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|1271 by topic|
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|Births – Deaths|
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|Establishments – Disestablishments|
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|1271 in poetry|
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- July 2 – Kings Otakar II of Bohemia and Stephen V of Hungary sign the first Peace of Pressburg, settling territorial claims, following the failed invasion of Hungary by Otakar II.
- September 1 – Pope Gregory X succeeds Pope Clement IV as the 184th pope, as the compromise candidate between French and Italian cardinals, ending a 3-year conclave, the longest ever.
- The County of Toulouse is returned to the crown of France.
- Marco Polo departs from Venice with his father and uncle, on his famous journey to Kublai Khan's China.
- The construction of Caerphilly Castle, the largest in Wales, is completed.
- Construction of the Belaya Vezha in Belarus is begun.
North Africa and the Middle East
- April 8 – Mamluk sultan Baibars continues his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria.
- Mamluk sultan Baibars conducts an unsuccessful siege of the city of Tripoli, and also fails in an attempted naval invasion of Cyprus.
- Edward I of England and Charles of Anjou arrive in Acre, starting the Ninth Crusade against Baibars; however, they are unable to capture any territory, and a peace is quickly negotiated.
- September 12 – Nichiren is nearly beheaded. This incident, known as Hosshaku Kempon or "casting off the transient and revealing the true," is regarded as a turning point of Nichiren’s teachings within the various schools known as Nichiren Buddhism.
- December 18 – Kublai Khan renames his empire "Yuan" (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of China.
- The Nakhi Kingdom, of the northern Himalayan foothills, is annexed by the Yuan Dynasty.
- September 8 – Charles Martel of Anjou, son of Charles II of Naples (d. 1295)
- September 27 – King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Poland (d. 1305)
- November 5 – Mahmud Ghazan, Mongol ruler (d. 1304)
- Emperor Bing of Song (d. 1279)
- Elizabeth of Aragon, queen of Denis of Portugal (d. 1336)
- Mikhail Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir (d. 1318)
- Duke Rudolph II of Austria (d. 1290)
- January 18 – Saint Margaret of Hungary (b. 1242)
- January 28 – Isabella of Aragon, queen of Philip III of France (b. 1247)
- March 13 – Henry of Almain, English crusader (b. 1235)
- July 28 – Walter de Burgh, 1st Earl of Ulster (b. 1220)
- August 21 – Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, son of Louis VIII of France (b. 1220)
- August 25 – Joan, Countess of Toulouse (b. 1220)
- September 9 – Yaroslav of Tver, Grand Duke of Vladimir
- October 17 – Steinvör Sighvatsdóttir, Icelandic aristocrat and poet
- Haji Bektash Veli, Khorasanian mystic (b. 1209)
- Richard de Grey, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
- Baraq, khan of the Chagatai Khanate