A school shooting is an occurrence in which an individual or group of individuals launches a gun attack on an educational institution, such as an elementary school, secondary school, post-secondary institution, or at an education-related setting. The definition given from the report on school shooters by the Secret Service and Department of Education is "school shootings and other school-based attacks where the school was deliberately selected as the location for the attack and was not simply a random site of opportunity." A school shooting can happen anywhere in the world where a person takes a gun into a school setting. These shootings have sparked a political debate over gun violence, whether firearms should be allowed in the classroom and whether there should be stricter gun control.
- 1 Profiling
- 2 Notable school shootings
- 3 Political impact
- 4 Police response and countermeasures
- 5 Mental illness
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Literature
- 9 External links
School shootings are a topic of intense interest in the United States. A thorough study of 37 incidents involving 41 perpetrators in the United States from 1974 through June 2000 by the Secret Service warned against the belief that a certain "type" of student would be a perpetrator. Any profile would fit too many students to be useful and may not apply to a potential perpetrator. Some lived with both parents in "an ideal, All-American family." Some were children of divorce, or lived in foster homes. A few were loners, but most had close friends. Some experts such as Alan Lipman have warned against the dearth of empirical validity of profiling methods.
While it may be simplistic to assume a straightforward "profile", the study did find certain similarities among the perpetrators. "The researchers found that killers do not 'snap'. They plan. They acquire weapons. These children take a long, considered, public path toward violence." Princeton's Katherine Newman has found that, far from being "loners", the perpetrators are "joiners" whose attempts at social integration fail, and that they let their thinking and even their plans be known, sometimes frequently over long periods of time. In addition, psychologist Peter Langman has noted that school shooters typically fall into one (or occasionally two) of three categories: psychopathic, psychotic, or traumatized.
Perpetrators who "run amok" in schools and other public settings do also share in common a severe lapse or more pervasive deficit in their capacity for empathy coupled with their inability to contain their aggression—this may be due to their psychopathy, psychotic symptoms (i.e. loss of a sense of reality), and/or to a consequence of significant violent traumatization—such as that of early physical abuse, that contributes to the development of dissociative states of mind (i.e. disavowal of reality, derealization, depersonalization). In short, as clinical psychiatrist Daniel Schechter has written, for a baby to develop into a troubled adolescent who then turns lethally violent, a convergence of multiple interacting factors must occur, that is "every bit as complicated...as it is for a tornado to form on a beautiful spring day in Kansas."
Many of the shooters told Secret Service investigators that alienation or persecution drove them to violence. According to the United States Secret Service, instead of looking for traits, the Secret Service urges adults to ask about behavior:
- What has this child said?
- Do they have grievances?
- What do their friends know?
- Do they have access to weapons?
- Are they depressed or despondent?
One "trait" that has not yet attracted as much attention is the gender difference: nearly all school shootings are perpetrated by young males, and in some instances the violence has clearly been gender-specific. Bob Herbert addressed this in an October 2006 New York Times editorial. However, at least three female school shooting incidents have been documented, including Laurie Dann of Winnetka, Illinois.
Though the perpetrators of school shootings are often said to be almost exclusively white males, this is misleading. A study of 48 shooters found that though white males constituted 79% of secondary school shooters, white males were actually a minority among college and other adult perpetrators. There is significant racial, ethnic, and gender diversity among school shooters. These shootings have happened in "suburban and rural school districts" and many seem to be random with random targets. Most of these shooters tend to come from two-parent households and have been found to appear on the honor roll at their schools.
School shootings receive extensive media coverage and are frequent in the US (see list below). They have sometimes resulted in nationwide changes of schools' policies concerning discipline and security. Some experts have described fears about school shootings as a type of moral panic.
Such incidents may also lead to nationwide discussion on gun laws.
"Bullying is common in schools and seemed to play a role in the lives of many of the school shooters" A typical bullying interaction consist of three parts, the offender/bully, a victim and one or more bystanders. This formula of three enables the bully to easily create public humiliation for their victim. Students who are bullied tend to develop behavioral problems, depression, less self-control, poorer social skills, and do worse in school. Once humiliated, victims never want to be a victim again and try to regain their image by joining groups. Often, they are rejected by their peers and follow through by restoring justice in what they see as an unjust situation. Their plan for restoration many times results in violence as shown by the school shooters. 87% of school shooters claimed or left behind evidence of them being victims of bullying, including Nathan Ferris, Edmar Aparecido Freitas, Brian Head, Seung-Hui Cho, Wellington Menezes Oliveira, Jeff Weise, and Adam Lanza. Contrary to popular belief, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were not motivated by or even victims of bullying, and in fact bragged about bullying younger students and "fags". Cyberbullying has changed the effect of bullying in another way. "… in the modern era a bully can also do so on Facebook and Twitter for the world to see. Once something is on the Internet, it cannot truly be removed, further enhancing the torment. That type of bullying is infinitely easier for the perpetrator to commit and just as infinitely hard for the victim to address or escape."
There is no direct causal relationship that has been proven between school shootings and psychiatric drugs. According to Al Knight, "what has been said is that the drugs may have either masked a deeper problem or reacted with other factors to produce resulting violence." In short, the school shootings have not been found to be as a direct result of these drugs and the role they may have played if involved is currently unknown.
While there has been no evidence of a direct correlation between a desire for infamy and school shootings, but as suggested by Justin Nutt in 2013, those who feel as though they are alone and who feel no one will remember them may seek to be remembered through acts of violence. Nutt explains through the examination of the way in which news exposure is connected not to the victims, but the perpetrators. "… in an age of internet news and 24 hour news cycle, to avoid doing so would be seen as poor news reporting, but it also means those who feel nameless and as though no one will care or remember them when they are gone may feel doing something such as a school shooting will make sure they are remembered and listed in the history books."
Notable school shootings
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred at North American schools.
Perhaps the earliest school or college shooting in the United States was the Enoch Brown school massacre, which occurred on July 26, 1764, during the Pontiac's War. More recent school shootings include the 1966 University of Texas massacre, the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre, and the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the 2013 Arapahoe High School Shooting, and most recently the 2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School shooting.
