Ernakulam district

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Ernakulam district
എറണാകുളം
District
Kochi Collage 01.jpg
Ernakulam district is located in Kerala
Ernakulam district
Ernakulam district
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 10°00′N 76°20′E / 10.00°N 76.33°E / 10.00; 76.33Coordinates: 10°00′N 76°20′E / 10.00°N 76.33°E / 10.00; 76.33
Country  India
State Kerala
Headquarters Kakkanad
Government
 • Collector M.G. Rajamanickam
Area
 • Total 3,068 km2 (1,185 sq mi)
Area rank 4
Population (2011)
 • Total 3,279,860
 • Density 1,069/km2 (2,770/sq mi)
  [1]
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-KL-KO
Vehicle registration KL-7,KL-17,KL-39,,KL-40,KL-41,KL-42,KL-43,KL-44,KL-63
Website www.ernakulam.nic.in

Ernakulam (also Kochi, Cochin; Malayalam: എറണാകുളം) is a district of Kerala, India situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,068 km2, Ernakulam district is home to over 12% of Kerala’s population. Its headquarters is located at Kakkanad, a suburb of Kochi city. Ernakulam is known as the commercial capital of Kerala. The district is famous for its ancient temples, churches, and mosques. The district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state, Greater Cochin. Ernakulam district is the highest revenue yielding district[2] in the state. It is the third most populous district in Kerala, after Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram (out of 14).[1] Ernakulam district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state.

The language spoken in Ernakulam is Malayalam which is the mother-tongue of Kerala. English is widely used, especially in business circles. Ernakulam became India's first 'fully literate district' in 1990 and the country's first district having 100 percent banking or full 'meaningful financial inclusion' in 2012.[3][4]

Etymology[edit]

The name Ernakulam is derived from Erayanarkulam which means the abode of Lord Shiva.[5] Ernakulam was also known as "Rishinagakulam" in ancient days.

History[edit]

Cheena vala (Chinese fishing net)

From ancient times Ernakulam district has played a part in the political history of south India. The Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to Kingdom of Cochin and left their impressions in the town. In 1896, the Maharaja of Cochin initiated local administration by forming a town council in Ernakulam. Initially Ernakulam district's headquarters was at Ernakulam, which gave the district its name; the headquarters was later shifted to Kakkanad.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Ernakulam district has a population of 32,82,388,[1] roughly equal to the nation of Mauritania[6] or the US state of Iowa.[7] This gives it a ranking of 104th in India (out of a total of 640).[1] The district has a population density of 1,069 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,770 /sq mi) .[1] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.6%.[1] Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1028 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 95.68%.[1]

This district is listed as the "most advanced" district in Kerala. It had a resident population of 3,105,798 as of 2001, excluding the huge commuter traffic from neighbouring districts. It is urbanised 68.07%.[8] Hindus (46.53) accounts for the largest community followed by Christians (38.78 including Syrians and Latins) and Muslims (14.55). A small population of Jains, Jews and Sikhs are also residing in Kochi.[9] Also, Ernakulam district has the highest number of Christian population in India.

The most important religious communities of the district are Ezhavas, Nairs, Jacobites, Syrian Catholics Latin Christians and Muslims. In addition to the major communities the Buddhists, the Jains, the Sikhs, and the Jews also form part of the cosmopolitan population. The ancestors of the Jews migrated from Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Now there are very few Jewish families in Cochin as most of them were converted to Syrian Christians (Nasranis), and the rest returned to Israel in the 20th century.

Geography[edit]

Ernakulam district covers an area of 3068 km2 located on the Western Coastal Plains of India. It is surrounded by Thrissur District to the north, Idukki District and Tamil Nadu State to the east, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts to the south and Arabian sea to west. The district can be divided geographically into highland, midland and coastal area. The altitude of the highland is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala's longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. The Muvattupuzha River and a branch of Chalakkudy River also flow through the district. The average yearly rainfall in the district is 3432 mm. The district has a moderate climate, and mostly falls within the Malabar Coast moist forests ecoregion, while the highlands are part of the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion. Many types of sands, soil and also rocks which are geological importance is abundant here. Cochin international air port is located in northern part of the district at Nedumbassery village in Angamaly. Owing to the international airport, water ways, railways, and road ways, Ernakulam is one of the most strategically connected district in the state.

