Royal and noble ranks

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Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.

Ranks and titles[edit]

Sovereign[edit]

Main articles: Monarch and Sovereign
  • The word monarch is derived from the Greek μονάρχης, monárkhēs, "sole ruler" (from μόνος, mónos, "single" or "sole", and ἄρχων, árkhōn, archon, "leader", "ruler", "chief", the word being the present participle of the verb ἄρχειν, árkhein, "to rule", "to lead", this from the noun ὰρχή, arkhē, "beginning", "authority", "principle") through the Latinized form monarcha.
  • The word sovereign is derived from the vulgar Latin superanus "chief, principal," from the Latin super "over".
  • Autocrat is derived from the Greek αὐτοκράτωρ: αὐτός ("self") and κρατείν ("to hold power"), and may be translated as "one who rules by himself".
Common titles for European and Near Eastern monarchs

Note that many titles listed may also be used by lesser nobles - non-sovereigns - depending on the historical period and state. The sovereign titles listed below are grouped together into categories roughly according to their degree of dignity; these being: imperial, high royal, royal, others (princely, ducal, more), and religious.

Imperial titles

  • Emperor, from the Latin Imperator, meaning "commander" or "one who commands". In English, the feminine form is Empress (the Latin is imperatrix). The realm of an emperor or empress is termed an Empire. Other words meaning Emperor include:
    • Caesar, the appellation of Roman emperors derived from the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, whose great-nephew and adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of Rome. Augustus' four successors were each made the adoptive son of his predecessor, and were therefore legally entitled to use "Caesar" as a constituent of their names; after Nero, however, the familial link of the Julio-Claudian dynasty was disrupted and use of the word Caesar continued as a title only.
    • Tsar / Czar / Csar / Tzar, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Bulgarian, and after that in Russia and other Slavic countries.
    • Kaiser, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Germanic countries.
    • Basileus, from Mycenaean Greek meaning "chieftain", later used for the Roman emperors of the Byzantine period.
  • Samraat (Sanskrit: samrāṭ or सम्राज् samrāj) is an Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as "Emperor". The feminine form is Samrãjñī.

High royal titles

Royal titles

  • King, from the Germanic *kuningaz, roughly meaning "son of the people." (See: Germanic kingship) [1] The realm of a King is termed a Kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)
    • Rex Latin for "ruler". Cognate with Raja, , Reign, Regina, etc.
    • Raja, Indian for "ruler and King.". Cognate with Latin Rex, Gaelic , etc.
    • Deshmukh, Indian for "ruler and king.
    • , Gaelic title meaning king, of which there were several grades, the highest being Ard Rí (High king). Cognate with Indian Raja, Latin Rex, and ancient Gaulish rix.
    • Khan, from the Turco-Mongol word for "lord," like Duke it was originally a military rank. A Khan's realm is called a Khanate.
  • Lamane, "master of the land" or "chief owner of the soil" in old Serer language were the ancient hereditary kings and landed gentry of the Serer people found in Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania. The The Lamanes were guardians of Serer religion and many of them have been canonized as Holy Saints (Pangool).
    • Oba, the Yoruba word for King or Ruler of a kingdom or city-state. It is used across all the traditional Yoruba lands, as well as by the Edo, throughout Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
    • Shah, Persian word for King, from Indo-European for "he who rules"
    • Sultan, from Arabic and originally referring to one who had "power", more recently used as synonym for King
    • Malik, Arabic for King.
    • Tlatoani, Ruler of the atlepetl or city state in ancient Mexico. Title of the Aztec Emperors. The word literally means "speaker" in Nahuatl, but may be translated into English as "king".
    • Ajaw, In Maya meaning "lord", "ruler", "king" or "leader". Was the title of the ruler in the Classic Maya polity. A variant being the title of K'inich Ajaw or "Great Sun King" as it was used to refer to the founder of the Copán dinasty, K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'.
    • Lakan, Filipino title (mostly for the island of Luzon) which, together with the term "Datu" of Visayas and Mindanao, is used as an equivalent to Raja, and therefore, to King or sovereign Prince.
    • Tuanku, literally "My Lord", the title of the kings of the nine Royal states of Malaysia; all princes and princesses of the Royal Families also receive the appellation Tengku,
    • Maad a Sinig, King of Sine, a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people. From the old Serer title "Maad" (king).
    • Maad Saloum, King of Saloum, a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people.
    • Teigne, King of Baol, previously a pre-colonial Serer kingdom.
  • Queen, from the Germanic *kwoeniz, or *kwenon, "wife"; cognate of Greek γυνή, gynē, "woman"; from PIE *gʷḗn, "woman". The female equivalent of a King, or the consort of a King; a Queen's realm is also a kingdom.
    • Rani, Indian for Queen. See Raja, above.
    • Shahbanu, Persian for Empress. See Shah, above.
    • Sultana, Arabic for Queen. See Sultan, above.
    • Malika, Arabic for Queen.
    • Ix-ajaw, See Ajaw above, it was a title was also given to women, though generally prefixed with the sign Ix ("woman") to indicate their gender.
    • Ratu, Indochinese term for Queen, derived from Raja
    • Diyan, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Datu"
    • Hara , Filipino feminine equivalent of "Raha"
    • Bai , Filipino feminine equivalent of a prince.