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred at Canadian schools.
|Markdale School shooting||Markdale, Ontario||August 25||1884||1||The 28-year-old head teacher, William Norris wounded Miss Ford, a teacher who had rejected his advances, with three shots. He then fatally shot himself through the head.|
|Altona schoolhouse shooting||Altona, Manitoba||October 10||1902||4||J. J. Toews, a schoolteacher, confronted on the road three school trustees with whom he had some problems, drew a revolver, and shot all of them. Toews then returned to the schoolhouse and shot three female students before turning the gun on himself. Two of the trustees, Rempel and Hiebert, as well as two of the girls shot sustained fatal wounds.|
|Ross Sheppard High School shooting||Edmonton, Alberta||March 16||1959||1||19-year-old Stan Williamson opened fire with a .22 calibre rifle inside a crowded corridor of Ross Sheppard High School, killing 16-year-old Howard Gates and wounding five teenage girls. The shooting ended when three 18-year-old students held the gunman down until he could be arrested by police.|
|Centennial Secondary School shooting||Brampton, Ontario||May 28||1975||3||16-year-old gunman Michael Slobodian shot and killed a fellow student and a teacher, and injured 13 other students before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide in a school hallway. Slobodian is the first recorded high-school aged school shooter in the country.|
|St. Pius X High School shooting||Ottawa, Ontario||October 27||1975||2||Robert Poulin, an 18-year-old St. Pius student, opened fire on his classmates with a shotgun, killing one and wounding five before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide. Poulin had raped and stabbed his 17-year-old friend Kim Rabot to death prior to the shooting. A book entitled Rape of a Normal Mind was written about the incident.|
|Sturgeon Creek High School Shooting||Winnipeg, Manitoba||October||1978||1||A 17-year-old student shot a 16-year-old to death, allegedly for ridiculing the American rock band Kiss. He was arrested and found not guilty of first-degree murder by reason of insanity.|
|École Polytechnique massacre||Montreal, Quebec||December 6||1989||15||25-year-old Marc Lépine, armed with a legally obtained semi-automatic rifle and a hunting knife, embarked on a shooting spree throughout the school, killing fourteen women and injuring ten other women and four men before killing himself.|
|Concordia University massacre||Montreal, Quebec||August 24||1992||4||Dr. Valery Fabrikant, a 52-year-old former associate professor of mechanical engineering at Concordia, shot and killed four of his ex-colleagues and wounded a fifth before being subdued by two people he took hostage and being arrested by police.|
|W. R. Myers High School shooting||Taber, Alberta||April 28||1999||1||A 14-year-old student, Todd Cameron Smith, walked into his school and randomly shot at three students, killing one named Jason Lang and injuring another before being arrested. This shooting took place only eight days after the Columbine High School massacre and is widely believed to have been a copycat crime.|
|Bramalea Secondary School||Brampton, Ontario||December 10||2004||1||On December 10, 2004, a gunman shot 47-year-old grade 10 teacher Aysegul Candir in the head multiple times in a Bramalea Secondary School parking lot. Mrs. Candir was pronounced dead in hospital later in the day. Peel Regional Police would later apprehend Candir's 62 year old husband, Erhun, and charge him with murder. The incident was considered as a domestic dispute, and even though the school was locked down for most of the day, students were never in harms way. Mrs. Candir is remembered as a "wonderful" teacher.|
|Dawson College shooting||Montreal, Quebec||September 13||2006||2||25-year-old Kimveer Gill began shooting outside the de Maisonneuve Boulevard entrance to the school, hitting several students and visitors, and moved towards the atrium by the cafeteria on the main floor, where he shot dozens of additional victims. The shooter later committed suicide by shooting himself in the head after being shot in the arm by police. One victim died at the scene, while another 19 were injured, eight of whom were listed in critical condition with six requiring surgery.|
|C. W. Jefferys Collegiate Institute shooting||Toronto, Ontario||May 23||2007||1||Two 17-year-old Canadian citizens, whom the media can not identify under the provisions of Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act, were arrested on May 27, 2007, and charged with the first-degree murder of a 15-year-old student at the C. W. Jefferys Collegiate Institute. Prior to one of the arrests, police had taken the unusual step of obtaining a judicial order to publish one suspect's name and photograph as he was considered armed and dangerous. Media reported his identity and photo, then had to take the stories off their websites after he was arrested hours later.|
|Bendale Business and Technical Institute shooting||Toronto, Ontario||September 16||2008||0||A 16-year-old boy was shot in the chest in the school's parking lot following an altercation involving several people. The victim was hospitalized in critical condition. On September 17, 2008, Toronto Police announced it had made two arrests in the case; 18-year-old Mark Deicsics, was charged with armed robbery.|
|Central Technical School shooting||Toronto, Ontario||September 30||2010||0||At least one gunshot was fired from a semi-automatic pistol following a confrontation between four students. The school was placed under lock down until 4:45 p.m., when two 17-year-olds were charged by the Toronto Police Service, one with charges related to the shooting, the other with conspiracy. No one was seriously hurt or killed, but the shooting victim had suffered a graze wound to his temple.|
|Les Racines de vie Montessori||Gatineau, Quebec||April 5||2013||2||A gunman killed one man and himself at a small daycare. There were 53 children present at the school, which is divided between two houses. Daycare staff at the houses, 225 and 229 Gamelin St., called 911 at 10:27 a.m. about a man threatening people. Police arrived and found one man dead with a shotgun beside him, apparently a suicide. A second dead man was found soon after. Police have identified one of the dead as Robert Charron but have not named him the shooter.|
|York University Shooting||Toronto, Ontario||March 6||2014||0||One woman was shot and suffered non-life-threatening injuries and another woman received minor non-gun-related injuries from the suspect. The shooting took place late at night at the University Student Centre. Kemon Edwards, 22, is alleged to have been carrying a gun that accidentally discharged in the crowded student centre around 10:45 p.m. during the weekly pub night at the Underground, which is connected to the cafeteria. He faces 17 charges including discharging a firearm, careless use of a firearm and aggravated assault.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred at schools in Mexico.
