Toyota Camry (XV10)

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For a complete overview of all Camry models, see Toyota Camry.
Toyota Camry (XV10)
1994-1995 Toyota Camry Vienta (VDV10) CSX sedan (2011-04-02).jpg
Overview
Also called Holden Apollo
Toyota Scepter (Japan)
Toyota Vienta
Production June 1991 – July 1996 (Japan)
3 September 1991 – June 1996 (US)
1993–July 1997 (Australia)
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)
Australia: Port Melbourne, Victoria (1993–1994); Altona, Victoria (1994–1997)
United States: Georgetown, Kentucky
Designer Osamu Shikado (1988)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel drive layout
Related Lexus ES/Toyota Windom
Toyota Avalon
Powertrain
Engine 2.2 L 5S-FE I4
3.0 L 3VZ-FE V6
3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6
Transmission 5-speed E53 manual
4-speed A140E automatic
4-speed A540E automatic
4-speed A541E automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,619 mm (103.1 in)
Length Sedan: 4,770 mm (188 in)
Station wagon: 4,811 mm (189.4 in)
Width 1,770 mm (70 in)
Height Coupé: 1,394 mm (54.9 in)
Sedan: 1,400 mm (55 in)
Station wagon: 1,430 mm (56 in)
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota Camry (V20)
Successor Toyota Camry (XV20)

The Toyota Camry (XV10) is a mid-size car that was produced by Toyota between 1991 and 1996 in Japan and North America, and 1993 and 1997 in Australia. The XV10 series represented the third generation of the Toyota Camry in all markets outside of Japan, which followed a different generational lineage. The XV10 Camry range is split into different model codes indicative of the engine. Four-cylinder models utilize the SXV10/SDV10 codes, with VCV10 designating the six-cylinder versions, and MCV10 the later six-cylinder cars in North America only.

In its home market of Japan, the XV10 Camry iteration was known as the Toyota Scepter. This was due to the Camry name being adopted by a smaller version of the same car in Japan, similar in size the previous generation compact-sized Camry sold globally.

In Australia, the third generation Camry was sold under three names. Along with the Camry itself, a version badged as the Holden Apollo was also sold as a result of a model sharing arrangement between GM Holden and Toyota at the time. Toyota from 1995 onwards, also began badging the six-cylinder versions of the Camry as the Toyota Vienta in the Australian-market.

Exports from Australia to Thailand commenced in August 1993; Middle Eastern models began export from Australia in February 1996.[1]

Classification[edit]

1994–1996 Toyota Scepter 2.2 station wagon (Japan)
1991–1994 Toyota Scepter 2.2 sedan (Japan)

In 1990, Toyota replaced the compact V20 Camry with an all-new V30 series exclusive to Japan. While marginally larger than the V20, the V30 had to comply with Japanese tax legislation. To meet the "number five" compact car tax bracket, the Camry V30 had to adhere to the 1,700-millimetre (66.9 in) width and 4,700-millimetre (185.0 in) length limit. Particularly in the United States, this narrower model would not generate enough sales, as proved by its V20 Camry forerunner. Concurrently, the "wide-body" Camry (XV10) was developed from 1989 and the final design frozen that same year.[2] Introduced to North America on September 9, 1991, the XV10 Camry was sold alongside the V30 in Japan, badged as the Toyota Scepter.[3] Toyota chose the name "Scepter" as a reference to the Camry/Crown naming tradition, as a "scepter" is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of royal regalia.

The smaller V30 Camry varied in other areas besides the size. Although the underpinnings, doors and fenders, and overall basic design cues were common between the two cars, the smaller Camry sported harder, more angular front- and rear-end styling treatment, with the wide-body model presenting a more curvaceous silhouette. This was a departure from the V20 generation Camry which, although had many more rounded panels than the V10 series, was nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape.