Princely, ducal, and other sovereign titles

  • Prince, from the Latin princeps, meaning "first citizen". The feminine form is Princess. Variant forms include the German Fürst and Russian Knyaz.
  • Morza A Tartar title usually translated as "prince", it ranked below a Khan. The title was borrowed from Persian and Indian appellation Mirza added to the names of certain nobles, which itself derived from Emir.
    • Ginoo Filipino term, equivalent to noble man or prince.(During ancient times)
  • Despot, Greek for "lord, master", initially an appellation for the Byzantine emperor, later the senior court title, awarded to sons and close relatives of the emperor. In the 13th-15th centuries borne by autonomous and independent rulers in the Balkans.
  • Duke, from the Latin Dux, meaning "leader," a military rank in the late Roman Empire. Variant forms include Doge, and Duce; it has also been modified into Archduke (meaning "chief" Duke), Grand Duke (literally "large," or "big" Duke), Vice Duke ("deputy" Duke), etc. The female equivalent is Duchess
  • Knyaz, a title found in most Slavic languages, denoting a ruling or noble rank. It is usually translated into English as "prince".
  • Emir, often rendered Amir in older English usage; from the Arabic "to command." The female form is Emira (Amirah). Emir is the root of the English military rank "Admiral"
  • Bey, or Beg/Baig, Turkish for "Chieftain."
  • Buumi, first in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms.
  • Thilas, second in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms.
  • Loul, third in line to the throne in Serer country.

Religious titles

  • Pope, derived from Latin and Italian papa, the familiar form of "father" (also "Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ"); once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the Papal States and leader of Christendom, the Pope is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state Vatican City
  • Caliph, was the ruler of the caliphate, an Islamic title indicating the successor to Muhammad. Both a religious and a secular leader; the Ottoman sultans continued to use Caliph as another of their titles. However, in later Ottoman times the religious function was practically exercised by the Sheikh ül-Islam; after the establishment of the Turkish Republic, a solely religious Caliphate, held by members of the Sultans' family, was established for a short period of time.
  • Saltigue, the high priests and priestesses of the Serer people. They are the diviners in Serer religion.

Other sovereigns, royals, peerage, and major nobility[edit]

Several ranks were widely used (for more than a thousand years in Europe alone) for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns. Additional knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign. However, joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. This situation was most widely exemplified by the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) in Europe. Almost all of the following ranks were commonly both sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince. Within the HRE, those holding the following ranks who were also sovereigns had (enjoyed) what was known as an immediate relationship with the Emperor. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate relationship (meaning that the civil hierarchy upwards was mediated by one or more intermediaries between the rank holder and the Emperor).

