1969 in aviation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Years in aviation:||1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972|
|Centuries:||19th century · 20th century · 21st century|
|Decades:||1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s|
|Years:||1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972|
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1969:
- 1 Events
- 2 First flights
- 3 Entered service
- 4 Retirements
- 5 References
- The Canadian Snowbirds aerobatic team is formed.
- A fifth annual Harmon Trophy is created to honor the world's outstanding astronaut of the year and is awarded for the first time, honoring the outstanding astronauts of 1968.
- Interflug begins operation of the Tupolev Tu-134, its first jet airliner.
- January 5 – The flight crew of Ariana Afghan Airlines Flight 701, a Boeing 727-113C, fails to extend the airliner's flaps while on approach to London Gatwick Airport in heavy fog. The plane crashes short of the runway, striking a house in Horley, Surrey, England, killing 48 of the 62 people on board and two people on the ground. All 14 survivors are injured, as is one person on the ground.
- January 13 – With its cockpit crew so occupied with attempting to diagnose the lack of a nose gear green light that they inadvertently allow its rate of descent to increase while on approach to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, the Scandinavian Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-8-62 Sverre Viking, operating as Flight 933 with 45 people on board, crashes in Santa Monica Bay 6 miles (11 km) short of the runway and breaks into three pieces, two of which sink immediately. Fifteen people die, and 17 of the 30 survivors are injured.
- January 14
- The United States Navy announces that the Grumman F-14 Tomcat has won the competition for a new long-range fleet air defense fighter.
- Off Hawaii, a MK-32 Zuni rocket loaded on a parked F-4 Phantom II aboard the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN-65) explodes after being overheated by an aircraft start unit mounted to a tow tractor. The explosion sets off fires and additional explosions across the flight deck, killing 27 and injuring 314 men and knocking the ship out of action until 1 March.
- January 18 – United Airlines Flight 266, a Boeing 727-22C, crashes into Santa Monica Bay off the coast of California four minutes after takeoff from Los Angeles International Airport. All 38 people on board die.
- January 22 – The U.S. 9th Marine Regiment begins Operation Dewey Canyon – an operation dependent completely on helicopters – in South Vietnam's Da Krong Valley. It will conclude on March 19, rated as the 9th Marines' most successful operation of the Vietnam War.
- February 18
- Four members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine attack El Al Flight 432, a Boeing 720-058B with 28 people on board, with AK-47 assault rifles and hand grenades while it is preparing for takeoff at Zurich Airport in Zürich, Switzerland, mortally wounding the first officer and injuring six other people. An Israeli undercover security guard on the plane opens fire on the attackers from a cockpit window, then gets off the plane and continues to fire on them, killing their leader before Swiss police arrive and arrest him and the three surviving attackers. The incident reveals for the first time that armed security personnel ride aboard Israeli airliners.
- Hawthorne Nevada Airlines Flight 708, a Douglas DC-3, crashes into a sheer cliff face on Mount Whitney near Lone Pine, California, killing all 35 people on board. The plane's wreckage will not be found until August 8.
- February 24 – Far Eastern Air Transport Flight 104, a Handley Page Dart Herald, suffers the failure of an engine and attempts to make an emergency landing at Tainan Airport in Tainan City on Taiwan. Before reaching the airport, the plane belly-lands in a clearing in a wooded area, skids into a creek, breaks into three pieces, and catches fire, killing all 36 people on board.
- During March, the Indonesian airline PT Sempati Air Transport begins flight operations, using Douglas DC-3 aircraft. In 1994 it will change its named to Sempati Air.
- March 1
- The Republic-of-China-government-owned Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC), is established in Taiwan.
- The U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) begins Operation Massachusetts Striker, a helicopter-borne assault against North Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam's A Shau Valley. It will continue until May 8.
- March 3 – The United States Navy establishes its Fighter Weapons School at Naval Air Station Miramar, California, to improve its fighter pilots' dogfighting skills. The school will become popularly known as "TOPGUN."
- March 8 – President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser formally announces the beginning of the War of Attrition with Israel, although the war in reality has been in progress since July 1, 1967. It largely will consist of combat between Israeli Air Force aircraft and Egyptian surface-to-air missiles.
- March 11
- Two explosions occur in the tourist-class passenger compartment of an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 707-379C (registration ET-ACQ) while it is on the ground at Frankfurt International Airport in Frankfurt-am-Main, West Germany, injuring several cleaning women. The Eritrean Liberation Front claims responsibility, saying the explosions are retribution for the transportation of Ethiopian troops into Eritrea aboard Ethiopian Airlines aircraft.