|Ciudad Juárez school shooting||Ciudad Juárez||August 24||2011||1||Two cars drove up to an elementary school at around noontime, as parents were waiting for their children to be released from school. The men in the cars started firing assault rifles, killing one man, and wounding four women and one man. The elementary school was placed on lock-down and students were released after the situation was being handled. While the motive of the attack is reported to be unknown, schools in the Ciudad Juárez area have reported receiving threats and extortion demands in the past.|
|Ciudad Juárez school shooting||Ciudad Juárez||January 12||2012||1||A 30-year-old man was killed by being shot nine times in front of children at an elementary school as they were leaving for the day. The shooting induced panic from parents of children, some of whom witnessed the shooting. The gunman was unidentified, as of 2012.|
|Atizipan school shooting||Atizapan||May 6||2014||1||13-year-old Ricardo Ordonez was shot and killed at a school. 15-year-old Edgar Yoevani was arrested.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred at schools in the continent of Europe.
|Bremen school shooting||Bremen, Germany||June 20||1913||5||29-year-old unemployed teacher Heinz Schmidt indiscriminately shot at students and teachers, killing four girls and wounding more than twenty others before being subdued by school staff. A fifth girl also died during the incident when she fell down a staircase.|
|Wilno school massacre||Wilno, Second Polish Republic
(now Vilnius, Lithuania)
|May 6||1925||5||A student of Joachim Lewelel High School, Stanisław Ławrynowicz, fired shots and detonated a hand grenade which killed him, two students and a teacher while sitting Matura (final exams). His friend, Janusz Obrębalski attempted to detonate another grenade, which turned out to be faulty. Obrębalski then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. A bomb left by the two was later found in one of the classrooms.|
|Zadar school shooting||Zadar, Croatia||October||1972||2||19-year-old student Milorad Vulinović shot and killed two of his professors using his father's stolen gun.|
|Kungälv school shooting||Kungälv, Sweden||March 4||1961||1||A 17-year-old student fired fifteen bullets into a crowd at a school dance at Kungälvs Läroverk (aka Thorildskolan), killing one student and wounding six others before escaping. He turned himself in to local police the following morning and was arrested.|
|Cologne school massacre||Cologne, Germany||June 11||1964||11||42-year-old Walter Seifert attacked numerous students and adults with a flammenwerfer, killing eight students before murdering his last two victims, both female teachers, with a lance. He then swallowed E605, poisoning himself in a suicide attempt; he died the following day.|
|Eppstein school shooting||Eppstein, Germany||June 3||1983||6||34-year-old Czech refugee Karel Charva opened fire in a sixth-grade classroom, first shooting and wounding the teacher, then killing three students and injuring fourteen others. He then killed a teacher and a police officer who tried to intervene before committing suicide. An additional thirty children suffered from shock during the incident.|
|Raumanmeri school shooting||Rauma, Finland||January 24||1989||2||Two students were fatally shot by a 14-year-old student at the Raumanmeri secondary school. The shooter had claimed to be a victim of bullying.|
|Aarhus University shooting||Aarhus, Denmark||April 5||1994||3||35-year-old student Flemming Nielsen shot and killed two people and wounded two others with a sawed-off shotgun before taking his own life.|
|Dunblane massacre||Dunblane, United Kingdom||March 13||1996||18||43-year-old Thomas Hamilton opened fire in a gymnasium, killing sixteen children and one adult and injuring fifteen others before committing suicide. It remains the deadliest attack on children in Scottish history.|
|ROC de Leijgraaf||Veghel, Netherlands||December 7||1999||0||A 17-year-old student opened fire at ROC de Leijgraaf school, wounding three students and one teacher. One student was critically injured. It was the first school shooting in the history of the Netherlands.|
|Erfurt massacre||Erfurt, Germany||April 26||2002||17||19-year-old Robert Steinhäuser began shooting through his former school, targeting teachers and faculty members. Twelve teachers and one administrator were killed, along with two students and a police officer; only one other person was injured. The shooter then committed suicide.|
|Coburg shooting||Coburg, Germany||July 3||2003||1||A 16-year-old student, known only as Florian K., shoots and wounds his teacher and an intervening school psychiatrist before taking his own life.|
|Terra College||The Hague, Netherlands||January||2004||1||A student shoots the school principal, Hans van Wieren, in the head.|
|Rötz school shooting||Rötz, Germany||March 7||2005||0||After being ordered to leave the classroom, a 14-year-old student returned with a gun and threatened the life of the 35-year-old class teacher. During a struggle the weapon was fired and taken from the student. Investigators' findings state that the student did not intend to kill the teacher, but himself. No one was injured.|
|Geschwister Scholl School attack||Emsdetten, Germany||November 20||2006||1||18-year-old Bastian Bosse, a former student of the school, fired several shots with two sawed-off rifles and a caplock pistol and also threw several homemade smoke bombs before killing himself. The incident ended with no other fatalities, with 37 people being injured, including four students who suffered gunshot wounds, one teacher wounded by being hit in the face with a smoke bomb, sixteen police officers who suffered from smoke inhalation, and the school custodian who was shot in the abdomen inside the school.|
|Jokela school shooting||Tuusula, Finland||November 7||2007||9||18-year-old Pekka-Eric Auvinen opened fire in the school's main hallway, killing six students, school principal Helena Kalmi, and the school nurse before shooting and wounding himself in a suicide attempt; he later died at a hospital. One other person suffered gunshot wounds, and eleven people were injured by shattering glass while escaping from the school building. The day before the incident, Auvinen posted a video on YouTube predicting the massacre at the school.|
|Kauhajoki school shooting||Kauhajoki, Finland||September 23||2008||11||22-year-old student Matti Juhani Saari entered the school via the basement and opened fire in a classroom he attended before setting it on fire with homemade Molotov cocktails and then fleeing the scene. Nine students and one staff member died in the incident. A woman was shot in the head and critically wounded, but survived after having two operations, while ten other students sustained minor injuries such as sprains and cuts from broken glass. Authorities eventually found Saari, who had shot himself but was still alive; he died a short time later. It was assumed that the Jokela case, the previous year (above), inspired Saari to commit the massacre.|