Titles
  • Archduke, ruler of an archduchy; used by the rulers of Austria; it was also used by the Habsburgs and Habsburg-Lorraines of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire for imperial family members of the dynasty, each retaining it as a subsidiary title when founding sovereign cadet branches by acquiring thrones under different titles (e.g., Tuscany, Modena); it was also used for those ruling some Habsburg territories such as those that became the modern BeNeLux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) nations
  • Grand Prince, ruler of a grand principality; a title primarily used in the medieval Russian principalities; it was also used by the Romanovs of the Russian Empire for members of the imperial family, although more commonly translated into English as Grand Duke
  • Duke, ruler[1] of a duchy,[2] also for junior members of ducal and some grand ducal families
  • Prince, Prinz in German; junior members of a royal, grand ducal, ruling ducal or princely, or mediatised family. The title of Fürst was usually reserved, from the 19th century, for rulers of principalities—the smallest sovereign entities (e.g., Liechtenstein, Lippe, Schwarzburg, Waldeck-and-Pyrmont) -- and for heads of high-ranking, noble but non-ruling families (Bismarck, Clary und Aldringen, Dietrichstein, Henckel von Donnersmarck, Kinsky, Paar, Pless, Thun und Hohenstein, etc.). Cadets of these latter families were generally not allowed to use Prinz, being accorded only the style of count (Graf) or, occasionally, that of Fürst (Wrede, Palffy d'Erdod) even though it was also a ruling title. Exceptional use of Prinz was permitted for some morganatic families (e.g., Battenberg, Montenuovo) and a few others (Carolath-Beuthen, Biron von Kurland).
    • In particular Crown prince, Kronprinz in German, was reserved for the heir apparent of an emperor or king
  • Dauphin, title of the crown prince of the royal family of France
  • Infante, title of the cadet members of the royal families of Portugal and Spain
  • Elector, Kurfürst in German, a rank for those who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg)
  • Marquess, Margrave, or Marquis was the ruler of a marquessate, margraviate, or march
  • Landgrave, a German title, ruler of a landgraviate
  • Count, theoretically the ruler of a county; known as an Earl in modern Britain; known as a Serdar in Montenegro and Serbia
  • Viscount (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty or viscountcy
  • Freiherr, holder of an allodial barony. Freiherr coming from the German "Free-Man"[citation needed]
  • Baron, theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in some countries may have been "free barons" (liber baro) and as such, regarded (themselves) as higher barons.

Regarding the titles of duke and prince: in Germany, a sovereign duke (Herzog) outranks a sovereign prince (Fürst). A cadet prince (Prinz) who belongs to an imperial or royal dynasty, however, may outrank a duke who is the cadet of a reigning house e.g. Wurttemberg, Bavaria, Mecklenburg or Oldenburg. The children of a ruling grand duke might be titled duke (Mecklenburg, Oldenburg) or prince (Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Saxe-Weimar) in accordance with the customs of the dynasty.

Children of ruling dukes and of ruling princes (Fürst) were, however, all titled prince (Prinz). The heir apparent to a ruling or mediatised title would usually prepend the prefix Erb- (hereditary) to his or her title, e.g. Erbherzog, Erbprinz, Erbgraf, to distinguish their status from that of their junior siblings. Children of a mediatised Fürst were either Prinzen or Grafen, depending upon whether the princely title was limited to descent by masculine primogeniture or not. In the German non-sovereign nobility, a duke (Herzog) still ranked higher than a prince (Fürst).

Minor nobility, gentry, and other aristocracy[edit]

Main articles: Aristocracy (class) and Gentry

The distinction between the ranks of the major nobility (listed above) and the minor nobility, listed here, was not always a sharp one in all nations. But the precedence of the ranks of a Baronet or a Knight is quite generally accepted for where this distinction exists for most nations. Here the rank of Baronet (ranking above a Knight) is taken as the highest rank among the ranks of the minor nobility or gentry that are listed below.