The XV10 is regarded as the first Camry to break into the mid-size car market, the market Toyota billed as "world-sized". At the same time, the once subcompact Corolla was moved to the compact class, and the Camry moved to the mid-size class. This Scepter model marked the transition away from a smaller vehicle into a larger, more luxurious family car. The first U.S.-built XV10 Camry rolled off the Georgetown, Kentucky plant on Tuesday, September 3, 1991 and the last in June 1996.[4]

The Japanese market received a new V40 series Camry in 1994, yet the XV10 lived on until 1996, before being replaced by the XV20 Camry. Once the Japan-only V40 Camry ended production in 1998, this marked the cessation of separate Camrys—a global Camry—and a smaller Japanese domestic market version. In Japan after 1998, the smaller Vista V50 took up the former V40 Camry.

Powertrains[edit]

Body code Engine Equation Model code[5]
XV10 2.2 L 5S-FE S + X = SX (S + XV = SXV) SXV10/SDV10
3.0 L 3VZ-FE Z + X = C (VZ + XV = VCV) VCV10
3.0 L 1MZ-FE Z + X = C (MZ + XV = MCV) MCV10

The XV10, at its most basic level, offered a 2.2 liter 5S-FE four-cylinder engine, up from 2.0 liters in the V20 and V30 Camrys. This unit produced 97 kilowatts (130 hp) of power and 197 newton metres (145 ft·lbf) of torque, although the exact figures varied slightly depending on the market.[6] Power and displacement increases were also received for the V6 engine. The 3.0 litre 3VZ-FE unit was rated at 138 kilowatts (185 hp) and 264 newton metres (195 ft·lbf).[6] An all-new aluminium 1MZ-FE V6 debuted in North American models from 1994, with other markets retaining the 3VZ-FE V6. Power and torque rose to 140 kilowatts (190 hp) and 275 newton metres (203 ft·lbf), respectively.[6][7]

Safety[edit]

Both the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) published crash information for the Camry. The Camry was tested for only frontal (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes. NHTSA gave the 1994–1996 Camry four stars for the driver and three stars for the passenger.[8] The IIHS scored the same car "acceptable" overall, with three out of six categories listed as "acceptable" and the other three listed as "good".[9]

The Used Car Safety Ratings, published in 2008 by the Monash University Accident Research Centre in Australia found that 1993–1997 Scepter-based Camrys and Holden Apollos provide an "average" level of occupant safety protection in the event of an accident.[10]

Market[edit]

North America[edit]

1992–1994 Toyota Camry LE wagon (U.S.).

For the North American market, Camrys were produced in Georgetown, Kentucky by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky.[11] Introduced in 1991 as a 1992 model year, automatic transmission became the only option on all but the base and sport model Camrys, whereas previously, a manual transmission was available on the majority of trim levels. In addition to the DX and LE trims, 1992 saw the addition of an XLE luxury trim and the SE sport trim.[12] The SE model differs from the LE and XLE in appearance with the addition of a standard V6 engine, alloy wheels, a rear spoiler, and black side mirrors as well as the sports suspension from the Lexus ES 300.[13] The range-topping XLE was equipped with leather upholstery along with an electric sunroof and power adjustable driver's seat. The station wagon body styles were offered in a new seven-seat guise, compared to five in the regular wagon and sedan. These station wagon body variants were also made in right-hand drive configuration for export to Japan, badged as Scepter.[14] Wagons were also produced in Australia. This generation of Camry was featured on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1992 and 1993.

1995–1996 Toyota Camry sedan (US)
1994 Toyota Camry coupé (U.S.).

Differences between the North American Camry and the Scepter were few. While the North American versions received a revised V6 engine (1MZ-FE) in 1994, the Scepter used the same 3VZ-FE V6 over the entire model cycle. The Scepter headlamps were a wraparound design (1992–1994 models), utilising a dual-filament bulb along with integrated fog lights. Unlike the North American Camry, the 1992–1994 model taillamps did not include red reflectors or side markers. The Scepter also included an updated climate control unit with an LCD display in some models. Other differences include the "SCEPTER" trunk garnish, fender marker lights, some options, and interior trim.