|Winnenden school shooting||Winnenden, Germany||March 11||2009||16||17-year-old Tim Kretschmer, a former student of the school, opened fire in two classrooms and a chemistry laboratory, killing nine and injuring seven others. He then successfully escaped the school, killing two female teachers in the process. Afterwards, he shot and killed the caretaker of a psychiatric facility and then carjacked a motorist, who drove him into another town before escaping unharmed. The shooter opened fire in a car showroom after unsuccessfully trying to steal a car, killing two and injuring two others. He then committed suicide after a brief shootout with police.|
|OAED Vocational College shooting||Athens, Greece||April 10||2009||1||19-year-old Dimitris Patmanidis shot and wounded a student and two workers from a nearby technical company before shooting and wounding himself in the head in a suicide attempt. He died later at a hospital.|
|Kanebogen Elementary School shooting||Harstad, Norway||April 28||2009||0||A nine-year-old student fires a shotgun in schoolyard; however, nobody was injured in the incident. The shooter was disarmed and subdued by a female teacher, but due to his age, when he wasn't tried for the crime, although his father was fined for not keeping the shotgun, a rifle, and ammunition according to Norwegian rules. This was the first Norwegian school shooting.|
|University of Pécs shooting||Pécs, Hungary||November 26||2009||1||A 23-year-old student entered the building of the university's biophysics research institute and opened fire in the classroom, killing one man. In earlier reports, two people were reported to be in critical condition and a third in serious condition.|
|Toulouse school shooting||Toulouse, France||March 19||2012||5||23-year-old Islamist terrorist and antisemitic Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish day school, killing three schoolchildren and a teacher. The incident was the last of three terrorist attacks against French soldiers and Jewish civilians, occurring in an eight-day span. The shooter was later shot and killed by police after a massive three-day manhunt and a 30-hour standoff at his home.|
|2014 Moscow school shooting||Moscow, Russia||February 3||2014||2||High school student Sergey Gordeyev, armed with two rifles, forced his way past a security guard, took hostages, and killed his geography teacher. He then killed a police officer and wounded another who arrived at the scene. He later released the hostages and was captured by the police after his father came to the school.|
|2014 Viljandi school shooting||Viljandi, Estonia||October 27||2014||1||15-year-old boy killed teacher with gun in Paalalinna school. All students were evacuated in school hall and police arrested the shooter.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in South American schools.
|Islas Malvinas School shooting||Carmen de Patagones, Argentina||September 28, 2004||4||Four students killed and five wounded by a 15-year-old student in a town 620 miles south of Buenos Aires.|
|Realengo massacre||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||April 7, 2011||13||A former student (23) fatally shot 12 people inside the school and committed suicide after being shot down by a policeman.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in schools in the continent of Asia.
|Ma'alot massacre||Ma'alot, Israel||May 15, 1974||25||The Ma'alot massacre was a terrorist attack carried out by the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine at the Netiv Meir elementary school in the town of Ma'alot. It included a two-day hostage-taking of 115 people which ended in the deaths of over 25 hostages.|
|Sanaa massacre||Sana'a, Yemen||March 30, 1997||8||The Sanaa massacre was a school massacre that occurred in Sana'a, Yemen, on March 30, 1997. Mohammad Ahman al-Naziri, 48, attacked hundreds of pupils at two schools, killing six children and two adults with an assault rifle. Naziri, whose five children attended the Tala'i school, alleged that one of his daughters had been raped by the school administrator. No evidence was found of this. Naziri was sentenced to death the next day and executed on April 5, 1997|
|University of the Philippines shooting||Quezon City, Philippines||February 19, 1999||1||A student was shot dead by a fraternity member after being mistaken for a member of the rival fraternity.|
|Longzhou County Middle School shooting||Longzhou County, China||October 19, 1999||1||After spending the afternoon drinking, school guard Liang Yongcheng walked into a students' dormitory at a middle school in Longzhou county and threatened to kill everybody who tried to stop him. He eventually committed suicide, but not before shooting a teacher and six students with a hunting rifle.|
|Number 34 Middle School||Lanzhou, China||September 26, 2002||2||Yang Zhengming, who worked as a mini-bus driver for Number 34 Middle School in Lanzhou, killed a teacher and wounded two others at the school with a hunting rifle, one of the wounded being his former girlfriend. Police finally shot him dead after negotiating with him for two hours while he was standing on the roof and threatened to commit suicide.|
|Pak Phanang school shooting||Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand||June 6, 2003||2||17-year-old Anatcha Boonkwan killed two, injured four of his fellow students after losing a fist-fight with one of his classmates.|
|Niutoushan Primary School shooting||Guangde County, China||October 5, 2005||0||18 people, among them 16 children, were injured when Liu Shibing shot them with six home-made guns at Niutoushan Primary School in Guangde.|
|Beirut Arab University shooting||Beirut, Lebanon||January 25, 2007||4||Four people were shot dead in clashes between pro- and anti-government activists on Thursday and about 200 were hurt in the violence that flared after a scuffle between students at a Beirut university. The opposition accused the government camp of starting the riots and the four dead included two Hezbollah students, who were fired at from rooftops.|
|Euro International school shooting||Gurgaon, India||December 12, 2007||1||A shooting occurred at Euro International, a private secondary school in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. The gunmen were students 14-year-old Akash Yadav and 13-year-old Vikas Yadav, who shot and killed a 14-year-old student.|
|Mercaz HaRav shooting||Jerusalem, Israel||March 6, 2008||9||Alaa Abu Dhein, an Israeli Arabic yeshiva bus driver, entered the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva with guns blazing, killing eight and wounding seven, before being shot dead himself by a part-time student. This incident, as do many massacres in the Levant, soon took on racial and religious overtones, pitting Palestinians and Israeli Arabs against Jews.|
|Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting||Baku, Azerbaijan||April 30, 2009||13||29-year-old Farda Gadirov opened fire with a Makarov PM semi-automatic pistol inside the school building of Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, killing 12 people, and wounding 13 others. He committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.|
|Xuwen school shooting||Xuwen, Guangdong, China||October 27, 2011||1||A 16-year-old student was shot and killed at the entrance gate of a public school.|
|2014 Peshawar school attack||Peshawar, Pakistan||December 16, 2014||145||A group of nine Taliban gunmen stormed the Army Public School, shooting and lobbing grenades.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in Oceanic region.