Titles
  • Baronet is a hereditary title ranking below Baron but above Knight; this title is granted only in the British Isles and does not confer nobility.
  • Dominus was the Latin title of the feudal, superior and mesne, lords, and also an ecclesiastical and academical title (equivalent of Lord)
  • Vidame, a minor French aristocrat
  • Seigneur or Knight of the Manor rules a smaller local fief
  • Knight is the basic rank of the aristocratic system
  • Patrician is a dignity of minor nobility or gentry (most often being hereditary) usually ranking below Knight but above Esquire
  • Fidalgo or Hidalgo is a minor Portuguese and Spanish aristocrat (respectively; from filho d'algo, lit. son of wealth, mediaeval Galician-Portuguese "algo" = wealth, riches, fortune, nowadays "algo" = something)
  • Nobile (aristocracy) is an Italian title of nobility for prestigious families that never received a title
  • Principalía the aristocratic class of Filipino nobles, through whom the Spanish Monarchs ruled the Philippines during the colonial period (c. 1600's to 1898).
  • Jonkheer is an honorific for members of noble Dutch families that never received a title; An untitled noblewoman is styled Jonkvrouw, though the wife of a Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or, sometimes, Freule, which could also be used by daughters of the same
  • Scottish Baron is a hereditary feudal nobility dignity, outside the Scots peerage, recognised by Lord Lyon as a member of the Scots noblesse and ranking below a Knight (and therefore also below Lord of Parliament in Scotland) but above a Scottish Laird[3][4]
  • Laird is a Scottish hereditary feudal dignity ranking below a Scottish Baron but above an Esquire
  • Esquire is a rank of gentry originally derived from Squire and indicating the status of an attendant to a knight or an apprentice knight; it ranks below Knight (or in Scotland below Laird) but above Gentleman[5][6]
  • Gentleman is the basic rank of gentry, historically primarily associated with land or manorial lords; within British Commonwealth nations it is also roughly equivalent to some minor nobility of some continental European nations[7]

In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic in 1919 ceased to accord privileges to members of dynastic and noble families. Their titles henceforth became legal parts of the family name, and traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or "Durchlaucht") ceased to be accorded to them by governmental entities. The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld. The actual rank of a title-holder in Germany depended not only on the nominal rank of the title, but also the degree of sovereignty exercised, the rank of the title-holder's suzerain, and the length of time the family possessed its status within the nobility (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility). Thus, any reigning sovereign ranks higher than any deposed or mediatized sovereign (e.g., the Fürst of Waldeck, sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke of Arenberg, head of a mediatized family, although Herzog is nominally a higher title than Fürst). However, former holders of higher titles in extant monarchies retained their relative rank, i.e., a queen dowager of Belgium outranks the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein. Members of a formerly sovereign or mediatized house rank higher than the nobility. Among the nobility, those whose titles derive from the Holy Roman Empire rank higher than the holder of an equivalent title granted by one of the German monarchs after 1806.

In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.[8]

In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized as part of the family name.

Corresponding titles between languages[edit]

Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles in various European countries. Quite often, a Latin 3rd declension noun formed a distinctive feminine title by adding -issa to its base, but usually the 3rd declension noun was used for both male and female nobles, except for Imperator and Rex. 3rd declension nouns are italicized in this chart. See Royal and noble styles to learn how to address holders of these titles properly.