- The original Golden West Airlines ceases operations. Aero Commuter acquires several of its assets, including its name, and becomes the new Golden West Airlines.
- March 16 – Viasa Flight 742, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30, is unable to gain altitude after takeoff from Maracaibo, Venezuela, strikes power lines, and crashes into the La Trinidad section of the city, killing all 84 people on board and 71 people on the ground. San Francisco Giants pitcher Néstor Chávez is among the dead. The combined death toll of 155 makes it the deadliest aviation accident in history at the time.
- March 18 – In Operation Breakfast, 48 U.S. Air Force B-52 Stratofortresses bomb the Fishhook in Cambodia in an attack on what the Americans believe to be the general Communist headquarters within Cambodia. It is the first event in Operation Menu, the secret 14-month-long American bombing of Cambodia targeting North Vietnamese Army sanctuaries there.
- March 18–19 – The Royal Air Force airlifts 300 troops to Anguilla in response to the civil unrest that had broken out on the island.
- March 20 – A United Arab Airlines Ilyushin Il-18 crashes and bursts into flames while attempting to land in blowing sand at Aswan Airport outside Aswan, Egypt, killing 100 of the 105 people on board and injuring all five survivors.
- April 2 – LOT Polish Airlines Flight 165, an Antonov An-24W, crashes during a snowstorm on the northern slope of Polica mountain near Zawoja, Poland, killing all 53 people on board.
- April 15 – A North Korean MiG-17 (NATO reporting name "Fresco") shoots down a U.S. Air Force EC-121M Warning Star reconnaissance aircraft over the Sea of Japan, killing all 31 men on board.
- April 27 – President of Bolivia René Barrientos dies when his helicopter strikes high-tension lines and crashes in the canyon of the Arque River near Arque, Bolivia.
- April 28 – Concentrating excessively on their flight director instrument and using it incorrectly, the flight crew of LAN Chile Flight 160, a Boeing 727, neglects to check its instruments and fails to notice that the aircraft has descended below its intended glidepath. The aircraft strikes the ground near Colina, Chile, and is destroyed in the crash that follows, although all 60 people on board survive.
- April 30 – A Seaboard World Airlines Douglas DC-8 with 219 passengers and 13 crewmembers lands by mistake at South Vietnam's Marble Mountain Air Facility when it had actually been cleared to land at the nearby Da Nang Air Base. After fuel and passengers are offloaded, the plane is towed to the north overrun and departs five hours after landing.
- May 4–11 – The Daily Mail Transatlantic Air Race commemorates the 50th anniversary of Alcock and Brown's crossing. It is won by a Royal Navy F-4 Phantom II, taking 4 hours 47 minutes.
- May 7 – The airline NAYSA begins operations.
- May 10 – The United States Army's 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile), the U.S. 9th Marine Regiment, and the South Vietnamese Army's 3rd Regiment begin Operation Apache Snow in South Vietnam's A Shau Valley with a helicopter assault on North Vietnamese forces. It will lead to the Battle of Hamburger Hill.
- May 26 – The U.S. Army cancels the Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne attack helicopter program, worth $US 900 million.
- June 4 – Mexicana Flight 704, a Boeing 727-64, crashes on approach to Monterrey, Mexico, killing all 79 people on board. Among the dead is Mexican tennis star Rafael Osuna.
- June 5
- June 17 – Black Panther Party member William Lee Brent hijacks Trans World Airlines Flight 154 and forces it to take him to Havana, Cuba. He will reside in Cuba until his death in 2006.
- June 18 – Three members of the Eritrean Liberation Front attack an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 707 on the ground at Karachi, Pakistan, claiming that they wished to publicize their opposition to Ethiopian rule in Eritrea. They damage the aircraft, but no one is injured in the attack.
- The Royal Air Force's No. 1 Squadron becomes the first operational fixed-wing vertical-take-off-or-landing (VTOL) squadron in the world.
- Prince Souvanna Phouma of Laos announces that he had authorized American bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos.
- July 1 – The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation becomes the Grumman Aerospace Corporation.
- July 17 – The last air-to-air combat between piston-engined fighters takes place, when Honduran Air Force Colonel Fernando Soto, flying an F4U-5 Corsair fighter, shoots down three Salvadoran Air Force fighters – two FG-1 Corsairs and an F-51 Mustang – during the Football War (or "Soccer War") between El Salvador and Honduras. Soto becomes the only person to score an air-to-air kill during the war, the only person to score three air-to-air kills during a war in the Western Hemisphere, and the last person to score a kill in combat between two propeller-driven aircraft.
- July 20 – Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon.