Toyota released a coupé version of the Camry in 1993, for the 1994 model year with styling very similar to the four-door version, stimulating modest sales.[15] This vehicle would be dropped for the next generation, although it would later be replaced by the Camry Solara.[16] Also in this year, the 3VZ-FE V6 departed in favour of the new aluminium 1MZ-FE V6.[7] This new engine coincided with the standard fitment of dual front air bags, whereas the 1991 to 1993 Camrys only has driver's air bag.[17]

The Camry was given a facelift in 1994 for the 1995 model year. Minor exterior changes included a revised front fascia with different front turn signals and reshaped headlamps.[18] Additionally, the rear fascia was updated, now with body-coloured plastic between the tail lamps where the model name "CAMRY" was printed. This was instead of the red plastic on higher trim levels and black plastic on lower trim levels of the 1992 to 1994 models. The tail lamps themselves were also slightly different.[citation needed] Another change, this time mechanical came in 1996; the 2.2 litre engine was detuned slightly to 93 kilowatts (125 hp) to meet stricter emissions standards.[6][7] Additionally, in 1996 the cam angle sensor in the distributor was also replaced with a crank angle sensor to achieve a smoother idle.

Japan[edit]

Toyota in Japan originally released the Scepter as a station wagon imported from the United States in September 1992. Japanese manufacture of the sedan occurred soon after, coming to the market in November 1992. From November 1993, Toyota began importing the coupe model from the United States. Scepters were phased out in 1996, starting with the coupe (April), wagon (June), and sedan (December). The large and spacious wagon, when fitted with third row seating that stowed away under the cargo floor could accommodate seven passengers. All three body variants were available with either the 2.2- and 3.0-liter engines.[19][20][21][22]

Australia[edit]

1993–1994 Toyota Camry (SDV10) Executive wagon, Australia
1993–1995 Toyota Camry (VDV10) Ultima sedan, Australia
1995–1997 Toyota Vienta (VCV10R) CSi sedan, Australia
1994–1995 Toyota Camry (SDV10) CSi sedan, Australia

The range of Camrys in Australia consisted of both four-cylinder and V6 sedans and station wagons. These were built at Toyota's Altona, Victoria facility from February 1993. The four-cylinder Camrys consisted of the Executive, CSi and Ultima sedan models teamed with either a four-speed automatic or a five-speed manual transmission. The V6 range was the same but was known as the Camry Vienta. Like the four-cylinder variant, Camry Vientas were available exclusively in automatic guise and could be distinguished by their colour-coded front grille. In October 1993, a new V6 sedan model called the Touring Series was launched, fitted with sports suspension.[23] In April 1994, the range was revised slightly, where the Executive model was renamed CSi and the previous CSi was renamed the CSX. At the same time, the four-cylinder model code was changed from XV10 to SDV10.[24]

1991–1993 Toyota Camry 2.2 GL (Europe)

In July 1995, the facelifted model was launched in Australia, although this differed to the update applied to the North American variants.[25] The update also marked the beginning of Australian-made left-hand drive Camrys exports to the Middle East.[26] Unlike before, the V6 models were simply known as the Vienta—losing the Camry identity altogether.[27] The availability of manual transmission on the CSi and Touring Series V6 sedan variants coincided with the update, while the V6 Grande superseded the V6 versions of the Ultima. An integrated alarm and immobiliser and upgraded audio system were implemented across the board, along with new upholstery trims for the interior. This included optional leather and wood grain trim on the Grande.[28] Towards the end of the model run, special edition Getaway (October 1996) and Intrigue (April 1997) sedan models were launched.[29]

As a result of the Australian Government-backed Button car plan, both four- and six-cylinder sedan and station wagon version of the Camry were sold at Holden dealerships as the Holden Apollo from March 1993. These models lasted until 1997, replaced by the Holden Vectra.

Europe[edit]

In Europe, the Camry range was more limited, compared with Japan, Australia and the United States.

Launched in October 1991, European versions featured the registration plate mount situated between the two tail light assemblages as opposed to the bumper-mounted cavity used in all other markets.