  Emperor,
Empress
King,
Queen
Grand Duke/
Grand Prince,
Grand Duchess/
Grand Princess
Archduke,
Archduchess
Duke,
Duchess
(Prince)-Elector,
Electress
Prince,[9]
Princess
Viceroy,
Vicereine
Marquess/
Margrave,
Marchioness/
Margravine
Earl / Count,
Countess
Viscount,
Viscountess
Baron,
Baroness
Baronet[10]
Baronetess
Knight[11] / Dame Esquire, Gentleman
Latin[12] Imperator/
Caesar,
Imperatrix/
Caesarina
Rex,
Regina
Magnus Dux/
Magnus Princeps,
Magna Ducissa,
Magna Principissa
Archidux,
Archiducissa
Dux,
Ducissa
Princeps Elector Princeps,
Principissa
Prorex,
Proregina
Marchio,
Marchionissa
Comes,
Comitissa
Vicecomes,
Vicecomitissa
Baro,
Baronissa
  Eques Nobilis Homo (N.H.)
Bosnian Car,
Carica
Kralj,
Kraljica
Veliki vojvoda,
Velika vojvodkinja
Nadvojvoda/
Herceg,
Nadvojvodkinja/
Hercoginja
Vojvoda,
Vojvodkinja
Princ,
Princeza
Knez,
Kneginja
Ban,
Vicereine
Markiz,
Markiza
Grof,
Grofica
Vikont,
Vikontica
Baron,
Baronica/
Baronesa
Barunet,
Baruneta
Vitez Gospodin
Croatian Car,
Carica
Kralj,
Kraljica
Veliki vojvoda,
Velika vojvodkinja
Nadvojvoda,
Nadvojvodkinja
Vojvoda,
Vojvodkinja
Princ,
Princeza
Knez,
Kneginja
Ban,
Vicereine
Markiz,
Markiza
Grof,
Grofica
Vikont,
Vikontica
Barun,
Barunica
Barunet,
Baruneta
Vitez Gospodin
Czech Císař,
Císařovna
Král,
Královna
Velkovévoda,
Velkovévodkyně
Arcivévoda,
Arcivévodkyně
Vévoda,
Vévodkyně
Kurfiřt,
Kurfiřtka
Kníže,
Kněžna10
Místokrál/Vicekrál
Místokrálovna/Vicekrálovna
Markýz/Markrabě[13]
Markýza/Markraběnka
Hrabě,
Hraběnka
Vikomt,
Vikomtka/Vikomtesa
Baron,
Baronka
Baronet Rytíř Pán,
Paní
Danish Kejser,
Kejserinde
Konge
Dronning
Storhertug,
Storhertuginde
Ærkehertug,
Ærkehertuginde
Hertug,
Hertuginde
Kurfyrste,
Kurfystinde
Prins/Fyrste
Prinsesse/Fyrstinde
Vicekonge,
Vicedronning
Markis,
Markise
Greve
Grevinde, Komtesse
Vicegreve,
Vicegrevinde/
Vicekomtesse
Baron, Friherre,
Baronesse, Friherreinde
Baronet,
Baronetesse
Ridder Junker
Dutch Keizer,
Keizerin
Koning,
Koningin
Groothertog,
Groothertogin
Aartshertog,
Aartshertogin 
Hertog,
Hertogin
Keurvorst,
Keurvorstin
Prins/Vorst,
Prinses/Vorstin
Onderkoning,
Onderkoningin
Markies/Markgraaf,
Markiezin/Markgravin
Graaf,
Gravin
Burggraaf,
Burggravin
Baron,
Barones(se)
Erfridder Ridder Jonkheer
Finnish[14] Keisari,
Keisarinna (or Keisaritar, obsolete)
Kuningas,
Kuningatar
Suurherttua/Suuriruhtinas,
Suurherttuatar/Suuriruhtinatar
Arkkiherttua,
Arkkiherttuatar
Herttua,
Herttuatar
Vaaliruhtinas,
Vaaliruhtinatar
Prinssi/Ruhtinas,
Prinsessa/Ruhtinatar[15]
Varakuningas,
Varakuningatar
Markiisi/Rajakreivi,
Markiisitar/Rajakreivitär
Jaarli/Kreivi,
Kreivitär[15]
Varakreivi,
Varakreivitär
Paroni, Vapaaherra,
Paronitar, Rouva/ Vapaaherratar[15]
Baronetti, "Herra" (=fiefholder),
Herratar
Aatelinen/Ritari[15]
style of wife: Rouva
 
