1941 in aviation

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Years in aviation: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s
Years: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1941:

Events[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

  • Aircraft from the British aircraft carrier HMS Victorious strike Glomfjord, Norway, sinking two merchant ships for the loss of two Fairey Albacores.[82]
  • October 1 – Inter-Island Airways is renamed Hawaiian Airlines.
  • October 2 – Heini Dittmar sets a new airspeed record of 1,004 km/h (624 mph) in a Messerschmitt Me 163A. The record is unofficial because the flight (and the Me 163 programme) is kept secret, and remains "unbroken" until officially exceeded by the American Douglas Skystreak in August 1947.
  • October 6 – During the first week of Operation Typhoon, the Soviet Air Force has flown 700 sorties against German forces driving toward Moscow.[83]
  • October 9 – Since October 1, German aircraft supporting Operation Typhoon have flown more than 4,000 sorties against the Soviet Western Front alone.[83]
  • October 11–18 – Soviet Air Force aircraft strike Luftwaffe staging airfields along the northwestern, western, and southwestern approaches to Moscow.[84]
  • October 11–12 – After Soviet intelligence detects Luftwaffe plans for a major air attack on October 12 targeting industrial complexes, airfields, railroad terminals, and logistical facilities in the Soviet Western Front area, Soviet Air Force aircraft mount a major preemptive strike against German airfields at Vitebsk, Smolensk, Orel, Orsha, Siversk, and elsewhere overnight on October 11–12, followed by another large raid on the morning of October 12. The Soviets claim 500 German aircraft destroyed, although German sources do not confirm that number.[84]
  • October 18 – The German drive on Moscow stalls because of mud, and will make little progress until the ground freezes in mid-November. During this period, the Soviet Air Force flies 26,000 sorties in support of forces defending Moscow.[85]
  • October 27 – Victor Talalikhin, the Soviet Union's first major air hero of World War II, is killed in action during a dogfight with German aircraft.
  • October 28 – As part of the 1941 purge of the Soviet armed forces, 20 officers of the Soviet armed forces are executed. Among those shot are General Yakov Smushkevich, commander of the Soviet Air Forces from 1939 to 1940 who had overseen its poor performance during the Winter War with Finland,[86] General Pavel Rychagov, commander of the Soviet Air Forces from 1940 to 1941, and Rychagov's wife, aviator Maria Nesterenko. Rychagov is executed because he had called Soviet military aircraft "flying coffins" and Nesterenko because she had failed to denounce him as a state criminal.[38][53]

November[edit]

  • Italy begins the conversion of the passenger liner SS Roma into the first Italian aircraft carrier, later named Aquila ("Eagle"). The conversion will halt in an incomplete state when Italy surrenders to the Allies in September 1943 and will never be finished.[87]
  • November 7–8 (overnight) – 392 British bombers attack Berlin, Cologne, and Mannheim, losing 36 of their number – a heavy 9.2 percent loss rate.[88]
  • November 12 – The British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is sunk in the Mediterranean east of Gibraltar by the German submarine U-81.
  • November 15-December 5 – The Luftwaffe carries out 41 raids on Moscow. Soviet air defenses claim an average of 30 to 40 German aircraft shot down per day during the attacks.[83] During the same period, the Soviet Air Force, better prepared for cold-weather operations than the Luftwaffe, reportedly flies 15,840 sorties while Luftwaffe aircraft supporting Operation Typhoon manage only 3,500. Soviet sources claim that the Luftwaffe loses 1,400 aircraft during this time.[89]
  • November 17 – Ernst Udet, the Luftwaffe's Director-General of Equipment and the second-highest German ace of World War I (62 victories), commits suicide.
  • November 22
    • The German fighter ace Werner Mölders dies in the crash of a Heinkel He 111 bomber at Breslau while riding as a passenger on his way to Ernst Udet's funeral. His official kill total stands at 115 at the time of his death, although he is believed to have shot down another 30 Soviet aircraft for which he received no credit while making unauthorized combat flights during the last months of his career.
    • Malta-based British aircraft attack an Axis convoy bound from Naples to North Africa, damaging the Italian light cruiser Duca degli Abruzzi.[90]
  • November 30
  • November 30-December 4 – U.S. Navy patrol aircraft based in the Philippine Islands monitor Japanese naval and shipping activity at Camranh Bay in French Indochina.[92]

December[edit]

First flights[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

December[edit]

Entered service[edit]

February[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Retirements[edit]

