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For the volcanic region on Io, see Tvashtar Paterae.

In Vedic religion, Tvaṣṭṛ (Sanskrit: त्वष्टृ), is the first born creator of the universe. He is the visible form of creativity emerged from the navel of the invisible Viswakarma[1] In Yajurveda purusha suktha and in the 10th mandala of the Rigveda his character and attributes are merged with the concept of Hiranyagharbha/Prajapathy or Brahma. The term, also transliterated as Tvaṣṭr, nominative Tvaṣṭā, is the heavenly builder, the maker of divine implements, especially Indra's Vajra and the guardian of Soma. Tvaṣṭṛ is mentioned 65 times in the Ṛgveda[2] and is the former of the bodies of men and animals,' and invoked when desiring offspring, called garbha-pati or the lord of the womb.[2]

Tvaṣṭṛ is also referred to as Rathakāra or the chariot maker[3] and sometimes as Takṣā in Ṛgveda.[2] The term Tvaṣṭṛ is mentioned in the Mitanni treaty, which establishes him as a Proto-Indo-Iranian divinity.

As per Ṛgveda Tvaṣṭr known as Rathakāra belongs to clan of the Bhṛgus. Similarly, as mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, Tvaṣṭr or the Rathakāra is Śukrācārya's son, Śukrācārya (the mentor of the demons) is Bhṛgu's grandson and Vāruṇibhṛgu's son.[4] Tvaṣṭṛ is sometimes associated or identified with similar deities,such as Savitṛ, Prajāpatī, Viśvakarman and Puṣan.[2] He is the father of Saranyṇ, who twice bears twins to Vivasvat (RV 8.26.21),[5] Yama and Yami, also identified as the first humans. He is also the father of Viśvarūpa or Triśiras who was killed by Indra, in revenge Tvaṣṭṛ created Vrtra a fearsome dragon.[2] Surprisingly he is also inferred to as Indra's father.[2]

Tvaṣṭṛ is a solar deity in the epic of Mahābhārata and the Harivaṃśa. He is mentioned as the son of Kāśyapa and Aditi, and is said to have made the three worlds with pieces of the Sun god Surya. The surname of south indian goldsmiths Thattar (Tamil: தட்டர்) is probably derived from the term Tvoshtar.

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  1. ^ Abyasambootha prutvy rasacha Viswakarmana samavarthatadi,Tasya Tvoshta vidhata roopamethi tat purushasya viswam ajanamagre ,Rg veda 10-82
  2. ^ a b c d e f Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1995). "Abstract Gods". Vedic mythology. Vedas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 116–118. ISBN 9788120811133. 
  3. ^ Śiroḍkara, Paṇduraṅga Puruṣottama (1986-04-20). "Three:Varṇāñcā bandikhānā". Bhāratiya samājavighaṭaka jātivarṇa vyavasthā (in Marāṭhī) (2nd ed.). vasco da Gama: Gomantaka Daivajña Brāhmaṇa Samājotkarṣa Sansthā. pp. 38–56. 
  4. ^ "Anuśāsana parva". Mahābhārata (in Saṃskṛta). 
  5. ^ "(RV 8.26.21)". Retrieved 2009-08-18. 

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