French Empereur,
Impératrice
Roi,
Reine
Grand Duc,
Grande Duchesse
Archiduc, Archiduchesse Duc,
Duchesse
Prince-électeur,
Princesse-électrice
Prince,[9]
Princesse
Viceroi,
Vicereine
Marquis,
Marquise
Comte,
Comtesse
Vicomte,
Vicomtesse
Baron,
Baronne
Baronnet Chevalier Ecuyer,
Gentilhomme
German Kaiser,
Kaiserin
König,
Königin
Großherzog/
Großfürst,
Großherzogin/
Großfürstin
Erzherzog,
Erzherzogin
Herzog,
Herzogin
Kurfürst,
Kurfürstin
Prinz/Fürst,
Prinzessin/Fürstin[16]
Vizekönig,
Vizekönigin
Markgraf,[17]
Markgräfin
Graf,
Gräfin
Vizegraf, Burggraf
Vizegräfin, Burggräfin
Baron, Herr, Freiherr
Baronin, Frau, Freifrau, Freiin
  Ritter Junker (Prussia), Edler (Austria),
Junkerin, Edle
Greek domestic Αυτοκράτωρ,
Αυτοκράτειρα
Βασιλεύς,
Βασίλισσα
Δεσπότης,
Δέσποινα
Σεβαστοκράτωρ,
Σεβαστοκράτειρα
Καίσαρ,
Καισάρισσα
Νωβελίσσιμος,
Νωβελίσσιμα;
Hungarian Császár,
császárnő
Király,
királynő
Nagyherceg, fejedelem, vajda
nagyhercegnő, fejedelemasszony, -
Főherceg,
főhercegnő
Herceg,
hercegnő
Választófejedelem,
(választófejedelemnő)
Királyi herceg,
királyi hercegnő
Alkirály,
alkirálynő
Márki, őrgróf
márkinő, őrgrófnő
Gróf
grófnő
Várgróf, vikomt
Várgrófnő (vikomtnő)
Báró,
bárónő
Baronet,
baronetnő
Lovag (vitéz[18]) Nemes,
nemesasszony
Icelandic Keisari,
keisarynja
Konungur, kóngur,
drottning
Stórhertogi,
stórhertogaynja
Hertogi,
hertogaynja
Fursti,
furstynja
Prins,
prinsessa
Vísikonungur,
vísidrottning
Markgreifi,
markgreifynja
Greifi, jarl
greifynja, jarlkona
Vísigreifi,
vísigreifynja
Barón, fríherra,
barónessa
Riddari Aðalsmaður,
aðalskona
Italian Imperatore,
Imperatrice
Re,
Regina
Granduca,
Granduchessa
Arciduca,
Arciduchessa
Duca,
Duchessa
Principe Elettore,
Principessa Elettrice
Principe,[9]
Principessa
Viceré,
Viceregina
Marchese,
Marchesa
Conte,
Contessa
Visconte,
Viscontessa
Barone,
Baronessa
Baronetto Cavaliere Nobile, Nobiluomo
Maltese Imperatur,
Imperatriċi
Re/Sultan,
Reġina/Sultana
Gran Duka,
Gran Dukessa
Arċiduka,
Arċidukessa
Duka,
Dukessa
Prinċep Elettur,
Prinċipessa Elettriċi
Prinċep,
Prinċipessa
Viċirè,
Viċireġina
Markiż,
Markiża
Konti,
Kontessa
Viskonti,
Viskontessa
Baruni,
Barunessa
Barunett Kavallier  
Norwegian Keiser,
Keiserinne
Konge,
Dronning
Storhertug,
Storhertuginne
Erkehertug,
Erkehertuginne
Hertug,
Hertuginne
Kurfyrste,
Kurfyrstinne
Prins/Fyrste,
Prinsesse/Fyrstinne
Visekonge,
