expanded the Salafi influence to most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, eradicating various popular and Shia practices and propagating the doctrines of ʿAbd al-Wahhab.
While in Baghdad, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab married an affluent woman. When she died, he inherited her property and wealth. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Al-Wahhab had six sons; Hussain, Abdullah, Hassan, Ali and Ibrahim and Abdul-Aziz who died in his youth. All his surviving sons established religious schools close to their homes and taught the young students from Diriyah and other places.
The descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state, dominating the state's religious institutions. Within Saudi Arabia, the family is held in prestige similar to the Saudi royal family, with whom they share power, and has included several religious scholars and officials. The arrangement between the two families is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Salafi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimise the royal family's rule.
Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab considered his movement an effort to purify Islam by returning Muslims to what, he believed, were the original principles of that religion, as typified by the Salaf and rejecting, what he regarded, as religious innovations (Bid'ah) and polytheism (Shirk). He taught that the primary doctrine of Islam was the uniqueness and unity of God (Tawhid). The first aspect of Tawhid is belief in Allah and His Lordship, that He alone is the believer's lord (Rabb). The second is the oneness of worship to Allah and Allah alone. The third being belief and affirmation of Allah's Names and Attributes.
The "core" of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teaching is found in Kitab al-Tawhid, a short essay which draws from material in the Quran and the recorded doings and sayings (hadith) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It preaches that worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as the five daily prayers (salat); fasting (sawm); supplication (Dua); seeking protection or refuge (Istia'dha); seeking help (Ist'ana and Istighatha) of Allah.[page needed]
Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was keen on emphasising that other acts, such as making dua or calling upon/supplication to or seeking help, protection or intercession from anyone or anything other than Allah, are acts of shirk and contradict the tenets of Tawhid and that those who tried would never be forgiven.[page needed]
Although all Muslims pray to one God (Allah), the highlight of this movement was that no intercession with God was possible, Muhammad strictly advocated Takfir of those who considered themselves Muslim but were actually (Ibn Abdul-Wahhab believed) polytheists (mushrikeen).
As with the early Salafists, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings were criticized by a number of Islamic scholars for disregarding Islamic history, monuments, traditions and the sanctity of Muslim life. His own brother, Sulayman, was particularly critical, claiming he was ill-educated and intolerant, classing Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's views as fringe and fanatical. A list of scholars with opposing views, along with names of their books and related information, was compiled by the Islamic scholar Muhammad Hisham.[List of books that criticize Wahhabi teachings]
By modern scholars
|This section requires expansion. (December 2011)|
- Risālah Aslu Dīn Al-Islām wa Qā’idatuhu
- Kitab al-Quran (The book of Allah)
- Kitab at-Tawhid (The Book of the Unity of God)
- Kashf ush-Shubuhaat (Clarification of the Doubts)
- Al-Usool-uth-Thalaatha" (The Three Fundamental Principles)
- Al Qawaaid Al ‘Arbaa’ (The Four Foundations of Shirk)
- Al-Usool us Sittah (The Six Fundamental Principles)
- Nawaaqid al Islaam (Nullifiers of Islaam)
- Adab al-Mashy Ila as-Salaa (Manners of Walking to the Prayer)
- Usul al-Iman (Foundations of Faith)
- Fada'il al-Islam (Excellent Virtues of Islam)
- Fada'il al-Qur'an (Excellent Virtues of the Qur'an)
- Majmu'a al-Hadith 'Ala Abwab al-Fiqh (Compendium of the Hadith on the Main Topics of the Fiqh)
- Mukhtasar al-Iman (Abridgement of the Faith; i.e. the summarised version of a work on Faith)
- Mukhtasar al-Insaf wa'l-Sharh al-Kabir (Abridgement of the Equity and the Great Explanation)
- Mukhtasar Seerat ar-Rasul (Summarised Biography of the Prophet)
- Kitaabu l-Kabaair (The Book of Great Sins)
- Kitabu l-Imaan (The Book of Trust)
There are two contemporary histories of Muhammed ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his religious movement from the point of view of his supporters: Ibn Ghannam's Rawdhat al-Afkar wal-Afham or Tarikh Najd (History of Najd) and Ibn Bishr's Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh Najd. Husain ibn Ghannam (d. 1811), an alim from al-Hasa was the only historian to have observed the beginnings of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's movement first-hand. His chronicle ends at the year 1797. Ibn Bishr's chronicle, which stops at the year 1854, was written a generation later than Ibn Ghannam's, but is considered valuable partly because Ibn Bishr was a native of Najd and because he adds many details to Ibn Ghannam's account.