The range consisted of the 2.2 GL and 3.0 GX (V6) models in sedan and station wagon form. In the UK the GX version was available with an automatic transmission only, although both manual and automatic options were offered in continental Europe for the 2.2 and 3.0 litre model.

Model Years
2.2 GL sedan 1991–1993
2.2i sedan 1993–1996
3.0 V6 sedan Automatic 1993–1994
3.0 V6 GX sedan Automatic 1994–1996
2.2 GL estate (station wagon) 1991–1993
2.2i estate 1993–1996
3.0 V6 estate Auto 1993–1994
3.0 V6 GX estate Auto 1994–1996

Holden Apollo[edit]

1993–1995 Holden Apollo (JM) SLX wagon
1993–1995 Holden Apollo (JM) SLX wagon

Holden sold a rebadged version of the Camry XV10 in Australia as the Holden Apollo from 1993 to 1997, replacing the previous Apollo manufactured sold from 1989 that was a rebranded Camry V20.[30] This badge engineering scheme was the result of the Button car plan, introduced in May 1984 to rationalise and make the Australian automotive industry more competitive on a global scale by means of reducing import tariffs.[31]

From its launch in 1989, the Apollo was always less successful than the Camry from which it was based.[32] By the end of 1993, the UAAI venture cars—the Holden Apollo and Nova, along with the Toyota Lexcen—realised sales of 21 percent at best when compared to the models retailed by their original manufactures.[33] Apollo production in 1992 totalled 4,490 units (17.5 percent of the Toyota Camry figure, excluding exports); 5,314 Apollos were manufactured in 1993 (16.6 percent), and in 1994 production amounted to 5,519 units (13.1 percent).[34]

JM (1993–1995)[edit]

The JM series Apollo arrived at Holden dealerships in March 1993, based on the enlarged Toyota Camry (SDV10/VDV10).[35] These SDV10/VDV10 Toyotas had been introduced to Australia a month earlier, in February 1993.[36]

1993–1995 Holden Apollo (JM) SLX sedan

The larger size of the new car was heavily advertised by Toyota as the "wide-body" Camry.[37] Holden's advertising differed in this sense, with a more subdued tone to help set it apart.[38] Holden was also granted additional design input with the new JM model, on the grounds of further differentiation between it and the Camry clone. Following the establishment of UAAI, Holden instituted a high-security design centre within the company responsible for producing visual distinction between venture models. Its autonomy and secrecy from the remainder of the firm permitted the exchange of information regarding the new Camry from 1989, thus allowing a unique-to-Apollo identity to be crafted.[39] The end result was an Apollo with its own bumper, bonnet, grille and headlamp assemblage up front, coupled to a markedly different rear, with re-styled tail lamps and a decklid-mounted, as opposed to bumper-mounted, registration plate cavity.[40][41]

Mechanically, the Apollo's setup was a verbatim copy of the Camry, with steering and suspension calibrations left unchanged.[42] Likewise, the powertrains were also as fitted to the Toyota with a twin-cam, EFI 2.2 litre 5S-FE straight-four producing 93 kilowatts (125 hp) and 185 newton metres (136 lb·ft),[43] with an optional quad-cam EFI 3.0 litre 3VZ-FE V6 making 136 kilowatts (182 hp) and 264 newton metres (195 lb·ft).[44][45] This figure is 3 kilowatts (4.0 hp) down on the equivalent Camry V6.[46] These V6-engined Apollos featured larger-diameter 15-inch wheels over the 14-inch diameter used on the 2.2.[47] The 2.2 litre models also featured a five-speed manual as standard fitment, although an optional electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission was offered at an extra cost—standard and the sole choice on V6s.[48]

Both four-door sedan and five-door station wagon variants were available as before, although trim levels were limited to SLX and GS. The SLX was aimed at fleet markets, fitted with power steering, a radio cassette player, a remote boot and fuel cap release, and electric side-view mirrors.[49][50] The sedan-only SLX V6 added four-wheel disc brakes over the 2.2 model's front-disc, rear-drum layout, with anti-lock brakes (ABS) on the V6 available as an option. Wagons without ABS fitted made do with a load-sensing valve mechanism to control rear brake lock-up.[51] The higher GS trim built on the SLX level, adding 60/40 split-fold rear seats, variable intermittent windscreen wipers, a four-speaker stereo, tachometer, central locking and a more luxurious interior upholstery style.[52]