Visedronning
Marki,
Markise
Jarl / Greve,
Grevinne
Vikomte/Visegreve,
Visegrevinne
Baron, Friherre,
Baronesse, Friherreinde
  Ridder  
Polish[19] Cesarz,
Cesarzowa
Król,
Królowa
Wielki Książę,
Wielka Księżna
Arcyksiążę
Arcyksiężna
Diuk (Książę),
(Księżna)
Książę Elektor,
Księżna Elektorowa
Książę,
Księżna
Wicekról,
Wicekrólowa
Markiz/Margrabia,
Markiza/Margrabina
Hrabia,
Hrabina
Wicehrabia,
Wicehrabina
Baron,
Baronowa
Baronet Rycerz/ Kawaler  
Portuguese Imperador,
Imperatriz
Rei,
Rainha
Grão-Duque,
Grã-Duquesa
Arquiduque,
Arquiduquesa;
Duque,
Duquesa
Príncipe-Eleitor,
Princesa-Eleitora;
Príncipe,
Princesa
Vice-rei,
Vice-rainha
Marquês,
Marquesa
Conde,
Condessa[20]
Visconde,
Viscondessa
Barão,
Baronesa
Baronete,
Baronetesa;
Cavaleiro Fidalgo
Russian Imperator/Tsar,
Imperatritsa/Tsaritsa
Koról/Tsar,
Koroléva/Tsaritsa
Velikiy Knyaz,
Velikaya Kniagina
Ertsgertsog,
Ertsgertsoginya
Gertsog,
Gertsoginya
Kurfyurst,
Kurfyurstina
Kniaz,
Kniagina[21]
Vitse-koról,
Vitse-koroléva
Markiz,
Markiza,
Boyar,
Boyarina[21]
Graf,
Grafinya[21]
Vikont,
Vikontessa
Baron,
Baronessa
Baronet Rytsar  
Spanish Emperador,
Emperatriz
Rey,
Reina
Gran Duque,
Gran Duquesa
Archiduque,
Archiduquesa
Duque,
Duquesa
Príncipe Elector,
Princesa Electora;
Príncipe,[9]
Princesa
Virrey,
Virreina
Marqués,
Marquesa
Conde,
Condesa
Vizconde,
Vizcondesa
Barón,
Baronesa
Baronet Caballero Escudero, Hidalgo
Slovak Cisár,
Cisárovná
Kráľ,
Kráľovná
Veľkovojvoda,
Veľkovojvodkyňa
Arcivojvoda,
Arcivojvodkyňa
Vojovda,
Vojvodkyňa
Kurfirst/
Knieža voliteľ/
Knieža volič
Knieža,
Kňažná
Miestokráľ/Vicekráľ Markíz,
Markíza
Gróf,
Grófka
Vikomt,
Vikontesa
Barón,
Barónka
Baronet Rytier  
Slovene Cesar,
Cesarica
Kralj,
Kraljica
Veliki vojvoda,
Velika vojvodinja
Nadvojvoda,
Nadvojvodinja
Vojvoda,
Vojvodinja
Volilni knez,
Volilna kneginja
Knez,
Kneginja
Podkralj,
Podkraljica
Markiz,
Markiza
Grof,
Grofica
Vikont,
Vikontinja
Baron,
Baronica
Baronet,
Baronetinja
Vitez Oproda
Swedish Kejsare,
Kejsarinna
Kung,
Drottning
Storhertig/Storfurste,
Storhertiginna/Storfurstinna
Ärkehertig,
ärkehertiginna
Hertig,
hertiginna
Kurfurste
Kurfurstinna
Prins/Furste,
Prinsessa/Furstinna[15]
Vicekung,
Vicedrottning
Markis/markgreve,
markisinna/markgrevinna[15]
Greve,
Grevinna
Vicomte,
Vicomtessa
Baron, Herre, Friherre,
Baronessa, Fru, Friherreinde
  Riddare/Frälseman,
Fru[15]
 