A third account, dating from around 1817 is Lam' al-Shihab, written by an anonymous Sunni author who respectfully disapproved of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's movement, regarding it as a bid'ah. It is also commonly cited because it is considered to be a relatively objective contemporary treatment of the subject. However, unlike Ibn Ghannam and Ibn Bishr, its author did not live in Najd and his work is believed to contain some apocryphal and legendary material with respect to the details of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's life.
- Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East, a Turkish disinformation pamphlet about his life
- The Salafis consider themselves to be 'non-imitators' or 'not attached to tradition', and therefore answerable to no school of law at all, observing instead what they would call the practice of early Islam. However, to do so does correspond to the ideal aimed at by Ibn Hanbal, and thus they can be said to be of his 'school'. Glassé 2003: 407
- Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Kitab al-Tawhid
- Risālah Aslu Dīn Al-Islām wa Qā'idatuhu. Shaikh Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. (Arabic source)
- "Wahabi & Salafi". Alahazrat.net. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Delong-Bas, Natana J. (2004). Wahhabi Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 4.
- Hourani 1992: 257–258
- Nawaf E. Obaid (Sep 1999). "The Power of Saudi Arabia's Islamic Leaders". Middle East Quarterly VI (3): 51–58. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- Abir 1987: 4, 5, 7
- Metz 1992
- While there is some consensus over these details, the opinion is not unanimous over the specifics in regard to his place and date of birth. Seemingly his recognition with the Banu Tamim tribe thought is in line with the justification by some scholars of being the inheritor of the teachings of Ibn Taymiyyah.
- Philby 1930: 8
- Glassé 2003: 470
- EI1: 1086
- ibn Ghannam: 75–76
- Hopwood 1972: 55
- EI2: 677–678
- ibn 'Hajar: 17–19
- ibn Baaz: 21
- Official sources on Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's life put his visits to these cities in different chronological orders, and the full extent of such travels remains disputed among historians. As well, dates are missing in a great many cases, making it difficult to reconstruct a chronology of his life up until his return to 'Uyayna in 1740.
- ibn Bishr: 7–8
- El Fadl 2007: 56–57
- Voll 1975: 32–39
- BOOK REVIEWS – Robinson 3 (1): 116 – Journal of Islamic Studies
- Lacey 1983: 56
- Lacey 1983: 56
- DeLong-Bas 2004: 24
- ibn 'Hajar: 28
- DeLong-Bas 2004: 24
- DeLong-Bas 2004: 34
- Ibnsaud.info 2008
- DeLong-Bas 2004: 34
- Obaid 1999: 51–58
- Faksh 1997: 89–90
- EBO History of Arabia 2011
- EBO Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb 2011
- "Wahabism Exposed!". Sultan.org. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Ottaway 2008: 176
- Nyrop 2008: 50
- Bligh 1985: 37–50
- Kitab at-Tawhid
- Esposito 2003, p. 333
- "Allah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 12. "This brief essay is of tremendous significance for the Wahhabi mission and the subject of enduring controversy between supporters and detractors. It represents the core of Sheikh Muhhamad's teaching and the foundation of the Wahhabi canon."
- Kashf ush-Shubuhaat
- Ibid., Zahawi. page. 7-15.
- as-Salafi: 1
- Vasilʹev 1998: 13
- Vasilʹev 1998: 14
- Encyclopedia of World Biography: Supplement #27 (Thomson-Gale, 2007) pp 5–8
- Abir, Mordechai (1987). Saudi Arabia in the oil era: regime and elites : conflict and collaboration. ISBN 978-0-7099-5129-2.
- ibn Baaz, Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah. Imaam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab – His Life and Mission. Ahya.org.
- ibn Bishr an-Najdi, 'Uthman. 'Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh Najd 1.