At the same time as Toyota's Camry upgrade in April 1994,[53] Apollo specifications were also uprated slightly. SLXs now had a four- and GSs a six-speaker stereo system, up from two and four, respectively. The SLX also received a tachometer and rear mudflaps, while the GS variant gained standard fitment cruise control and power windows. A second update in June 1994 fitted a driver's airbag as standard on all models bar the four-cylinder SLX.[54]

JP (1995–1996)[edit]

1995–1996 Holden Apollo (JP) SLX sedan
1995–1996 Holden Apollo (JP) SLX sedan

The JP series update succeeded the JM from August 1995.[55] A new grille insert with dual "U"-shaped apertures tied in with the existing VS Commodore range. The redesigned Holden logo was also relocated from the JM's grille position to the bonnet, and the rear-end was treated to white tail lamp pin striping.[56] At the same time, the model range was revised, the GS wagon removed, and manual transmission could now only be specified in conjunction with the SLX four-cylinder. The availability of ABS was also extended to these four-cylinder models, with four-wheel disc brakes now fitted across the board.[57] In addition to this, remote central locking came standard to the SLX along with rear head restraints. Further enhancements were also made for the GS's sound system.[58]

Apollo production ceased in late 1996 when Toyota and Holden severed their model sharing relations.[59] Enough cars remained in stock until the replacement Holden Vectra arrived in mid-1997,[59] first as a captive import, but locally manufactured after several months.[60]

References[edit]

