Bengali–Assamese languages

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Bengali–Assamese
Gauda–Kamarupa
Geographic
distribution
Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Glottologgaud1237  (Gauda–Kamrupa)[1]

The Bengali–Assamese languages (or Assamese–Bengali languages) belong to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages. They are the following:

Languages[edit]

Language Native name Script Alphabet Number of speakers (in millions) Native region
Assamese অসমীয়া
Oxomiya
Bengali-Assamese script Assamese alphabet 15.3[2]  India (Assam)
Bengali বাংলা
Bangla
Bengali-Assamese script Bengali alphabet 261.8[3]  Bangladesh (national and official)
 India (West Bengal) (Jharkhand) (Tripura) (Assam) (Andaman and Nicobar islands)
Bishnupriya Manipuri বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী
Bișnupriya Monipuri"
Bengali-Assamese script 0.12[4]  India (Assam, Manipur and Tripura)
 Bangladesh (Sylhet Division)
Chakma 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟
চাকমা
Sangma
Bengali-Assamese script
Chakma script
0.32[5]  Bangladesh (Chittagong Division)
 India (Mizoram and Tripura)
 Myanmar (Rakhine State)
Chittagonian চাঁটগাঁইয়া
Čąŧgąiya
Bengali-Assamese script Bengali alphabet 13[6]  Bangladesh (Chittagong Division)
 Myanmar (Rakhine State)
Hajong হাজং
Hazong
Bengali-Assamese script
Latin script
Assamese alphabet 0.06[7]  India (Assam and Meghalaya)
 Bangladesh (Mymensingh Division)
Rangpuri রংপুরী
রাজবংশী
কোচ ৰাজবংশী
Rongpuri
Rajbongši
Kʊch rajbongsi
Bengali-Assamese script Bengali alphabet, Assamese alphabet 10.8[8]  Bangladesh (Rangpur Division)
 India (West Bengal and Assam)
   Nepal (Province No. 1)
Rohingya رُاَࣺينڠَ
Ruáingga
Arabic script
Hanifi script
Latin script
2.52[9]  Myanmar (Rakhine State)
 Bangladesh (Chittagong Division)
Sylheti ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
ছিলটি
Siloŧi
Bengali-Assamese script
Sylheti Nagari script
11.8[10]  Bangladesh (Sylhet Division)
 India (Assam, Meghalaya, North Tripura)
Tanchangya 𑄖𑄧𑄐𑄴𑄌𑄧𑄁𑄉𑄴𑄡
তঞ্চংগ্যা
Toncongya
Bengali-Assamese script
Chakma script
0.02[11]  Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill Tracts)

Language comparison chart[edit]