- Bligh, Alexander (1985). "The Saudi religious elite (Ulama) as participant in the political system of the kingdom.". International Journal of Middle East Studies 17.
- El Fadl, Khaled M. Abou (23 January 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-118903-6. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Faksh, Mahmud A. (1997). The future of Islam in the Middle East. ISBN 978-0-275-95128-3.
- ibn Ghannam, Husain. Rawdhat al-Afkar wal-Afham (or Tarikh Najd) 1.
- Glassé, Cyril; Smith, Huston (January 2003). The new encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0-7591-0190-6. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- ibn 'Hajar al-Butami, Ahmad. Shaikh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
- Hopwood, Derek; University of London. Centre of Middle Eastern Studies; University of Oxford. Middle East Centre (1972). The Arabian peninsula: society and politics. Allen and Unwin. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Hourani, Albert (1992). A History of the Arab Peoples. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-16663-6.
- Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1913–1938). M. Th. Houtsma, ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam (1 ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers.
- "King Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) Information Resource – First ruler of the House of Saud". Ibnsaud.info. 17 March 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Lacey, Robert (February 1983). The Kingdom: Arabia & the House of Saʻud. Avon. ISBN 978-0-380-61762-3. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Laoust, Henri (7 December 2007). "Ibn ʿAbd al- Wahhāb , Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Al Wahhāb". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs et al. Encyclopaedia of Islam 3 (2 ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers.
- Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1992). "The Saud Family and Salafi Islam". Saudi Arabia: A Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Nyrop, Richard F. (2008). Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. ISBN 978-1-4344-6210-7.
- Obaid, Nawaf E. (September 1999). "The Power of Saudi Arabia's Islamic Leaders". Middle East Quarterly VI (3): 51–58. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- David Ottaway (11 November 2008). The king's messenger: Prince Bandar bin Sultan and America's tangled relationship with Saudi Arabia. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 978-0-8027-1690-3. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Philby, Harry St. John Bridger (1930). Arabia. C.Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- al-Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- as-Salafi, Abu 'Iyad (ed.). "The Principles of Salafiyyah". Salafipublications.com. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Vasilʹev, Alekseĭ Mikhaĭlovich (1998). The history of Saudi Arabia. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-935-7. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Voll, John (1975). "Muḥammad Ḥayyā al-Sindī and Muḥammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab". An Analysis of an Intellectual Group in Eighteenth-Century Madīna (Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies) 38 (1): 32–39. JSTOR 614196.
- ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. Kitaab At-Tawheed. Transl. Sameh Strauch. International Islamic Publishing House. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. Kashf ush-Shubuhaat [Clarification of the Doubts: A Decisive Reply To The Doubts And Arguments Of The Associationists]. International Islamic Publishing House. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. Thalaathat-Ul-Usool [The Three Fundamental Principles] (PDF). Transl. Abu Maryam Isma'eel Alarcon. Al-Ibaanah Book Publishing. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- "History of Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2011.
- "Ibn GHannām , Shaykh Ḥusayn b. Ghannām al-Iḥsāʾī". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2 ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers. 1960–2005.
- "Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2011.
- DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (15 July 2004). Wahhabi Islam: from revival and reform to global Jihad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516991-1. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Abualrub, Jalal (January 2003). Muhammad ibn Abdil Wahhab: his life-story and mission. Madinah Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 978-0-9703766-5-7. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- al-Rasheed, Madawi (1 January 2009). Kingdom without borders: Saudi political, religious and media frontiers. Capstone. ISBN 978-0-231-70068-9.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Najdi, 'Allama al-Shaykh Sulayman, elder brother of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab: al-Sawa'iq al-Ilahiyya fi al-radd 'ala al-Wahhabiyya ["Divine Lightnings in Answering the Wahhabis"]. Ed. Ibrahim Muhammad al-Batawi. Cairo: Dar al-insan, 1987. Offset reprint by Waqf Ikhlas, Istanbul: Hakikat Kitabevi, 1994. Prefaces by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Kurdi al-Shafi`i and Shaykh Muhammad Hayyan al-Sindi (Muhammad Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab's shaykh) to the effect that Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab is "dall mudill" ("misguided and misguiding").