|Waikino Schoolhouse shooting||New Zealand||October 19, 1923||2||Two children killed and nine wounded, including the headmaster, by John Higgins. This is the first and only school shooting to occur in New Zealand.|
|Orara High School||Coffs Harbour, Australia||June 19, 1991||0||A student brought a rifle to school injuring 2 teachers and 1 student. The shooter was tackled to the ground by fellow students. This was the first known school shooting to occur in Australia.|
|La Trobe University shooting||Melbourne, Australia||August 3, 1999||1||A student opened fire in a La Trobe University campus restaurant that he used to be employed by, killing the restaurant's manager. Other patrons were injured.|
|Monash University shooting||Melbourne, Australia||October 21, 2002||2||The Monash University shooting refers to a shooting in which a student shot his classmates and teacher, killing two and injuring five. It took place at Monash University in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, on October 21, 2002.|
|Tomaree High School||Salamander Bay, Australia||April 3, 2003||0||The shooter threw petrol bombs before opening fire, seriously wounding 2 students.|
|Modbury High School||Adelaide, Australia||May 7, 2012||0||A Year eight student took a revolver on school grounds, firing shots, nobody was injured.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in schools in the continent of Africa.
|Maiduguri school shooting||Maiduguri, Nigeria||June 18, 2013||9||Nigeria militants killed nine schoolchildren at a school in Maiduguri.|
|Yobe State school shooting||Mamudo, Nigeria||July 6, 2013||42|
|Garissa University College attack||Garissa, Kenya||April 3, 2015||147||Somali Al-Shabaab militants killed 147 students at Garissa University College.|
School shootings and other mass killings have had a major political impact. Governments have discussed gun-control laws, to increase time for background checks. Also, bulletproof school supplies have been created, including backpacks, desks, bullet-resistant door panels, and classroom whiteboards (or bulletin boards) which reinforce walls or slide across doors to deflect bullets. Another organization that has proposed possible solutions to school shootings is the National Rifle Association (NRA), to allow teachers to carry weapons on school grounds as a means of protecting themselves and others. So far, ten states have already introduced legislation to allow weapons on school property with eighteen states already allowing guns to be carried on school grounds, but not without constraints. Most states also require the gun carriers to receive advance permission from the districts' superintendents or trustees. "In New York State, written permission from the school is required in order to carry a firearm on school grounds."
Due to the political impact, this has spurred some to press for more stringent gun control laws. In the United States, the National Rifle Association is opposed to such laws, and some groups have called for fewer gun control laws, citing cases of armed students ending shootings and halting further loss of life, and claiming that the prohibitions against carrying a gun in schools do not deter the gunmen.[better source needed] One such example is the Mercaz HaRav Massacre, where the attacker was not stopped by police but rather a student, Yitzhak Dadon, who stopped the attacker by shooting him with his personal firearm which he lawfully carried concealed. At a Virginia law school, there is a disputed claim that three students retrieved pistols from their cars and stopped the attacker without firing a shot. Also, at a Mississippi high school, the Vice Principal retrieved a firearm from his vehicle and then eventually stopped the attacker as he was driving away from the school. In other cases, such as shootings at Columbine and Red Lake High Schools, the presence of an armed police officer did little to nothing to prevent the killings.
The Gun-Free Schools Act was passed in 1994 in response to gun related violence in schools, as a result to that a lot of school system started adopting the Zero-Tolerance Law. The Gun-Free school act required people to be expelled from the school for a year. By the year of 1997 the Zero-Tolerance for any type of weapon was implemented by more than 90 percent of U.S public schools.
Police response and countermeasures
Analysis of the Columbine school shooting and other incidents where first responders waited for backup has resulted in changed recommendations regarding what bystanders and first responders should do. An analysis of 84 mass shooting cases in the US from 2000 to 2010 found that the average response time by police was 3 minutes. In most instances that exceeds the time the shooter is engaged in killing. While immediate action may be extremely dangerous, it may save lives which would be lost if people involved in the situation remain passive, or a police response is delayed until overwhelming force can be deployed. It is recommended that civilians involved in the incident take active steps to flee, hide, or fight the shooter and that individual law enforcement officers present or first arriving at the scene attempt immediately to engage the shooter. In many instances immediate action by civilians or law enforcement has saved lives.
Due to various school shootings, there has been considerable policy discussion about how to help prevent school and other types of mass shootings. One suggestion that has come up is the idea to allow firearms in the classroom. "Since the issue of arming teachers is a relatively new topic, it has received little empirical study. Therefore, most of the literature does not come from peer reviewed sources but rather published news reports. In addition, most of these reports are not objective and clearly appear to support a specific side of the debate." So far, data has been inconclusive as to whether or not arming teachers would have any sort of benefit for schools. For years, some areas in the US have allowed "armed classrooms" to deter (or truncate) future attacks by changing helpless victims into armed defenders. Advocates of arming teachers claim that it will reduce fatalities in school shootings, but many others disagree.
Many teachers have had their concerns with the idea of armed classrooms. "One teacher stated that although she is pro-gun, she does not feel as though she could maintain gun safety on school grounds (Reuters, 2012). Teachers expressed the fear that bigger students could overpower them, take the weapon, and then use it against the teacher or other students." Some members of the armed forces have also had concerns with armed classrooms. Police forces in Texas brought up the potential for teachers to leave a gun where a student could retrieve and use it. "They are further concerned that if every teacher had a gun, there would be an unnecessarily large number of guns in schools (even including elementary schools). This large number of guns could lead to accidental shootings, especially those involving younger children who do not understand what guns do."
In a 2013 research report published by the Center for Homicide Research, they find that many also reject the idea of having armed classrooms due to what is termed the "weapons effect," which is the phenomenon in which simply being in the presence of a weapon can increase feelings of aggression. "In Berkowitz & LaPage's (1967) examination of this effect, students who were in the presence of a gun reported higher levels of aggressive feelings towards other students and gave more violent evaluations of other students' performance on a simple task in the form of electric shocks. This finding points to possible negative outcomes for students exposed to guns in the classroom (Simons & Turner, 1974; Turner & Simons, 1976)." 