May[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, p. 121.
  2. ^ a b Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, p. 122.
  3. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 16.
  4. ^ a b Wikipedia Corpo Aereo Italiano article.
  5. ^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, p. 151.
  6. ^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, pp. 159-161.
  7. ^ Mason, David, U-Boat: The Secret Menace, New York: Ballantine Books, 1968, no ISBN, p. 48.
  8. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 166.
  9. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 59.
  10. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 61.
  11. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 166-168.
  12. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 168.
  13. ^ a b c Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 169.
  14. ^ Scheina, Robert L., Latin America: A Naval History 1810-1987, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-295-8, p. 196.
  15. ^ a b Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 17.
  16. ^ Bluffield, Robert, Over Empires and Oceans: Pioneers, Aviators and Adventurers Forging the International Air Routes 1918–1939, Ticehurst, U.K.: Tattered Flag Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-9543115-6-8, p. 89.
  17. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 56.
  18. ^ Chant, Chris, The World's Great Bombers, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7607-2012-6, p. 113.
  19. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 57.
  20. ^ "Famous People Who Died in Aviation Accidents - 1940s". PlaneCrashInfo. Retrieved 2012-02-03. 
  21. ^ Guidera, Anita (2007-04-19). "Plaques mark secret wartime air corridor in Donegal". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  22. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 58.
  23. ^ Sweetman, John, Schweinfurt: Disaster in the Skies, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 23.
  24. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, Volume I: The Battle of the Atlantic September 1939-May 1943, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988, p. 289.
  25. ^ Guttman, Robert, "Flying-Boat Gliders," Aviation History, September 2016, p. 13.
  26. ^ a b c Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 175.
  27. ^ Brandt, Anthony, "The Balkanized War", Military History, May 2012, pp. 33, 35.
  28. ^ O'Connor, Derek, "Balkan Top Gun", Aviation History, November 2012, pp. 50, 55.
  29. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 178.
  30. ^ Gray, Randal, ed., Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906-1921, Annapolis. Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1985, ISBN 0-87021-907-3, p. 384.
  31. ^ Chesneau, Roger, ed., Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922-1946, New York: Mayflower Books, Inc., 1980, ISBN 0-8317-0303-2, p. 404.
  32. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 180.
  33. ^ a b Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 144.
  34. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 196.
  35. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 75.
  36. ^ Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2006, ISBN 978-1-84476-917-9, p. 271.
  37. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 182-183.
  38. ^ a b c Braithwaite, Rodric, Moscow 1941: A City and Its People At War, London: Profile Books, 2006, ISBN 978-1-86197-774-8, p. 147.
  39. ^ a b Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 53.
  40. ^ Lyons, Chuck, "Hanging By a Thread," Military History, January 2013, p. 17.
  41. ^ a b Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 185.
  42. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 187.
  43. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 189-190.
  44. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 190.
  45. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 99.
  46. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, pp. 99-100.
  47. ^ a b Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 191.
  48. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 192-194.
  49. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 194-195.
  50. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 27.
  51. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 195.
  52. ^ Cressman, Robert J. "Historic Fleets: An Experiment Proves Her Value in War", Naval History, June 2011, p. 14.
  53. ^ a b c executedtoday.com "1941: Twenty Red Army Officers"
  54. ^ "Today in History", The Washington Post Express, June 16, 2011, p. 66.
  55. ^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 8. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. 
  56. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, pp. 11-12, 15.
  57. ^ a b Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 12.
  58. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, pp. 27-28.
  59. ^ a b Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 15.
  60. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 57.
  61. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 78.
  62. ^ Jablonski, Edward, Flying Fortress: The Illustrated Biography of the B-17s and the Men Who Flew Them, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965, p. 28.
  63. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 63.
  64. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 72.
  65. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 197-198.
  66. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 86.
  67. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces vs. Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 1996, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 84.
  68. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 29.
  69. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, Volume I: The Battle of the Atlantic September 1939-May 1943, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988, p. 77.
  70. ^ a b Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 26.
  71. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 69.
  72. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, pp. 78-79.
  73. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, Volume IV: Coral Sea, Midway, and Submarine Actions, May 1942-August 1942, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988, p. 72.
  74. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, The Battle of the Atlantic September 1939-May 1943, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988, pp. 71-72.
  75. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 61.
  76. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, pp. 64-65.
  77. ^ Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2006, ISBN 978-1-84476-917-9, p. 33.
  78. ^ Aviation Hawaii: 1940-1949 Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii
  79. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 80.
  80. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 199, 201.
  81. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, pp. 64, 65.
  82. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 87.
  83. ^ a b c Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 66.
  84. ^ a b Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 74.
  85. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, pp. 69-70.
  86. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 54.
  87. ^ Chesneau, Roger, ed., Conway's all the World's Fighting Ships 1922-1946, New York: Mayflower Books, 1980, ISBN 0-8317-0303-2, pp. 290-291.
  88. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 79.
  89. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 71.
  90. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 207.
  91. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 77.
  92. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, Volume XIII: The Liberation of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, the Visayas, 1944-1945, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1989, p. 100.
  93. ^ Mauro, Stephen, "CAP Seeks Congressional Gold Medal", Aviation History, May 2012, p. 12.
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  96. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 69-76.
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  118. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, pp. 80-81.
  119. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, Volume III: The Rising Sun in the Pacific 1931-April 1942, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988, pp. 245-247.
  120. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 78.
  121. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces vs. Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 1996, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 107.
  122. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 61.
  123. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, pp. 429, 432.
  124. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, pp. 308, 567.
  125. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 82.
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  128. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 231.
  129. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 111.
  130. ^ Boyne, Walter J., "Lost Luftwaffe Airplanes," Aviation History, November 2015, p. 35.
  131. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, pp. 423, 568.
  132. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 96.
  133. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 148.
  134. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, pp. 418, 256.
  135. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 390.
  136. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 103.
  137. ^ Polmar, Norman, "A Lackluster Performance, Part II," Naval History, June 2017, p. 62.
  138. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 97.
  139. ^ Johnson, E. R. "Everyman's Amphibian", Aviation History, November 2012, p. 15.
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