Topography[edit]

The district is divided into three well-defined parts – lowland, midland and the highland consisting of seaboard, plains and the hills and forests respectively. 20 percent of the total area is low land region. The midland consists mainly of plain land and group of islands having natural facilities of drainage via backwaters and canals. The hilly or eastern portion is formed by a section of Western Ghats. Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalm taluks which were initially parts of Kottayam district can be called the highlands. Muvattupuzhayar Periyar are the main rivers of which the latter flows through Thodupuzha, Muvattupuzha, Aluva, Kunnathunadu and Parur taluks. During rainy season these rivers are full and heavy floods affect the low-lying areas on the banks, but in the summer season they generally go dry and narrow. The Periyar is stretched over a length of 229 km.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kochi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35
(95)
37
(99)
37
(99)
34
(93)
35
(95)
33
(91)
35
(95)
35
(95)
38
(100)
35
(95)
34
(93)
33
(91)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
25
(77)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
23
(73)
25
(77)
Record low °C (°F) 17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
22
(72)
20
(68)
20
(68)
19
(66)
17
(63)
Precipitation mm (inches) 21.9
(0.862)
22.9
(0.902)
35.3
(1.39)
124.0
(4.882)
395.7
(15.579)
720.7
(28.374)
697.2
(27.449)
367.8
(14.48)
289.4
(11.394)
302.3
(11.902)
175.1
(6.894)
48.3
(1.902)
3,228.3
(127.098)
Source #1: [10]
Source #2: [11]

Economy[edit]

The beauty in the night, Marine Drive, Kochi

Ernakulam district is the second richest district in Kerala after Trivandrum in terms of GDP and per capita income. Ernakulam district is bestowed with all the geographical factors, which help the development of industry, and it is in the vanguard of all other districts in Kerala in the field of industry. The availability of all types of transport facilities viz., road, rail, canal, sea, air is a factor which is unique to this district. Ernakulam is the biggest commercial center in the state of Kerala. Its M.G. Road is the location of some of the biggest businesses in Kerala.

The sea along the entire coast of the district and the backwaters abound in fish of various kinds offer enormous natural facilities for both marine and inland fisheries. Kochi is an ideal place that supports fisheries in its various aspects like education, research and development.

Agriculture[edit]

The eastern part of the district is primarily agrarian in nature. Rice is the principal crop cultivated in the wet lands. The area under paddy cultivation in the district has been decreasing steadily over the past 3 decades. Ernakulam district is the largest producer of nutmeg and pineapple in the state. The area of nutmeg cultivation is showing an upward trend continuously. More than 70% of the total pineapple produced in the state is cultivated in the district. Pineapple is largely cultivated in Muvattupuzha and Vazhakulam. Rubber is the most cultivated plantation crop in the district and the district is the second largest producer of rubber in the state behind Kottayam. The other important crops cultivated in the district are Tapioca, Black pepper, Arecanut, Coconut, Turmeric, Banana and Plantain.

Mattancherry Palace – temple courtyard
The old Dutch cemetery in Kochi
Ernakulam ESI hospital new building
Ernakulam Town North Railway Station a view from Ernakulam north bridge

Divisions[edit]

There are mainly two revenue divisions namely Fort Kochi and Muvattupuzha.

Taluks & its Headquarters
Kanayannur
Ernakulam
Kochi
Fort Kochi
Aluva
Aluva
Kunnathunad
Perumbavoor
Paravur
North Paravur
Kothamangalam
Kothamangalam
Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
Municipalities
North Paravur
Muvattupuzha
Perumbavoor
Aluva
Kothamangalam
Angamaly
Thripunithura
Kalamassery
Eloor
Thrikkakara
Maradu

Taluks[edit]

The district has the most number of taluks in the state. District is divided by two revenue divisions with 7 taluks.

Municipal Corporation[edit]

Kochi

Municipalities[edit]

Ernakulam district has the most number of municipalities in the state.

Parliamentary Constituencies[edit]

Assembly Constituencies[edit]

Transport[edit]

Ernakulam district is blessed with all types of transport. It has the most number of Regional Transport Offices in the state. There are 9 Regional Transport Offices.

  • Ernakulam – KL 07
  • Muvattupuzha – KL 17
  • Thripunithura – KL 39
  • Perumbavoor – KL 40
  • Aluva – KL 41
  • North Paravur – KL 42
  • Mattanchery – KL 43
  • Kothamangalam – KL 44
  • Angamaly – KL 63

Also the district has got the maximum number of vehicles in the state.