English Assamese Sylheti Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Kamata Rohingya Hajong
beautiful dhunia, xundor* šundor* šundor* dol šundor* cúndor*, hásin*
big daṅor/daṅar, bor boṛo boṛo ḍoõr boro, daṅar boro, ákbor*, kobira*
blood tez, rokto* lou, roxto*, kun* rôkto*, khun* lo lou lou, hún*, kún*
bread ruti (flat), pau*ruti, luf*, bred* ruṭi (flat), luf*, bereḍ* pão*ruṭi, ruṭi (flat) fó*ruti fiçá, luthi
brother bhai (younger), kokai (elder), dada (elder)* bái, báiya* bhai, dada, bhaiya* bái bhai bái
cat mekuri, birali mekur, bilai biṛal, beṛal bilai bilai
dark andhar, endhar andáir ãdhar, ondhokar* ãdár añdár, miyonda
daughter zi, mai, zhia zi, fuṛi meye, beṭi zíi, maia fua beti futúni, zíi
day din, bela din din, bêla, dibôš* din din din
dog kukur kutta kukur, kutta kuñr
door duar*, dorza*, dar dorza*, doroza* dôrja*, duar* duar* duar* duar*
earth bhũi, p(r)ithiwi/p(r)ithibi*, dunia* dunuai* dunia*, prithibi*, dhora* dunia* duniyai*
egg koni, dima ḍim, enḍa, boida* ḍim, anḍa, boida* boda* boza*, ḍim dima andha, dhim
elephant hati átti hati áti hati áñti, háñtih
eye soku, sokhu souk, soku chokh, chokkhu* sóg suk
father deuta*, bap, büpai/bapa, baba*, aba/abba/abu/abbu* abba*, baf, baba*, abbu*, bazi abba*, baba*, baap, abbu* baf, ba abbá*
fear bhoy, ḍor ḍor bhôy, ḍor ḍor ḍor
finger aṅuli aṅguil aṅgul, onguli* oul ouñl
fire zui, aguni* aguin* agun*, ogni* ain* ooin*
fish mas mas machh mas mas mas
food khüabostu*, ahar, khayddo*, khaüni, khana* xani khabar, khana* hána hána, háñna
god bhogowan*, issôr*, deu, khüda* rob*, xoda*, bógoban*, ishshor* khoda*, ishshôr*, uporwala*, bhogoban* khúda* ila*, rob*, ixor*
good bhal bála bhalo bala, gom bhal gom bhala
grass ghah, kher (hay) ga, gaš ghaš, khôṛ (hay) kher ghaṣ kérr
hand hat át hat át hat árt
hand fan bisoni bisoin, faxa hat-pakha bisoin, bisein
head mur, matha, math mata matha, shir* mata matá
heart (emotion) hia, ontor*, koliza/koilza, hidoy* dil*, ontor* hridôy*, pran*, ôntor*, hiya, dil*, kolob* dil*, fôran* dil*
heart (organ) dil, amothu hritpindo* dil*
horse ghüra guṛa ghoṛa gúṛa gúñra, gúra
house ghor gór, bari, basha ghôr, baṛi, basha gor gor, bari
hunger bhük buk, feṭo(r) buk kkhudha*, kkhida*, bhukh bukh búk
language bhaxa*, mat (call), kotha* basha*, zoban*, mat, buli bhaša*, buli hodá* baša* bhaṣa* zoban*, hodá*
laughter hahi aši haši aši haṣi
life ziwon/zibon, ziu (soul), zindegi*, hayat* zibon, zindegi*, hayat* jibôn, zindegi* zibon zibon
moon zün, san(d), sond(r)o* san(d) chãd, chondro* sãn san san
mother ma, ai, mai, ammi/amma* ma, amma*, mai, ai, ammu* ma, amma*, ammu*, mata* ma maö
mouth mukh*, mukh*or bhitor muk, muk*ór bíttor mukh, mukh*er bhitor mukh* muk*
name nam, naü nam nam nam
night rati rait rat, ratri*, shob* rait rati rait
peace xanti*, xokah shanti* shanti* šanti* ṣanti*
place thai, zega/zaga*, than zega*, zaga* jayga*, ṭhai ṭai, zaega*
queen rani rani rani rani rani rani
rest zironi, aram* aram* aram*, bishrom* dom*
river noi, gaṅ, nodi* ɡaṅg, nodi*, doria* nôdi*, doriya* hál
road bat, ali, rasta*, poth* rasta*, ail, fot* rasta*, shoṛok
salt nimokh*, lün, nun nun, lobon*, nimox* lobon*, nun, nimok* nun, lôbôn*
sister bhoni (younger), ba/bai (elder) bóin, afa, afai, afu, api, didimoni bon, didi, apa, apu, api boin
small xoru huru, suṭo chhoṭo gura
son put, pü, putro/putto* fut, fua chhele, putro*, put fua beṭa fut
soul ziu, atma* ru(h), atta* ãtta*, pran*, ruh* foran*, ru*
sun beli, xuruz*, xuydzo* shuruz*, shurzo* shurjo* beil, šuroz* beil
ten doh, dos* dosh dosh doš doṣ
three tini tin tin tin
village gaü gau, geram* gram*, gã gãu
waist kokal, kakal xomor* komor* keĩl keñil
water pani fani pani, jol fani pani, zol faní pani
when ketia kunbela, xobe, kunshomoe* kôkhon, kobe hótte könbela
wind botah/batah, hawa* batash batash, hawa* ába*, bataš
wolf kukurnesia bagh, xial (jackal, fox) hial (jackal, fox) nekṛe-bagh, sheyal/shiyal (jackal, fox) neṛi kutta
woman maiki manuh, tiri*, tirüta, mohila* beṭi, moíla* mohila*, nari* mai fua beṭi saöa
year bosor, son* bosor, shal* bochhor, shal*, borsho* bosor bosor
yes hoy, o, ü̃, mm óe, i, zi* óe hễ, ji* ô, ôy
no nohoy, nai, ühü, na na, nai, nay na, nai, nay, noy, nei, non nô, nôy
yesterday kali, züa-kali (goto*-)xail(-ku) (goto*-)kal(-ke) goto* hail, goto* halia
English Assamese Sylheti Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Kamata Rohingya Hajong