- Al-Dahesh ibn `Abd Allah, Dr. (Arab University of Morocco), ed. Munazara `ilmiyya bayna `Ali ibn Muhammad al-Sharif wa al-Imam Ahmad ibn Idris fi al-radd `ala Wahhabiyyat Najd, Tihama, wa `Asir ["Scholarly Debate Between the Sharif and Ahmad ibn Idris Against the Wahhabis of Najd, Tihama, and `Asir"].
- Ibn 'Afaliq al-Hanbali, Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul Rahman: Tahakkum al-muqallidin bi man idda`a tajdid al-din [Sarcasm of the muqallids against the false claimants to the Renewal of Religion]. A very comprehensive book refuting the Wahhabi heresy and posting questions which Ibn 'Abdul Wahhab and his followers were unable to answer for the most part.
- Ibn Dawud al-Hanbali, 'Afif al-Din 'Abd Allah: as-sawa`iq wa al-ru`ud ["Lightnings and thunder"], a very important book in 20 chapters. According to the Mufti of Yemen Shaykh al-'Alawi ibn Ahmad al-Haddad, the mufti of Yemen, "This book has received the approval of the 'ulama of Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, and Ahsa' [Arabian peninsula]. It was summarized by Muhammad ibn Bashir the qadi of Ra's al-Khayma in Oman."
- Dahlan, al-Sayyid Ahmad ibn Zayni. Mufti of Mecca and Shaykh al-Islam (highest religious authority in the Ottoman jurisdiction) for the Hijaz region: al-Durar al-saniyyah fi al-radd ala al-Wahhabiyyah ["The Pure Pearls in Answering the Wahhabis"] pub. Egypt 1319 & 1347 H; Fitnat al-Wahhabiyyah ["The Wahhabi Fitna"]; Khulasat al-Kalam fi bayan Umara' al-Balad al-Haram ["The Summation Concerning the Leaders of the Sacrosanct Country"], a history of the Wahhabi fitna in Najd and the Hijaz.
- al-Dajwi, Hamd Allah: al-Basa'ir li Munkiri al-tawassul ka amthal Muhd. Ibn `Abdul Wahhab ["The Evident Proofs Against Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession Like Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Wahhab"].
- Shaykh al-Islam Dawud ibn Sulayman al-Baghdadi al-Hanafi (1815–1881 CE): al-Minha al-Wahbiyya fi radd al-Wahhabiyya ["The Divine Dispensation Concerning the Wahhabi Deviation"]; Ashadd al-Jihad fi Ibtal Da'wa al-Ijtihad ["The Most Violent Jihad in Proving False Those Who Falsely Claim Ijtihad"].
- Al-Falani al-Maghribi, al-Muhaddith Salih: authored a large volume collating the answers of scholars of the Four Schools to Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.
- al-Habibi, Muhammad `Ashiq al-Rahman: `Adhab Allah al-Mujdi li Junun al-Munkir al-Najdi ["Allah's Terrible Punishment for the Mad Rejector From Najd"].
- Al-Haddad, al-Sayyid al-'Alawi ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn al-Qutb
- Sayyidi 'Abd Allah ibn 'Alawi al-Haddad al-Shafi'i: al-Sayf al-batir li 'unq al-munkir 'ala al-akabir ["The Sharp Sword for the Neck of the Assailant of Great Scholars"].
- Unpublished manuscript of about 100 folios; Misbah al-anam wa jala' al-zalam fi radd shubah al-bid'i al-najdi al-lati adalla biha al-'awamm ["The Lamp of Mankind and the Illumination of Darkness Concerning the Refutation of the Errors of the Innovator From Najd by Which He Had Misled the Common People"]. Published 1325H
- KabbaniAl-Ahsa'i Al-Misri, Ahmad (1753–1826): Unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect. His son Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Latif al-Ahsa'i also wrote a book refuting them.
- Al-Ahsa'i, Al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Rahman: wrote a sixty-seven verse poem which begins with the verse: Badat fitnatun kal layli qad ghattatil aafaaqa /wa sha``at fa kadat tublighul gharba wash sharaqa [ A confusion came about like nightfall covering the skies /and became widespread almost reaching the whole world]
- Al-'Amrawi, 'Abd al-Hayy, and 'Abd al-Hakim Murad (Qarawiyyin University, Morocco): Al-tahdhir min al-ightirar bi ma ja'a fi kitab al-hiwar ["Warning Against Being Fooled By the Contents of the Book (by Ibn Mani') A Debate With al-Maliki (an attack on Ibn 'Alawi al-Maliki by a Wahhabi writer)"] (Fes: Qarawiyyin, 1984).