In 2008, Harrold Independent School District in Texas became the first public school district in the U.S. to allow teachers with state-issued firearm-carry permits to carry their arms in the classroom; special additional training and ricochet-resistant ammunition were required for participating teachers. Students at the University of Utah have been allowed to carry concealed pistols (so long as they possess the appropriate state license) since a State Supreme Court decision in 2006. In addition to Utah, Wisconsin and Mississippi each have legislation that allow students, faculty and employees with the proper permit, to carry concealed weapons on their public university's campuses. Colorado and Oregon state courts have ruled in favor of Campus Carry laws by denying University's proposals to ban guns on campus. Ruling that the UC Board of Regents and the Oregon University System did not have the authority to ban weapons on campus. A selective ban was then re-instated, wherein Oregon state universities enacted a ban on guns in school building and sporting events or by anyone contracted with the university in question. A commentary in the conservative National Review Online argues that the armed school approach for preventing school attacks, while new in the US, has been used successfully for many years in Israel and Thailand. Teachers and school officials in Israel are allowed and encouraged to carry firearms if they have former military experience in the IDF, which almost all do. Statistics on what percentage of teachers are actually armed are unavailable and in Israel, for example, the intent is to counter politically motivated terrorist attacks on high value, soft targets, not personal defense against, or protection from, unbalanced individual students.
The National Rifle Association has explicitly called for placing armed guards in all American schools. While Steven Strauss, a faculty member at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, offered a preliminary calculation that placing armed guards in every American school might cost as much as $15 billion/year, and perhaps only save 10 lives per year (at a cost of $1.5 billion/life saved).
A preventive measure proposed for stopping school shooting has been focused on securing firearms in the home. A shooting in Sparks, Nevada on October 21, 2013, left a teacher and the shooter, a twelve-year-old student, dead with two seriously injured. The handgun used in the shooting had been taken from the shooter's home. Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Red Lake High School in Red Lake, Minnesota in 2005, and Heath High School in West Paducah, Kentucky in 1997 also involved legal guns taken from the home.
A 2000 study of firearm storage in the United States found that "from the homes with children and firearms, 55% reported to have one or more firearms in an unlocked place." 43% reported keeping guns without a trigger lock in an unlocked place. In 2005 a study was done on adult firearm storage practices in the United States found that over 1.69 million youth under age 18 are living in homes with loaded and unlocked firearms. Also, 73% of children under age 10 living in homes with guns reported knowing the location of their parents' firearms.
Most states have Child Access Prevention Laws – laws designed to prevent children from accessing firearms. Each state varies in the degree of the severity of these laws. The toughest laws enforce criminal liability when a minor achieves access to a carelessly stored firearm. The weakest forbid people from directly providing a firearm to a minor. There is also a wide range of laws that fall in between the two extremes. One example is a law that enforces criminal liability for carelessly stored firearms, but only where the minor uses the firearm and causes death or serious injury. An example of a weaker law is a law that enforces liability only in the event of reckless, knowing or deliberate behavior by the adult.
The degree to which mental illness does or does not contribute to school shootings has been debated in society. Many politicians and mental health professionals point to mental health, and the lack of comprehensive mental health treatment in the United States as a potential contributing factor in mass shootings. However, advocates for the mentally ill worry about stigmatization of the mentally ill as violent due to mass shootings. Such advocates point out that the majority of the mentally ill are not violent.
Although the vast majority of mentally ill individuals are non-violent, some evidence has suggested that mental illness or mental health symptoms are nearly universal among school shooters. For example, on April 16, 2007, a Virginia Tech (VT) student named Seung-Hui Cho shot and killed thirty-two faculty members and students on the campus and injured twenty-five more before taking his own life. For another instance, a 2002 report by the US Secret Service and US Department of Education found evidence that a majority of school shooters displayed evidence of mental health symptoms, often undiagnosed or untreated  Criminologists Fox and DeLateur note that mental illness is only part of the issue, however, and mass shooters tend to externalize their problems, blaming others and are unlikely to seek psychiatric help, even if available. Other scholars have concluded that mass murderers display a common constellation of chronic mental health symptoms, chronic anger or antisocial traits, and a tendency to blame others for problems. However, they note that attempting to "profile" school shooters with such a constellation of traits will likely result in many false positives as many individuals with such a profile do not engage in violent behaviors.
McGinty and colleagues conducted a study to find out if people tended to associate the violence of school shootings with mental illness, at the expense of other factors such as the availability of high-capacity magazines. Nearly 2,000 participants read a news piece on a shooting in which the shooter is diagnosed as having a mental illness and who used high capacity magazines. One group read an article that presented only the facts of the case. A different group read an article about the same shooting, but in it the author advocated for gun restrictions for people with mental illness. Another group read about the shooting in an article that suggested the proposal to ban large-capacity magazines, which acted to advocate that shootings could stem from a societal problem rather than an individual problem. The control group did not read anything. Participants were then all asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about their views on gun control and whether they thought there should be restrictions on high-capacity magazines. 71% of the control group thought that gun restrictions should be applied to people with mental illness, and nearly 80% of participants who read the articles agreed. Despite the fact that the article exposed the readers to both the mental illness of the shooter, and the fact that the shooter used high-capacity magazines, participants advocated more for gun restrictions on people with mental illness rather than bans on high-capacity magazines. This suggests that people believe mental illness is the culprit for school shootings in lieu of the accessibility of guns or other environmental factors. The authors expressed concern that proposals to target gun control laws at people with mental illness do not take into account the complex nature of the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, much of which is due to additional factors such as substance abuse.
- List of school-related attacks
- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
- Campus carry in the United States
- Chencholai bombing, Sri Lanka
- Columbine High School massacre
- Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold
- Federal Bureau of Investigation
- Incendiary device
- Gun culture
- Jeff Weise
- Mass murder
- Nagerkovil school bombing, Sri Lanka
- Red Lake massacre
- Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
- School bullying
- School violence
- Seung-Hui Cho
- Social rejection
- Suicide bombing
- Suicide by cop
- Virginia Tech massacre
- Youth subculture
- Vossekuil, Bryan et al. (2004). The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Secret Service. p. 4.