Turkish İmparator,
İmparatoriçe
Kral,
Kraliçe
Grandük,
Grandüşes
Arşidük,
Arşidüşes
Dük,
Düşes
Veliaht Prens,
Veliaht Prenses
Prens,
Prenses
Vezir; Marki,
Markiz
Kont,
Kontes
Vikont,
Vikontes
Baron,
Barones
Baronet,
Baronetes
Şövalye Bey, Efendi
Welsh Ymerawdwr,
Ymerodres
Brenin,
Brenhines
Archddug,
Archdduges
Archddug,
Archdduges
Dug,
Duges
  Tywysog,
Tywysoges
Marcwis/Ardalydd,
Ardalyddes
Iarll/Cownt,
Iarlles/Cowntes
Iarll,
Iarlles
Barwn,
Barwnes
Barwnig,
Barwniges
Marchog  

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England rarely had a duchy to rule.
  2. ^ A duke who is not actually or formerly sovereign, or a member of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty, such as British, French, Portuguese, Spanish and most Italian dukes, is a non-dynastic noble ranking above a marquis.
  3. ^ Ruling of the Court of the Lord Lyon (26/2/1948, Vol. IV, page 26): "With regard to the words 'untitled nobility' employed in certain recent birthbrieves in relation to the (Minor) Baronage of Scotland, Finds and Declares that the (Minor) Barons of Scotland are, and have been both in this nobiliary Court and in the Court of Session recognised as a ‘titled nobility’ and that the estait of the Baronage (i.e. Barones Minores) are of the ancient Feudal Nobility of Scotland".
  4. ^ There are actually three Scottish dignities that are types of a Scottish Baron; these are (in descending order of rank): Scottish feudal Earl, Scottish Feudal Lord, and Scottish feudal Baron (the general name for the dignity listed above among the ranks of aristocratic gentry).
  5. ^ The meaning of the title Esquire became (and remains) quite diffuse, and may indicate anything from no aristocratic status, to some official government civil appointment, or (more historically) the son of a knight or noble who had no other title above just Gentleman.
  6. ^ In the United States, where there is no nobility, the title esquire is sometimes arrogated (without any governmental authorization) by lawyers admitted to the state bar.
  7. ^ Larence, Sir James Henry (1827) [first published 1824]. The nobility of the British Gentry or the political ranks and dignities of the British Empire compared with those on the continent (2nd ed.). London: T.Hookham -- Simpkin and Marshall. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  8. ^ Austrian law on noble titles
  9. ^ a b c d "Prince" (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish, Prinssi in Finnish, "Principe" in Spanish) can also be a title of junior members of royal houses. In the British system, for example, prince is not a rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the royal family.
  10. ^ Does not confer nobility in the British system.
  11. ^ Non-hereditary. Does not confer nobility in the British system. See also squire and esquire.
  12. ^ Latin titles are for etymological comparisons. They do not accurately reflect their medieval counterparts.
  13. ^ The title Markýz was not used in Bohemia and thus referred only to foreign nobility, while the title Markrabě (the same as the German Markgraf) is connected only to a few historical territories (including the former marches on the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, or Moravia).
  14. ^ Finland accorded the noble ranks of Ruhtinas, Kreivi, Vapaaherra and Aatelinen. The titles Suurherttua, Arkkiherttua, Vaaliruhtinas, Prinssi, Markiisi, Jaarli, Varakreivi, Paroni, and Baronetti were not granted in Finland, though they are used of foreign titleholders. Keisari, Kuningas, Suuriruhtinas, Prinssi, and Herttua have been used as official titles of members of the dynasties that ruled Finland, though not granted as titles of nobility. Some feudally-based privileges in landowning, connected to nobily related lordship, existed into the nineteenth century; and fiefs were common in the late medieval and early modern eras. The title Ritari was not commonly used except in the context of knightly orders. The lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was that of the "Aatelinen" (i.e. "noble").
  15. ^ a b c d e f g No noble titles were granted after 1906 when the unicameral legislatures (Eduskunta) were established, removing the constitutional status of the so-called First Estate. However, noble ranks were granted in Finland until 1917 (there, the lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was "Aatelinen", or "noble"; it was in essence a rank, not a title).
  16. ^ In central Europe, the title of Fürst or kníže (e.g. Fürst von Liechtenstein) ranks below the title of a duke (e.g. Duke of Brunswick). The title of Vizegraf was not used in German-speaking countries, and the titles of Ritter and Edler were not commonly used.
  17. ^ In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf and Pfalzgraf.
  18. ^ The "vitéz" title was introduced in Hungary after 1920. In preceding ages simply meant a warrior or a courageous man.
  19. ^ In keeping with the principle of equality among noblemen, no noble titles (with few exceptions) below that of prince were allowed in Poland. The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, especially after the partitions. Instead of hereditary titles, the Polish nobility developed and used a set of titles based on offices held. See "szlachta" for more info on Polish nobility.
  20. ^ In Portugal, a baron or viscount who was a "grandee of the kingdom" (Portuguese: Grandes do Reino) was called a "baron with grandness" (Portuguese: Barão com Grandeza) or "viscount with grandness" (Portuguese: Visconde com Grandeza); each of these grandees was ranked as equal to a count.
  21. ^ a b c For domestic Russian nobility, only the titles Kniaz and Boyar were used before the 18th century, when Graf was added.

External links[edit]