- Ata' Allah al-Makki: al-sarim al-hindi fil 'unuq al-najdi ["The Indian Scimitar on the Najdi's Neck"].
- Al-Azhari, 'Abd Rabbih ibn Sulayman al-Shafi'i (The author of Sharh Jami' al-Usul li ahadith al-Rasul, a basic book of Usul al-Fiqh: Fayd al-Wahhab fi Bayan Ahl al-Haqq wa man dalla `an al-sawab, 4 vols. ["Allah's Outpouring in Differentiating the True Muslims From Those Who Deviated From the Truth"].
- Al-'Azzami, 'Allama al-shaykh Salama (d. 1379H): Al-Barahin al-sati'at ["The Radiant Proofs..."].
- .Al-Barakat al-Shafi'i al-Ahmadi al-Makki, 'Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad: unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect.
- al-Bulaqi, Mustafa al-Masri wrote a refutation to San`a'i's poem in which the latter had praised Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab. It is in Samnudi's "Sa`adat al-Darayn" and consists in 126 verses.
- Al-Buti, Dr. Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan (University of Damascus): Al-Salafiyyatu marhalatun zamaniyyatun mubarakatun la madhhabun islami ["The Salafiyya is a blessed historical period not an Islamic school of law"] (Damascus: Dar al-fikr, 1988); Al-lamadhhabiyya akhtaru bid`atin tuhaddidu al-shari`a al-islamiyya ["Non-madhhabism is the most dangerous innovation presently menacing Islamic law"] (Damascus: Maktabat al-Farabi, n.d.).
- Al-Hamami al-Misri, Shaykh Mustafa: Ghawth al-`ibad bi bayan al-rashad ["The Helper of Allah's Servants According to the Affirmation of Guidance"].
- Al-Hilmi al-Qadiri al-Iskandari, Shaykh Ibrahim: Jalal al-haqq fi kashf ahwal ashrar al-khalq ["The Splendor of Truth in Exposing the Worst of People] (pub. 1355H).
- Al-Husayni, 'Amili, Muhsin (1865–1952). Kashf al-irtiyab fi atba' Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab ["The Dispelling of Doubt Concerning the Followers of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab"]. [Yemen?]: Maktabat al-Yaman al-Kubra, 198?.
- Al-Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham, Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine, vol. 1–7, As-Sunnah Foundation of America, 1998.
- Islamic Beliefs and Doctrine According to Ahl as-Sunna – A Repudiation of "Salafi" Innovations, ASFA, 1996.
- Innovation and True Belief: the Celebration of Mawlid According to the Qur'an and Sunna and the Scholars of Islam, ASFA, 1995.
- Salafi Movement Unveiled, ASFA, 1997.
- Ibn `Abd al-Latif al-Shafi`i, `Abd Allah: Tajrid sayf al-jihad `ala mudda`i al-ijtihad ["The drawing of the sword of jihad against the false claimants to ijtihad"].
- The family of Ibn 'Abd al-Razzaq al-Hanbali in Zubara and Bahrayn possess both manuscript and printed refutations by scholars of the Four Schools from Mecca, Madina, al-Ahsa', al-Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, Yemen and other Islamic regions.
- Ibn 'Abidin al-Hanafi, al-Sayyid Muhammad Amin: Radd al-muhtar `ala al-durr al-mukhtar, Vol. 3, Kitab al-Iman, Bab al-bughat ["Answer to the Perplexed: A Commentary on "The Chosen Pearl,"" Book of Belief, Chapter on Rebels]. Cairo: Dar al-Tiba`a al-Misriyya, 1272 H.