- July 26 – A wheel-well stowaway inside a Douglas DC-8 survives a flight from Havana, Cuba to Madrid, Spain.
- July 31 – The Eritrean Liberation Front warns travelers not to fly on Ethiopian Airlines.
- South Vietnam receives its first fixed-wing gunships when the Vietnam Air Force's 817th Combat Squadron takes over control of 16 Douglas AC-47 Spooky aircraft transferred from the United States Air Force.
- August 1 – Trans World Airlines initiates transpacific and around-the-world service.
- August 15 – Operation About Face begins in Laos. Air America helicopters airlift Meo and Thai guerrillas led by Vang Pao behind enemy positions while the Royal Lao Army pushes across the Plain of Jars. Heavy American air support peaks at 300 sorties per day.
- August 16 – Darryl Greenamyer sets a new piston-engine airspeed record in a heavily modified F8F Bearcat named Conquest I. His record speed of 478 mph (769 km/h) topples the piston-engined speed record set by Nazi Germany, that had stood for 30 years.
- August 29 – Thinking that Israeli Ambassador to the United States Yitzak Rabin is aboard, two members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Leila Khaled and Salim Issawi, hijack Trans World Airlines Flight 840, a Boeing 707-331B on a flight from Rome, Italy, to Tel Aviv, Israel, with 127 people aboard. Rabin is not aboard, and the hijackers force the plane to land in Damascus, Syria, where they release all the hostages unharmed except for two Israeli passengers and blow up the aircraft's nose section. The two Israelis eventually will be set free unharmed in December.
- August 31 – World champion boxer Rocky Marciano dies along with two other people when the privately owned Cessna 172H Skyhawk in which he is a passenger strikes a lone oak tree and crashes while its inexperienced pilot is attempting to land at night in bad weather at a small airfield outside Newton, Iowa.
- September 9 – Allegheny Airlines Flight 853, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30, collides in mid-air with a Piper PA-28 near Fairland, Indiana. Both aircraft crash, killing the lone occupant of the PA-28 and all 82 people aboard the DC-9.
- September 12 – Philippine Airlines Flight 158, a BAC One-Eleven, strikes a mango tree in Kula-ike in Antipolo City while on approach to Manila International Airport in Manila, the Philippines. It crashes, killing 45 of the 47 people on board and injuring both survivors. It will be the deadliest accident involving a BAC One-Eleven until 2002.
- September 20 – On approach to Da Nang Airport in Da Nang, South Vietnam, an Air Vietnam Douglas C-54D-10-DC Skymaster (registration XV-NUG) collides with a United States Air Force F-4 Phantom II 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) northwest of the airport. The C-54 crashes into a plowed field, killing 74 of the 75 people on board and two people working in the field.
- September 21 – A Mexicana Boeing 727-64 (registration XA-SEJ) strikes the ground short of the runway on final approach to Mexico City International Airport in Mexico City, Mexico, becomes airborne again, then crashes on a railway embankment, killing 27 of the 118 people on board.
- September 26 – A Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano Douglas DC-6B (registration CP-698) crashes into the side of Bolivia's Mount Choquetanga, 176 kilometers (110 miles) southeast of La Paz, at an altitude of 15,500 feet (4,724 meters), killing all 79 people on board including 16 members of the Bolivian football (soccer) team The Strongest. The airliner's wreckage is not found until September 29. At the time, it is the deadliest aviation accident in Bolivian history.
- October 20 – Finnair introduces an inertial navigation system on its aircraft, becoming the first airline to dispense with the need for a navigator aboard.
- November 12 – Fiat Aviazione (except for its engine manufacturing section) merges with Aerfer and Salmoiraghi to form Aeritalia, owned equally by Fiat and IRI–Finmeccanica. Aeritalia will becoming fully operational in January 1972.
- November 19 – Mohawk Airlines Flight 411, a Fairchild Hiller FH-227B, crashes into Pilot Knob Mountain near the Town of Fort Ann in Washington County, New York, killing all 14 people on board.
- The United States Air Force flies its last Douglas AC-47 Spooky fixed-wing gunship mission of the Vietnam War. South Vietnam's Vietnam Air Force and Laos's Royal Lao Air Force fly all future AC-47 missions during the Southeast Asian conflict.
- December 3 – Trans World Airlines opens the Breech Academy – also called the Breech Training Academy – in Overland Park, Kansas, for the training of flight attendants, ticket agents, and pilots.
- December 9 – An Egyptian Air Force MiG-21 (NATO reporting name "Fishbed") shoots down an Israeli Air Force F-4 Phantom II for the first time.