Ernakulam district has excellent road connectivity. The 3 major national highways passing through Ernakulam District are the Cochin-Mumbai Highway (NH 17), Salem-Kanyakumari (NH 47 part of NSEW corridor) and Cochin-Dhanushkodi highway (NH 49).

The North South Corridor highway system starting from Edapally in Cochin on NH47 and connects the cities Thrissur, Palakkad, Coimbatore, Salem and finally to Chennai and rest of the country towards north and Alapuzha, Kollam, Trivandrum, Nagercoil and Kanyakumari towards the south. The National Highway 17 also starting from Edapally and connects the cities Guruvayur, Calicut, Kannur, Kasaragod, Mangalore, Mormugao and Mumbai. The National Highway 49, also known as Madurai Highway starts from Kundannur near Cochin and passes through Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam, Munnar, Theni, Madurai and finally terminates at Dhanushkodi. The district also has the two small national highways namely NH 47A for Cochin Port connectivity (Smallest Indian National Highway) starting from Kundannur and NH 47C as part of the International Container Transshipment Terminal connectivity starting from Kalamassery.

The district is also well connected by state highways and other roads. Important state highway SH 1 also known as Main Central Road(MC Road) starts from Angamaly, a suburb of Kochi city which connects to the state capital Trivandrum via Perumbavoor, Muvattupuzha, Koothattukulam.

Other Major state highways

  • Seaport – Airport road via Kakkanad
  • Angamaly – Athirappilly road via Mookkanur
  • Perumbavoor – Puthencruz road

Rail[edit]

Ernakulam district has 17 railway stations. The Ernakulam Junction and Ernakulam Town are the major ones. The other stations are Aluva, Angamaly, Thripunithura, Edapally, Mulamthuruthy, Cochin Harbour Terminus, Karakutty, Chowara, Kalamassery, Nettor, Kumbalam, Mattanchery H., Chottanikkara road and Piravom road. The railroutes are via Thrissur, Kottayam, Cochin H.T., Allapuzha and Vallarpadam. The Angamaly-Erumely Sabarimala route passes through the district.

Routes are proposed via N.Paravur – Guruvayur, Moovattupuzha – Theni. Kochi Metro urban rail system is proposed in the city.

Air[edit]

Ernakulam district has two airports, Naval airport in W.island(Old Cochin airport) and Cochin International Airport(CIAL). CIAL is the fourth largest airport in the country after Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai having International passengers. Currently flights are operating to the Persian Gulf region, Malayasia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and to major cities in India.

Water[edit]

Ernakulam district lies in the flat delta region of the Periyar and Moovattupuzha rivers. Water transport is prominent in the district through rivers and lagoons. The major boat services are in Ernakulam area and other areas having small ferry services. The district boasts of having the largest port in the west coast of the country: the Cochin port, which is also the reason for large scale developments in the district. Now a new International port is completed in Vallarpadam which will boost the developments in the district further.

Culture[edit]

Festivals and traditions[edit]

The famous Christian pilgrim centre at (MALEKKURISH PALLI, MORAKKALA) is in this district. The main festival on MAY 9,10.

Adi Shankara with disciples, drawing by Raja Ravivarma, 1904

The famous Sivarathri at the Aluva Manappuram (situated on the banks of river Periyar) in Aluva attracts people from around the country. There are many old Siva temples in Ernakulam. In Sanskrit "Siva" means kalyan (good wishes, doing good and taking care of all).

Adi Shankaracharya was born in Kalady town of the district, which is considered as a major pilgrimage centre for Hindus around the world.

Kallil Kshethram (Jain temple) near Perumabavoor is very famous.

Puthencruz near is the regional seat of Syriac Orthodox Church in India. The world famous Christian pilgrim center at Saint Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Malayattoor is in this district. The festival here lasts for 10 days in April.

The sight-day lent (Ettunombu) fest at St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Thamarachal is a very famous religious event in Ernakulam. It attracts tens of thousands from all over the state. St. George Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church at Kadamattam near Muvattupuzha is very old and was founded by Mar Abo Syrian Metropolitan in 5th century A.D. He brought a cross from Persia, which is preserved in the church. The festival at the Latin church of Vallarpadam on 24 September attracts people belonging to all religions. The icon of Virgin Mary in this church is credited with many miracles. St. George's Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Edappally was founded in 593 A.D. St. Antony’s church at Kannamaly is famous for the Feast of St. Joseph on 19 March where a large number of people are fed.