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  24. ^ "Vehicle Comparison: 1993 Toyota Camry XV10 and 1994 Toyota Camry SDV10". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  25. ^ "Vehicle Comparison: 1995 Toyota Camry CSi and 1995 Toyota Camry CSX". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
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  29. ^ "Car review – Toyota Camry CSi sedan". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  30. ^ "Holden Apollo - Used Car Research". GoAuto. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  31. ^ Wright, John (1998). Heart of the Lion: The 50 Year History of Australia's Holden. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. pp. 277–278. ISBN 1-86448-744-5. "In May of 1984, the Minister for Industry in the Hawke Labor Government, Senator John Button, unveiled the federal government's new plan for the industry. It quickly became known as the 'Button Plan'. This blueprint was [...] to make the local industry more internationally competitive. [...] But its major thrusts were to lower tariffs and to reduce the number of different models manufactured locally from thirteen to six, shared between three production groups." 
  32. ^ Kennedy, Ewan (2001-05-14). "Holden Apollo 1989-1997". Marque Publishing. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  33. ^ Scott, Phil, ed. (November 1993). "Joint Venture Blues". Wheels magazine (Sydney, New South Wales: ACP Publishing): 19. "At best the badged models – Lexcen, Apollo and Nova – have achieved barely 21 per cent of the sales volumes of their original counterparts." 
  34. ^ Fujimoto, Takahiro (1995). "Toyota Motor Manufacturing Australia in 1995: An Emergent Global Strategy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. 
  35. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "March 1993 saw the introduction of the all-new, wide-bodied JM series Holden Apollo. Like the JK and JL that preceded it, the car was a rebadged Toyota Camry (Toyota's model code was SDV10/VDV10)."
  36. ^ Kenwright, Joe (2004-09-01). "Toyota Camry (1987-1993)". Carsales. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  37. ^ Carey, John (March 1993). "Never Mind the Width...". Motor (Sydney, New South Wales: ACP Publishing): 46. "Is size important? Now that Toyota's Camry has swollen, yes, it's very important. And, superficially, it's width, not length, that counts. The new Camry doesn't go anywhere without its Wide Body label. But behind the propaganda campaign is a product with more [...] space than before." 
  38. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Toyota has spent millions getting its 'wide body' message through to potential Camry owners. But don't expect such hype for the badge engineered Holden Apollo. Holden's approach will be more subdued, in an attempt to steer the car away from [...] Toyota's marketing machine."
  39. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Following its shotgun marriage with Toyota, GMHA established Studio 6, a high-security design facility [...] to look after styling differentiation of shared models. The studio's autonomy and secrecy enabled Holden to source information on the 'wide-body' Camry as far back as '89 and start the process of giving the Apollo its own identity."
  40. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "Holden had considerably more design input, with bonnet, grille and headlights differing from Toyota's version."
  41. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Holden stylists [have installed] shapelier headlamps and an extended front air dam, while the rear 'restyle' centres on altered tail-lights and repositioning of the number plate from bumper level to a 'garnish' panel between the extended lamp clusters."
  42. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Suspension settings and steering input were also left unaltered on the Apollo..."
  43. ^ "1993 Holden Apollo SLX JM (Mar)". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. Retrieved 2009-04-11. [dead link]
  44. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129–130. "[The JM] came with the choice of a 2.2-litre twin-cam EFI four-cylinder engine or a three-litre quad-cam EFI V6."
  45. ^ "1993 Holden Apollo SLX JM (Mar)". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. Retrieved 2009-04-11. [dead link]
  46. ^ Carey, John (July 1993). "Neck & Neck Spec". Wheels magazine (Sydney, New South Wales: ACP Publishing): 106. ""the Toyota [Camry Vienta Executive V6] produced 139 kW"." 
  47. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "V6-engined cars could be identified externally by their 15-inch road wheels, compared to the 14-inch items used on the four-cylinder variants."
  48. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "In conjunction with either the five speed manual or the four speed electronic transmission, the 2.2 litre engine offers flexible performance... If there's a jewel in the Apollo range, it has to be the 3.0 litre V6. Available in self-shifting guise only..."
  49. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Holden's attempt to infiltrate the fleet car market is obvious with the base SLX, equipped [... with] electric mirrors, remote boot and fuel release, stereo radio/cassette..."
  50. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "Power steering standard on all models."
  51. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "The new V6 [...] was offered on both sedans and on the GS wagon. [...] In the braking department, all except the four-cylinder SLXs featured four-wheel discs as standard (SLX fours had a front-disc/rear-drum arrangement), while ABS braking was an option. Wagons without ABS had a load-sensing proportioning valve to control rear brake lock-up."
  52. ^ Porter (1993), p. 123. "The GS model increases the specification list to include a 60/40 split-fold rear seat, variable intermittent wipers, four speaker stereo, tacho, central locking, [...] and a more inviting interior decor."
  53. ^ "Car review – Toyota Camry Vienta Executive sedan". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  54. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "April 1994 saw small upgrades to equipment levels. These included two extra speakers for the sound system (the SLX now had four and the GS six), tachometer and rear mudflaps for the SLX and cruise control and power windows for the GS. A standard driver's side airbag for all models except the 2.2-litre SLX was added in June 1994."
  55. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 131–132. "...the JP Apollo was [...] a minor facelift of the JM... Release dates: all models August 1995".
  56. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 131. "Holden's new redesigned lion logo made the JP easy to pick from its predecessor,a as did the white accent lines added to the tail-light clusters. The new grille showed a close family resemblance to the VR/VS Commodore, with two-U-shaped slots placed ether side of the central divider and the new lion badge on the bonnet."
  57. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 131. "The SLX came as a sedan or wagon, however the GS was only available in sedan guise. [...] The option lineup was also simplified with the five-speed manual now only available on 2.2-litre SLXs [...] Four-wheel disc brakes were fitted to all models and ABS was available on both models with either engine."
  58. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 132. "Minor features: remote central locking standard on all models, rear head restraints all models, GS had upgraded sound system."
  59. ^ a b Bebbington (1998), p. 131. "Production of the JP ceased in late 1996, but the series continued to be sold until replaced by the Opel-designed JR Vectra in mid-1997."
  60. ^ Morley, David (2005-01-19). "Holden Vectra". Drive. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 

Bibliography[edit]