- December 11 – A North Korean agent hijacks a Korean Air Lines NAMC YS-11 with 50 other people on board and forces it to fly to Sǒndǒk Airfield near Wonsan, North Korea. North Korea returns 39 of the passengers to South Korea 66 days later, but never returns the crew of four or the other seven passengers, which is viewed in South Korea as an example of North Korean abductions of South Koreans.
- December 12 – Shortly after an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 707 takes off from Madrid, Spain, bound for Rome, Italy, a Yemeni man armed with a handgun enters the cockpit and orders the flight crew to fly the plane to Aden in South Yemen. The pilot explains that the plane will have to refuel at Rome, but does not receive permission to land there, and a plainclothes security guard then enters the cockpit and shoots the hijacker to death. A second hijacker armed with a knife then rushes toward the cockpit, and a second plainclothes security guard shoots him to death before he can reach it. The airliner lands safely in Athens, Greece. The Eritrean Liberation Front claims responsibility for the hijacking, saying that the hijackers merely intended to hand out propaganda leaflets to the passengers.
- December 18 – The England-Australia Commemorative Air Race is flown in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Smith brothers' flight. It is won by W. J. Bright and F. L. Buxton in a Britten-Norman Islander
- December 20 – The highest-scoring North Vietnamese ace of the Vietnam War, Nguyễn Văn Cốc, scores his final victory, claimed as over an AQM-34 Firebee unmanned aerial vehicle but possibly over an OV-10 Bronco. The North Vietnamese Air Force credits him with nine victories, while the United States confirms seven.
- December 21 – Three members of the People's Front for the Liberation of Palestine are caught trying to board a Trans World Airlines Boeing 707 at Athens, Greece, for a flight to Rome and New York City with guns and dynamite in their hand luggage. They had planned to hijack the airliner, divert it to Tunis in Tunisia, and blow it up to protest the support of the United States for Israel.
- December 22 – An explosion in the lavatory of an Air Vietnam Douglas DC-6B in mid-flight damages the braking system. When the aircraft lands at Nha Trang Airport in Nha Trang, South Vietnam, it goes off the end of the runway and strikes a concrete pylon, dwellings, and a school, killing 10 of the 77 people on board and 24 people on the ground, and injuring many more.
- Bell UH-1N Iroquois "Twin Huey"
- April 3 – Robin HR100
- April 16 – Let L-410 Turbolet
- April 24 – Anderson Kingfisher
- May 1 – Gazuit-Valladeau GV-103
- May 13 – Conroy Turbo Three
- May 19 – Beagle B.125 Bulldog
- August 30 – Tupolev Tu-22M
- Antonov An-14M, prototype of the Antonov An-28 ("Cash")
- September 15 – Cessna FanJet500, the prototype which led to the Cessna Citation.
- September 19 – Mil Mi-24, the most widely exported helicopter gunship.
- October 2 – Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod
- Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: A Premier Fighter", Naval History, April 2012, p. 13.
- Explosion rocks USS Enterprise, History, archived from the original on 2010-03-07
- Anonymous, "Tody in History", The Washington Post Express, January 14, 2013, p. 26.
- Military video, archived from the original on 2007-09-02
- Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-875-5, p. 130.
- Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 72.
- Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-875-5, pp. 129-130.
- Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume I: The Arab-Israeli Conflicts, 1973–1989, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1329-5, p. 19.
- Aviation Safety Network Non-Hull Loss Description
- skyjack.co.il Chronology of aviation terrorism: 1968–2004
- Brogan, Patrick, The Fighting Never Stopped: A Comprehensive Guide to Global Conflict Since 1945, New York: Vintage Books, 1990, ISBN 0-679-72033-2, p. 148.
- planecrashinfo.com Famous People Who Died in Aviation Accidents: 1960s
- Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-875-5, p. 138.
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 215.
- "Survival at High Altitudes: Wheel-Well Passengers" (PDF). FAA. October 1996. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Miskimon, Christopher, "Weapons: The AC-47 Gunship Proved the Concept of the Aerial Gunship As a Close-Support Weapon in the Skies Over Vietnam", Militar Heritage, November 2015, pp. 17-18.
- TWA History Timeline
- Aviation Safety Network Accident Description
- Aviation Safety Network Accident Description
- Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 65.
- Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume I: The Arab-Israeli Conflicts, 1973–1989, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1329-5, p. 20.
- Aviation Safety Network Hijacking Description
- Their Darkest Day, pg. 207.
- Aviation Safety Network Accident Description
- Taylor 1969, facing p. 1.
- Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 58.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 22.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 93.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 100.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 55.
- Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 57.
- David, Donald, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Nobles Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 111.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 104.
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 370.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969–70. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd., 1969.