* = borrowed terms (including tatsamas, ardhatatsamas and other borrowings)

Verbs[edit]

English Assamese Sylheti Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Kamata Rohingya Hajong
ask xudh-, xudhpus kor- (investigate) zika- jiggaśa kor-, puchh-, jiggesh kor- pũs ɡor-
bite kamur-, kamür mar- xamṛa-, xamor mar- kamoṛ mar- hõr-
blow phu de-, phuk-, phu kor- fu de- phu de-
breathe uxah lo- dom lo- šãš ne-, dom ne-
bring an- an- an-, en- an-
can par- far- par-, per-
catch dhor- dór- dhor-
come ah- a- aś-, eś- a- a- ah-
count gon-, hisap kor-, gonti kor- gon-, hiśab xor- gon-, hišab kor-
cry kand-, kan- xand- kãd- hãd-
cut kat- xaṭ- kaṭ-, keṭ-
do kor- xor- kor- gor- ɡor-
die mor-, dhuka- mor- mor- mor-
dig khand- xor-, xus- khõṛ-, khõc-
drink kha-, pi kha-, pi- xa- kha-, pan kor-
eat kha- xa- kha-, khe- há-
fall por- foṛ- poṛ-
fear bhoy kha-, dora- ḍora- bhoy pa-, ḍora-
fight zũz-, maramari/moramori kor- mara-mari xor-, zogra xor- maramari kor-
float üpoṅ-, bhah- bo- bhaša-
flow bo- bo- bo-
fly ur- uṛ- uṛ- ur- ur-
give de-, di- de-, di- de-, di-
go za-, ɡo-/ge- za-, ɡo-, ɡe- ja-, ɡi- za-, zo- za-, zo-
happen ho- ó- ho- ó-
hear xun- hun- śun- un-
hit mar-, pit-, kila- mar-, kila- mar-
kill mar-, mari pela- mar-, mari fala- mar-, mer-
know zan- zan- jan-
laugh hah- aś- haś-, heś- aś-
learn xik-, xikh- hik- śekh-, śikh- hik-
lie (in bed) baɡor-, kati ho-, bisonat/bisnat por- xait xor-
live thak-, zi(ai) thak-, tik-, basi thak- tax-, zinda ro-, basi tax- thak-, jibito thak- thah-
look sa- sa- dekh- sa-
open khul- kúl- khol- uid-, khúl-
play khel- xél- khel-
pull tan- ṭan- ṭan-, ṭen-
push thel- ṭel- ṭhel-
read porh/poh/por- foṛ- poṛ- foṛ-
run dour-, daur- douṛ- douṛ- dũr-
say ko-, mat-, bul- xo-, mat- bol-, ko- ho- ho-
scratch ãsür- xawza- ãcoṛ de-
see dekh- dex- dekh- sa-
sew xi-, sila-, bo- (weave) śila- śela-
sing ɡa-, gan ga- gan ɡa- ɡa-, ɡe-
sit boh- bo- boś- bo-
sleep xu-, ɡhuma-, tüponi za/mar- hut-, ɡúma- ɡhuma-, śu- ɡhum za-
smell xuṅ- huṅ(ɡ)- śũkh- ũ-
spit thu pela-, pik-, pik pela- tu fala- thu phel-
split phal- bang- bhag kor-
squeeze sep-, hẽs- sif- cap, piṛon
stand thio ho-, thia- uba- dãṛa- thio- tía-
stab khũs-, han-
suck suh-, sup-, xüh-
swell
swim xatũr- hatra- śatar kor-
think bhab-, sinta kor-, sint- bab-, sinta xor- bhab-
throw dolia- iṭa mar-
tie bandh- band- bãdh-, bẽdh-
vomit bomi kor- bomi xor-
walk khüz karh-, bul- aṭ- hãṭ-, hẽṭ- ãd-
want lag-, bisar- laɡ-, sa- ca- sa-
wash dhu- dó- dhö- dú-
wipe mos-, müs- fus-, mus-
English Assamese Sylheti Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Kamata Rohingya Hajong

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gauda–Kamrupa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Assamese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Bengali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  4. ^ "Bishnupuriya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  5. ^ "Chakma". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  6. ^ "Chittagonian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Hajong". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Rangpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Rohingya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Tangchangya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.