- "'Profiling' School Shooters". Frontline. March 17, 2007. PBS. WGBH-TV. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
- "The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education. May 1, 2002.
- Langman, Peter (2009). Why Kids Kill: Inside the Minds of School Shooters. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230101487.
- Langman, Peter (2015). School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442233560.
- Schechter DS (February 16, 2011). Forecasting Aggression: What Makes Some Troubled Youth Turn Violent? Cerebrum. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=30762
- Fein, R.A.; Vossekuil, B.; Pollack, W.; Borum, R.; Reddy, M.; Modzeleski, W. (May 2002). "Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and creating safe school climates.". U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Secret Service.
- Dedman, Bill (October 15, 2000). "Deadly Lessons: School Shooters Tell Why" (PDF). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
- Herbert, Bob (October 16, 2006). "Why Aren't We Shocked?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Police: Female student kills 2 others, self at Louisiana college - CNN.com". February 8, 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008.
- "Parole Denied to Female School Shooter". San Diego 6. August 13, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- Langman, Peter (2015). School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 199. ISBN 978-1442233560.
- Langman, Peter. "School Shooters Who Were Not White Males" (PDF). www.schoolshooters.info. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- Darling-Brekhus, Keith. "What FBI Profiles Tell Us About School Shooters and How to Prevent the Next One?" The Examiner. 15 Dec. 2012.
- Killingbeck, Donna (2001). "The Role of Television News in the Construction of School Violence as a 'Moral Panic.". Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture 8 (3): 186–202.
- "Government Vows to Take Action Following Kauhajoki Shootings". YLE. Retrieved September 23, 2008.
- Lanata, John C. (March–April 2003). "Behind the scenes.: A closer look at the school shooters". Sheriff 55 (2): 22–26.[dead link]
- "Addressing Bullying in Schools". Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- http://www.makebeatsnotbeatdowns.org/facts_new.html Bullying in Schools
- Cullen, Dave. Columbine. Twelve, 2009. chapter 42.
- Knight, Al. "Psychiatric Drug Culture Examined." Denver Post.11 Nov. 1999. LexisNexis Academic.
- Markdale Standard (Markdale, Ont.), 28 Aug 1884, p. 4, column 1
- San Francisco Call, Volume 87, Number 132, October 10, 1902
- Ross Sheppard Composite High School
- "Shooting violence in Canadian schools 1975–2007". The Star (Toronto). May 23, 2007.
- "One dead, one wounded in Alberta school shooting". CBC News. November 10, 1999.
- "The Montreal Killer Was a Death-Obsessed Goth". Toronto Daily News. September 14, 2006. Archived from the original on February 24, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2006.
- "Two gunmen open fire at Dawson College". The Gazette. September 13, 2006. Retrieved September 13, 2006.
- "Montreal gunman killed himself: autopsy". CBC. September 14, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006.[dead link]
- "Communiques" (Press release). Service de police de la ville de Montréal. September 13, 2006.
- "UPDATE 7 – Gunman kills one, wounds 19 at Montreal college". =Reuters. September 13, 2006. Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2006.
- "Woman, gunman dead in Montreal school rampage". CBC News. September 13, 2006. Retrieved September 13, 2006.[dead link]
- "Teen shot, injured at Canadian high school". USA Today. September 16, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2013.[dead link]
- "High school locked down after gun fired". Toronto Star. Sep 30, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2013.[dead link]
- "School shooting suspect faces 10 charges". CBC News. Oct 6, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2013.[dead link]
- "Gatineau police ID 1 of 2 men dead in daycare shooting". CBC News. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- Pagliaro, Jennifer (March 14, 2014). "Six people arrested in York University shooting". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- "1 Dead, 5 Wounded In Mexico Border School Shooting". Huffington Post. August 25, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "Man gunned down at elementary school in Juarez". CNN. January 12, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "De un balazo mata joven de 15 años a compañero en salón de clases". La Policiaca. May 6, 2014.
- Der Massenmord in der Mädchenschule, Prager Tagblatt (June 21, 1913)
- Kills 3, wounds 17 in a classroom, The New York Times (June 21, 1913)
- "38 godina od ubojstva Vice Vlatkovića i Gojka Matuline" (in Croatian). Zadarski list. October 4, 2010.
- "Wie lebende Fackeln stürzten Kinder ins Freie" (in German). Hamburger Abendblatt. June 12, 1964.
- "School Shootings Rare in Finland". YLE. November 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Drabssager - 1994 (Danish)
- Hodgson, Martin (June 5, 2008). "Murray describes fight to cope with trauma of Dunblane school killings". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- "Student shoots four at Dutch school". BBC News. December 7, 1999.
- "School shooting suspect's family arrested". BBC News. December 9, 1999.
- Brave teacher stopped gun rampage, CNN, April 27, 2002
- Paterson, Tony (July 3, 2003). "Pupil kills himself in school shooting". London: The Independent. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- "13 januari 2004: Schietpartij op het Terra College in Den Haag" (in Dutch). National library of the Netherlands. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Bayrischer Schüler schießt mit Revolver auf Lehrer" (in German). Handelsblatt. March 7, 2005.
- 18-jähriger Amokläufer verteilte Bomben im Schulgebäude ("18-year old madman distributed bombs in school building"), Spiegel Online.
- "Teen gunman dead from critical injuries who opened fire on Finnish classmates". CNN. November 7, 2007. Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Fatal shooting at Finnish school". BBC News. November 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Cser, Attila (September 23, 2008). "Gunman kills 10, self in Finnish school shooting". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
The killer, 22-year-old Matti Saari, started a fire in the school and then shot himself in the head. He died later in Tampere University Hospital.
- "'German school gunman 'kills 15'". BBC News. March 11, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "German Police Say School Shooting Kills at Least Nine". Deutsche Welle. March 11, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "Greek gunman dies after shooting". BBC (news.bbc.co.uk). April 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Nine-year-old fires shotgun at Norwegian school (April 28, 2009) independent.co.uk
- Tolouse school shootings traumatise French Jews (March 21, 2012) bbc.co.uk
- "Student gunman kills policeman and teacher in hostage takeover of class of 20 students in school near Moscow". Daily Mail (London).