- Ibn Khalifa `Ulyawi al-Azhari: Hadhihi `aqidatu al-salaf wa al-khalaf fi dhat Allahi ta`ala wa sifatihi wa af`alihi wa al-jawab al-sahih li ma waqa`a fihi al-khilaf min al-furu` bayna al-da`in li al-Salafiyya wa atba` al-madhahib al-arba`a al-islamiyya ["This is the doctrine of the Predecessors and the Descendants concerning the divergences in the branches between those who call to al-Salafiyya and the followers of the Four Islamic Schools of Law"] (Damascus: Matba`at Zayd ibn Thabit, 1398/1977.
- Kawthari al-Hanafi, Muhammad Zahid. Maqalat al-Kawthari. (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Azhariyah li al-Turath, 1994).
- Al-Kawwash al-Tunisi, `Allama Al-Shaykh Salih: his refutation of the Wahhabi sect is contained in Samnudi's volume: "Sa`adat al-darayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn."
- Khazbek, Shaykh Hasan: Al-maqalat al-wafiyyat fi al-radd `ala al-wahhabiyyah ["Complete Treatise in Refuting the Wahhabis"].
- Makhluf, Muhammad Hasanayn: Risalat fi hukm al-tawassul bil-anbiya wal-awliya ["Treatise on the Ruling Concerning the Use of Prophets and Saints as Intermediaries"].
- Al-Maliki al-Husayni, Al-muhaddith Muhammad al-Hasan ibn 'Alawi: Mafahimu yajibu an tusahhah ["Notions that should be corrected"] 4th ed. (Dubai: Hashr ibn Muhammad Dalmuk, 1986); Muhammad al-insanu al-kamil ["Muhammad, the Perfect Human Being"] 3rd ed. (Jeddah: Dar al-Shuruq, 1404/1984).
- Al-Mashrifi al-Maliki al-Jaza'iri: Izhar al-`uquq mimman mana`a al-tawassul bil nabi wa al-wali al-saduq ["The Exposure of the Disobedience of Those Who Forbid Using the Intermediary of the Prophets and the Truthful Saints].
- Al-Mirghani al-Ta'ifi, 'Allama 'Abd Allah ibn Ibrahim (d. 1793): Tahrid al-aghbiya' 'ala al-Istighatha bil-anbiya' wal-awliya ["The Provocations of the Ignorant Against Seeking the Help of Prophets and Saints"] (Cairo: al-Halabi, 1939).
- Mu'in al-Haqq al-Dehlawi (d. 1289): Sayf al-Jabbar al-maslul `ala a`da' al-Abrar ["The Sword of the Almighty Drawn Against the Enemies of the Pure Ones"].
- Al-Muwaysi al-Yamani, 'Abd Allah ibn 'Isa: Unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect.
- Al-Nabahani al-Shafi`i, al-qadi al-muhaddith Yusuf ibn Isma`il (1850–1932): Shawahid al-Haqq fi al-istighatha bi sayyid al-Khalq (s) ["The Proofs of Truth in the Seeking of the Intercession of the Prophet"].
- Al-Qabbani al-Basri al-Shafi'i, Allama Ahmad ibn 'Ali: A manuscript treatise in approximately 10 chapters.
- Al-Qadumi al-Nabulusi al-Hanbali: `AbdAllah: Rihlat ["Journey"].
- Al-Qazwini, Muhammad Hasan, (d. 1825). Al-Barahin al-jaliyyah fi raf' tashkikat al-Wahhabiyah ["The Plain Demonstrations That Dispel the Aspersions of the Wahhabis"]. Ed. Muhammad Munir al-Husayni al-Milani. 1st ed. Beirut: Mu'assasat al-Wafa', 1987.
- Al-Qudsi: al-Suyuf al-Siqal fi A`naq man ankara `ala al-awliya ba`d al-intiqal ["The Burnished Swords on the Necks of Those Who Deny the Role of Saints After Their Leaving This World"].
- Al-Rifa'i, Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim, President of the World Union of Islamic Propagation and Information: Adillat Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`at aw al-radd al-muhkam al-mani` `ala munkarat wa shubuhat Ibn Mani` fi tahajjumihi `ala al-sayyid Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki ["The Proofs of the People of the Way of the Prophet and the Muslim Community: or, the Strong and Decisive Refutation of Ibn Mani`'s Aberrations and Aspersions in his Assault on Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki"] (Kuwait: Dar al-siyasa, 1984).