Rajadhiraja St. Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Piravom is believed to be the world's first Christian church. Tradition is that this church was founded by the Three Kings who visited Jesus. St Mary's Church at Angamaly is believed to be the first Christian church in India after Piravom church and the eight churches founded by St Thomas. It was founded in 405 A.D. and was the headquarters of Archdeacon and St Thomas Christian till 18th century.

One of the ancient mosques in Kerala is at Kanjiramattam. Chandanakkudam Festival in Kanjiramattom Mousque is very famous.

Thrippakudam Temple-Ana Kallaya Kulam-PARVATHIMANGALAM is the famous pooja in this temple.

Arayankavu Thookkam- Otta Thookkam and Garudan Thookkam is very famous.

Cherai Pooram is famous festival in island.

Celebrating the full moon day has two purposes. Fields are ready for cropping. Start cropping with prayers and some auspicious puja. And people are ready to go in to sea. On this day women of India generally having fasting of full day and pray for her brothers, father, husband and Nation 's victory.

Three important pilgrim places in Ernakulam are St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church North Paravur, Mor Thoma Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church (Cheriapally) Kothamangalam and Thrikkunnathu St Mary's Jacobite Seminary Church, Aluva. The relics of Gregorios Abdul Jaleel preserved at the St. Thomas church North Paravur. Thousands of pilgrims from Kerala culminate on 27 April for the Dhukrono of the Saint. Feast of Eldho Mor Baselios is celebrated in the tomb church Mor Thoma Church (Cheriapally) at Kothamangalam with spiritual grandeur every year on 2 and 3 October. Nearly a million pilgrims from Kerala attend the feast. The Feast of Paulose Mar Athanasius on January 26 at Thrikkunnathu St Mary's Jacobite Seminary Church,Aluva, where he is entombed, also attracts thousands.

There are Marian pilgrim centres in this district like St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Thamarachal, St Mary's Jacaobite Syriac Orthodox Church at Thuruthipli near Perumbavoor and Morth, Mariam Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church at Kothamangalam. Mulanthuruthy Marthoman Church, St George Church at Kadamattom, St Mary's Sunoro Church at Eroor, Simhasana Church at Perumpilly near Mulanthuruthy, St Mary's Church at Nadamel near Thripunithura, Malankara Syrian Orthodox Theological Seminary (MSOT Seminary) at Udayagiri, Dayro at Malekruz near Kolenchery, St Peter's & St Paul's Jacobite Church, Kolenchery, are the pilgrim centres of the Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church. Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala, also known as Parumala Kochu Thirumeni, Paulose Mar Athanasius, also known as Aluva Valiya Thirumeni, the first and second saints of Syriac Orthodox Church from India was born and brought up in Mulanthuruthy and Angamaly.

Places of Interest[edit]

Personalities[edit]

The below are the prominent personalities from the district:

Flora and fauna[edit]

The flora of this district is tropical. The heavy rainfall combined with moderate temperature and fertile soil support abundant vegetation. Many of the common plants are found in the coastal area, which forms the low land region. Coconut is extensively cultivated here. The midland region is mainly occupied by coconut palms. Paddy, tapioca, pepper, pineapple and pulses are also cultivated here. The lower slopes of the highland region are under teak, and rubber cultivation. The eastern part of the district has dense forests with its characteristic fauna.

Education[edit]

Ernakulam occupies an important place among the districts of Kerala in the field of literacy and educational standards. Ernakulam District is the first district in the whole country to have 100 percent literacy by 1990. Pothanicad, first panchayath in India that achieved 100% literacy according to state literacy programme is in this district. There are two prominent universities in this district – Sanskrit University, Kalady and Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), Kalamassery. Ernakulam district has the most number of educational institutions in the state. Kendriya Vidyalaya and [St. Marys Higher Secondary School, Morakkala] [St. Marys English Medium School, Morakkala] is also located here.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  2. ^ "District-wise Income". Govt of Kerala. 2
  3. ^ "Ernakulam to be declared first district with 100% banking". The Hindu Businessline. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  4. ^ Soundarapandian, Mookkiah (2000). Literacy Campaign in India. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. p. 21. 
  5. ^ "A STUDY ON COMMUNITY TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT IN KERALA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ERNAKULAM DISTRICT". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  6. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Mauritania 3,281,634 July 2011 est." 
  7. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. "Iowa 3,046,355" 
  8. ^ censusindia.gov.in
  9. ^ Official Ernakulam District Profile
  10. ^ "Kochi, India". Whetherbase. August 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Kochi, India". MSN India. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 

External links[edit]