- "Crisis Management: The Case of School Shootings – Case Study: "Islas Malvinas" Middle School" (PDF).[dead link]
- "Brazil school shooting: Rio de Janeiro gunman kills 12". BBC News. April 7, 2011.
- School guard injures seven in shooting spree, Guelph Mercury (October 26, 1999)
- Two dead in school shooting in northwest China city, China Daily (September 27, 2002)
- Driver shoots teacher in China campus killing, muzi.com (September 27, 2002)
- Gagliardi, Jason (January 15, 2004). "GANGS NOT THE ONLY SCHOOLYARD KILLERS". South China Morning Post. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- 18 people wounded in school shooting in Anhui, Xinhua (October 13, 2005)
- Boy shoots classmate dead in Gurgaon school, Reuters (December 11, 2007)
- "Eight killed at Jerusalem school", BBC News Online, March 6, 2008
- Terror Attack At Jerusalem Seminary - Merkaz HaRav Yeshiva - 8 Dead National Terror Alert Response Center, 6 March 2008
- Jerusalem seminary attacked UPI, 6 March 2008
- "Azerbaijan gunman kills 12 at university". CNN.com. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- "Academy mass shooting". April 30, 2009.
- "Ekspert basqında "Makarov" dan istifadə olunmasına şübhə edir" (in Azerbaijani). Azadliq.org. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- "", CNN, October 27, 2011
- "", Sina, October 27, 2011. (in Chinese)
- Walsh, Declan (December 17, 2014). "Pakistani Taliban Attack on Peshawar School Leaves 145 Dead". New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- Anderson, Charles (December 23, 2012). "Murder in a small Kiwi school". SundayStar-Times. p. A10. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Rees, Margaret (October 29, 2002). "Two students killed in Australian university shooting". World Socialist Website.
- "Two shot dead, five wounded at Monash Uni". Sydney Morning Herald. October 21, 2012.
- "Sydney Morning Herald - news". 2003-04-03.[dead link]
- "Shot fired from gun taken to Modbury High School". The Advertiser. May 11, 2012.
- "Nigeria militants kill school children in Maiduguri". BBC News. June 19, 2013.
- "Inside Garissa University College dorm's scene of slaughter". CNN News. April 3, 2015.
- "Bulletproof school supplies get low grades from safety experts". NBCnews.com. August 21, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
- "How bulletproof whiteboards can protect classrooms" (sliding across doors). MSN.com. September 16, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
- "Teachers with Guns: Firearms Discharges by Schoolteachers, 1980–2012" (PDF). Homicidecenter.org. August 2013. p. 1..
- Puryear, Eric (April 30, 2008). "A discussion of the reasoning behind gun free zone, 2007–2008". Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- Clines, Francis. "3 Slain at Law School; Student Is Held." New York Times. 17 Jan. 2002.
- Wickman, Forrest. "Do Armed Citizens Stop Mass Shootings?" Slate. 18 Dec. 2012.
- Terkel, Amanda. "Columbine High School Had Armed Guard During Massacre In 1999." Huffington Post. 5 Dec. 2013.
- "New Year gun amnesty planned". BBC News. December 27, 2002. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
- Erica Goode (April 6, 2013). "In Shift, Police Advise Taking an Active Role to Counter Mass Attacks". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Teachers with Guns: Firearms Discharges by School teachers, 1980–2012 |url= http://homicidecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Teachers-with-Guns-RESEARCH-REPORT-FINAL.pdf |p.3 |2013.
- McKinley Jr., James C. (August 28, 2008). "In Texas School, Teachers Carry Books and Guns". The New York Times.
- "Guns on college campuses allowed in U.S. state Utah". Int. Her. Trib. The Associated Press. March 29, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- Lott, John (September 9, 2006). "Utah Supreme Court Shoots down University of Utah Gun Ban". Johnrlott.blogspot.com. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- "U of Wisconsin Prepares for New Concealed Carry Law". Campus Safety Magazine. September 7, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- "Mississippi Passes New Campus Gun Laws". Daily Mississippian. February 19, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Whaley, Monte (March 5, 2012). "Colorado Supreme Court affirms that CU students with permits can carry concealed guns on campus". The Denver Post. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- Graves, Bill (September 28, 2011). "Oregon Court of Appeals rejects university system's ban on guns on campus". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- "Oregon University System Policy on Firearms" (PDF). March 2, 2012.
- Kopel, Dave (September 2, 2004). "Follow the Leader: Israel and Thailand set an example by arming teachers.". National Review. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010.
- Lichtblau, Eric; Rich, Motoko (December 21, 2012). "N.R.A. Calls for Armed Guards at Schools". The New York Times.
- "Five Concerns About Armed Guards in Schools". Huffington Post. January 13, 2013.
- "Preventing school shootings starts with gun safety at home." Christian Science Monitor 31 October 2013: 1. Print.
- Randich, Cheri. "Description of State Child Access Prevention Laws." Law & Justice. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http://www.leg.wa.gov/Senate/Committees/LAW/Documents/SummaryOfStateChildAccessPreventionLaws.pdf>
- "Violence and mental illness: An overview."
- "Safe School Initiative."
- "Everything You Think You Know about Mass Murder Is Wrong."
- "Psychological Profiles of School Shooters."
- McGinty, Emma E.; Webster, Daniel W.; Barry, Colleen L. (May 2013). "Effects of News Media Messages About Mass Shootings on Attitudes Toward Persons With Serious Mental Illness and Public Support for Gun Control Policies.". American Journal of Psychiatry.
- Muschert, Glen – Sumiala, Johanna (eds.): School Shootings: Mediatized Violence in a Global Age. Studies in Media and Communications, 7. Bingley: Emerald, 2012. ISSN 2050-2060 ISBN 978-1-78052-918-9
- BBC timeline of US school shootings
- Student Threat Assessment and Management System Guide
- Horrific School Shootings[dead link] – slideshow by Life magazine
- School Shooters .info - database of information and documents relating to school shooters
- Algoworld: Scientific Ways To Predict Mass Shootings