- Al-Samnudi al-Mansuri, al-`Allama al-Shaykh Ibrahim: Sa`adat al-darayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn al-wahhabiyya wa muqallidat al-zahiriyyah ["Bliss in the Two Abodes: Refutation of the Two Sects, Wahhabis and Zahiri Followers"].
- Al-Saqqaf al-Shafi'i, Hasan ibn 'Ali, Islamic Research Institute, Amman, Jordan: al-Ighatha bi adillat al-istighatha wa al-radd al-mubin `ala munkiri al-tawassul ["The Mercy of Allah in the Proofs of Seeking Intercession and the Clear Answer to Those who Reject it"]; Ilqam al hajar li al-mutatawil 'ala al-Asha'ira min al-Bashar ["The Stoning of All Those Who Attack Ash'aris"]; Qamus shata'im al-Albani wa al-alfaz al-munkara al-lati yatluquha fi haqq ulama al-ummah wa fudalai'ha wa ghayrihim... ["Encyclopedia of al-Albani's Abhorrent Expressions Which He Uses Against the Scholars of the Community, its Eminent Men, and Others..."] Amman : Dar al-Imam al-Nawawi, 1993.
- Al-Sawi al-Misri: Hashiyat `ala al-jalalayn ["Commentary on the Tafsir of the Two Jalal al-Din"].
- Sayf al-Din Ahmed ibn Muhammad: Al-Albani Unveiled: An Exposition of His Errors and Other Important Issues, 2nd ed. (London: s.n., 1994).
- Al-Shatti al-Athari al-Hanbali, al-Sayyid Mustafa ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan, Mufti of Syria: al-Nuqul al-shar'iyyah fi al-radd 'ala al-Wahhabiyya ["The Legal Proofs in Answering the Wahhabis"].
- Al-Subki, al-hafiz Taqi al-Din (d. 756/1355): Al-durra al-mudiyya fi al-radd 'ala Ibn Taymiyya, ed. Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari ["The Luminous Pearl: A Refutation of Ibn Taymiyya"]; Al-rasa'il al-subkiyya fi al-radd 'ala Ibn Taymiyya wa tilmidhihi Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, ed. Kamal al-Hut ["Subki's treatises in Answer to Ibn Taymiyya and his pupil Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya"] (Beirut: `Alam al-Kutub, 1983); Al-sayf al-saqil fi al-radd `ala Ibn Zafil ["The Burnished Sword in Refuting Ibn Zafil (Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya)"] Cairo: Matba`at al-Sa`ada, 1937; Shifa' al-siqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam ["The healing of the sick in visiting the Best of Creation"].
- Sunbul al-Hanafi al-Ta'ifi, Allama Tahir: Sima al-Intisar lil awliya' al-abrar ["The Mark of Victory Belongs to Allah's Pure Friends"].
- Al-Tabataba'i al-Basri, al-Sayyid: also wrote a reply to San`a'i's poem which was excerpted in Samnudi's Sa`adat al-Darayn. After reading it, San`a'i reversed his position and said: "I have repented from what I said concerning the Najdi."
- Al-Tamimi al-Maliki, `Allama Isma`il (d. 1248), Shaykh al-Islam in Tunis: wrote a refutation of a treatise of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.
- Al-Wazzani, al-Shaykh al-Mahdi, Mufti of Fes, Morocco: Wrote a refutation of Muhammad `Abduh's prohibition of tawassul.
- Al-Zahawi al-Baghdadi, Jamil Effendi Sidqi (d. 1355/1936): al-Fajr al-Sadiq fi al-radd 'ala munkiri al-tawassul wa al-khawariq ["The True Dawn in Refuting Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession and the Miracles of Saints"] Pub. 1323/1905 in Egypt.
- Al-Zamzami al-Shafi'i, Muhammad Salih, Imam of the Maqam Ibrahim in Mecca, wrote a book in 20 chapters against them according to al-Sayyid al-Haddad.
- Ahmad, Qeyamuddin. The Wahhabi movement in India. 2nd rev. ed. New Delhi : Manohar, 1994. Ibid., Zahawi. page. 7-15.
- "Shaykhul Islaam Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhaab". Abdurrahman.org. Retrieved 26 December 2011. List of works by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab