Square Enix Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Eidos Interactive)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Square Enix Limited
Square Enix Europe
  • Domark Limited (1984–1990)[1]
  • Domark Group Limited (1990–1996)[1]
  • Eidos Interactive Limited (1996–2009)[1]
IndustryVideo games
Founded1984; 38 years ago (1984) in Putney, London, England
  • Mark Strachan
  • Dominic Wheatley
Subsidiaries§ Studios

Square Enix Limited (formerly Domark Limited and Eidos Interactive Limited) is a British subsidiary of the Japanese video game company Square Enix, acting as their European publishing arm. The company formerly owned Tomb Raider, which was in development under CentreGold in 1996, and had acquired Crystal Dynamics in 1998, among numerous other assets, until 2022. Square Enix Limited and fellow group company Square Enix Incorporated shared "Phil" Rogers as CEO and other executives from 2013 to 2022.[a]

The company was founded as Domark in 1984 by Mark Strachan and Dominic Wheatley. In 1995, it was acquired by Eidos plc and merged with Simis and Big Red Software to create the subsidiary Eidos Interactive the following year. Ian Livingstone, who held a stake in Domark, became deputy chairman of Eidos[5][6] and stayed in various roles, until his departure from the company in 2013.[7][8] In 2005, Eidos plc was in turn acquired by British games publisher SCi. The combined company, SCi Entertainment Group, which was briefly renamed Eidos, was bought by Square Enix in 2009. In November 2009, Square Enix completed the merger of its existing European branch with Eidos Interactive, trading the resulting company as Square Enix Limited, which assumed the trade name Square Enix Europe.[b][9] In August 2022, Embracer Group completed its acquisition of studios Crystal Dynamics, Eidos-Montréal and Square Enix Montréal and intellectual properties Tomb Raider, Deus Ex among other assets, with Rogers and management moving to Embracer.

Square Enix Limited contains Square Enix's Western external publishing division, Square Enix External Studios, and indie initiative division, Square Enix Collective. It is headquartered in Southwark, London (Square Enix London) and has offices in Paris, France (Square Enix France) and Hamburg, Germany (Square Enix Germany).[10][11]


Foundation as Domark (1984–1995)[edit]

Former Domark logo (1984–1996)

Square Enix Limited was founded as Domark by Mark Strachan and Dominic Wheatley in 1984. For Christmas 1983, Wheatley (the grandson of the writer Dennis Wheatley) had visited his family, where he saw his brother play The Heroes of Karn on a newly purchased Commodore 64. He was impressed with the game and felt that many more ordinary people, not just those who work with computers professionally, would start acquiring computers and games for them. When he returned to his job as a junior account executive at Garden—a small advertising agency based in London—in early 1984, he spoke to his colleague Strachan and floated the idea of setting up a company to publish games from third-party developers. Strachan initially declined but later saw that many retailers in the city had sold out of ZX Spectrum models, which he felt signalled great interest in video games. Strachan and Wheatley, at the time aged 24, subsequently quit their jobs and founded Domark, forming a portmanteau of their first names for the company name. For their first game, they designed the adventure game Eureka!, hired the Hungarian developer Andromedia, and brought in Ian Livingstone as its writer. Strachan and Wheatley further devised a competition in which a telephone number would be shown upon completing the game, and the first person to call it would win £25,000. Through friends, family, and other acquaintances, they raised £160,000, more than enough to finance the project. Domark released the game later in 1984, marketing it through Concept Marketing, another firm set up by Strachan and Wheatley. Impressed with the company's operations, Livingstone invested £10,000 in Domark. Eureka! sold 15,000 copies. Domark were unsure what project to pursue next; Strachan and Wheatley had a contact in the estate of Ian Fleming and approached them with the idea of producing a video game based on James Bond. In 1985, Domark obtained a licence to A View to a Kill. Despite delays caused by scope creep, the eponymous game was released later in 1985 and was "actually quite successful", according to Wheatley.[12]

Domark found further success with computer conversions of board games: Trivial Pursuit was becoming increasingly popular, so Domark got into contact with Leisure Genius, which had found success with board game conversions. The team at Leisure Genius believed a conversion of Trivial Pursuit was infeasible and thus gave way to Domark, who hired Oxford Digital Enterprises to develop it. Released in 1986, the Trivial Pursuit sold roughly 2 million copies. The success allowed Domark to move into proper offices and hire more employees. Domark released further Trivial Pursuit and James Bond games in the years following. The company also got into arcade game conversions in 1987 when Wheatley, alone at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, encountered Manlio Allegra, an agent for companies including Atari Games. Allegra wanted Domark to produce conversions for as many games as possible but Wheatley claimed that the company had only £25,000 to spend. Allegra then went through a list of games to be licensed at low prices and Wheatley stopped him when he mentioned the Star Wars trilogy of games. They agreed on a license for Wheatley's claimed budget. To have the games developed, Domark brought in a German programmer who had previously brought them to the Amiga. Domark released its versions later in 1987, and they became so successful that the first royalty cheque paid to Atari Games two months later amounted to £280,000. Impressed with this return, Atari Games hired Domark as the exclusive partner for computer conversions of arcade games. With sufficient funds, the company published various games through the rest of the 1980s. It set up an internal development team, The Kremlin, within its Putney headquarters in 1990 and expanded to 20 employees by 1992. In the same year, Livingstone was named Domark's executive chairman, while Wheatley moved with his wife and two children to the US to better manage the company's American contacts. A US subsidiary for Domark was formally established in Silicon Valley in 1993. By 1994, Domark was struggling financially, and the company soon went public. Shortly thereafter, Strachan and Wheatley encountered Charles Cornwall, the founder of Eidos, a company that developed video compression software for platforms like the Acorn Archimedes. Eidos had no sales at that time, so the two companies agreed to a reverse merger takeover: The companies merged, and Domark's public entity was legally renamed Eidos, with Domark's operations aligned as a subsidiary of the newer Eidos.[12] The deal was announced in September 1995 as an acquisition of Domark (alongside Simis and Big Red Software) by Eidos for £12.9 million.[13] In the same year, Strachan left Domark.[12]

Transformation into Eidos Interactive (1995–2005)[edit]

Former Eidos Interactive logo (2003–2009)

On 31 May 1996, Simis and Big Red Software were merged into Domark to create Eidos Interactive.[14] Eidos Interactive acquired CentreGold in April 1996 for £17.6 million. CentreGold consisted of distributor CentreSoft and publisher U.S. Gold, which included subsidiaries Core Design and Silicon Dreams Studio.[15][16] The latter would be re-acquired by its founder, Geoff Brown, through newly founded Geoff Brown Holdings, on 16 December that year.[17] The Eidos Interactive acquisition was months prior to the release of Tomb Raider by Core Design, which CentreGold had acquired two years prior.[18] After Tomb Raider, in 1997, Wheatley left the company to move back to the UK and focus on other projects.[12] In 2003, Eidos founded Beautiful Game Studios, which continued its Championship Manager series after splitting with previous developer Sports Interactive.[19]

In March 2005, Eidos admitted that cash reserves had dwindled to £11.9 million during the second half of 2004, and pre-tax losses had grown to £29 million. On 21 March 2005, Eidos received a takeover bid from Elevation Partners, the private equity firm owned by former Electronic Arts president John Riccitiello and with a number of notable partners, including U2's lead singer Bono. This takeover valued the company at £71 million, and would inject £23 million in order to keep the company from bankruptcy in the short term.[20] Elevation stated it plans to take Eidos private for some years to focus on game creation and release schedules and its offer was initially recommended by Eidos's board.[21]

Acquisition by SCi (2005–2009)[edit]

The following day, 22 March, Eidos received a second takeover bid from the British games manufacturer SCi. The company offered £74 million, and tabled a restructuring plan to cut £14 million from annual costs. To fund this takeover, SCi proposed to sell £60 million worth of stock. Eventually, in late April, Elevation Partners formally withdrew its offer, leaving the way clear for SCi.[22] The Eidos plc takeover was finalized on 16 May 2005, with SCi merging itself into Eidos Interactive's parent, renaming it SCi Entertainment Group Limited. After the SCi purchase, former Eidos management board quit.[23] SCi left its Battersea Office and moved into the old Eidos Interactive office on the second floor of Wimbledon Bridge House, 1 Hartfield Road, Wimbledon.[citation needed]

Ars Technica interviewed former Core Design Studio Manager Gavin Rummery in 2015, who said the studio pitched a Tomb Raider remake for the game's 10th anniversary to SCi in 2005.[18] Rummery stated that SCi loved the project, but Crystal Dynamics had their own demo, which then convinced SCi to cancel Core's project.[18][24] In May 2006, Rebellion Developments acquired Core Designs' assets and staff, while the Core brand and intellectual property, including Tomb Raider, remained in SCi's possession.[25] In December 2006, Warner Bros. licensed classic properties to SCi, while investing for 10.3% of SCi shares.[26] In February 2007, SCi/Eidos announced a new studio in Montreal, Quebec, which was later named Eidos-Montréal and developed a new game in the Deus Ex franchise.[27][28] In February 2007, it acquired Rockpool Games, along with its two sister companies Ironstone Partners and SoGoPlay.[29] In April 2007, SCi/Eidos acquired Bluefish Media and Morphene.[30] In 2008, Rogers stated they want to be a "leaner and fitter company", as well as "studio-led".[31] They moved "certain functions" from the United Kingdom to Quebec, Canada, partially due to economic advantages offered by Montreal's government.[31]

On 4 September 2007, the board of SCi Entertainment stated that the company has been approached with a view to making an offer, which has been subject to speculation.[32] On 10 January 2008, SCi announced take over and/or merger talks had been halted.[33][34] As a result, the share price dropped by over 50%. Shareholders called for the resignation of key personnel, including chief executive officer (CEO) Jane Cavanagh, over this issue as well as delays to key titles.[35] On 18 January 2008, Jane Cavanagh, Bill Ennis and Rob Murphy left the company.[36] During SCi 2008 financial report, losses were at £100 million, which newly appointed CEO Phil Rogers, a former Electronic Arts executive, stated were due to the reconstructing plans.[37][38] On 19 September 2008, SCi/Eidos opened a Shanghai-based studio, Eidos Shanghai, consisting of a small team to build up relations in Asia.[39] In 2008, SCi/Eidos set up an entity, which later became Square Enix London Studios in their Wimbledon headquarters.[40][41] In December 2008, SCi rebranded as Eidos plc.[42] Rockpool Games was closed in 2009.[43]

Acquisition by Square Enix (2009–2022)[edit]

In February 2009, Square Enix reached an agreement to purchase renamed Eidos plc for £84.3 million, pending shareholder approval,[44] with an initial aim of fully buying Eidos Interactive on 6 May 2009.[45] The offer was backed by majority stakeholder Warner Bros.[46] The date was brought forward, and Square Enix officially took over Eidos on 22 April 2009.[47][48] Square Enix initially stated that it would let Eidos remain structured as it was at the time of its takeover.[49] In July 2009, it announced that it would merge Eidos with its own pre-existing European subsidiary, Square Enix Limited (itself established in December 1998).[50][51] The merger would create a new entity, tentatively titled Square Enix Europe.[52][53] The merger was completed on 9 November 2009 with the Square Enix Europe name being permanently retained as the resulting company name.[54] The company continued to managed its own Western Studios and Eidos Montreal retained its name.

With the 2013 restructuring of Square Enix,[55] it was hit by layoffs[56] and Rogers became CEO of Americas and Europe.[57][58] In 2014, Square Enix Collective launched, an indie developer service provider headed by Phil Elliot.[59] Around 2015, Square Enix's Western divisions began "officially working across LA and London".[60] In January 2017, Norwegian studio Artplant purchased former Eidos franchise Project I.G.I..[61] In November 2017, Square Enix stopped publishing the Hitman franchise and sold the IP to game developer IO Interactive.[62] In September 2018, COO Mike Sherlock died, with Square Enix's executive team assuming his immediate responsibilities.[63] In 2018, Square Enix branded their external publishing division Square Enix External Studios, which is headed by Jon Brooke and Lee Singleton.[64][65][66] John Heinecke was appointed as CMO for Americas and Europe in October 2018.[67] In June 2020, Square Enix donated $2.4 million to charities around their Western studios and offices, which were partially raised from sales of its discounted Square Enix Eidos Anthology bundle.[68][69] A new mobile studio called Square Enix London Mobile, working on Tomb Raider Reloaded and an unannounced title based on Avatar: The Last Airbender with Navigator Games, was announced on 20 October 2021.[70]

Studios and other assets acquired by Embracer Group (2022–present)[edit]

In May 2022, Square Enix announced to sell several of Square Enix Europe's assets to Embracer Group for $300 million. These includes development studios Crystal Dynamics, Eidos-Montréal, Square Enix Montréal, and intellectual properties such as Tomb Raider, Deus Ex, Thief, Legacy of Kain alongside "more than 50 back-catalogue games", with the deal expected to be completed in the second quarter of Embracer's financial year.[71] On 20 May 2022, Embracer Group stated an said that the announcement of this acquisition got an "overwhelming and positive response".[72] The deal was completed on 26 August 2022. Embracer announced that the subsidiaries and IPs would form as their 12th operative group, under the leadership of Phil Rogers and his management, and was later given the name of CDE Entertainment.[73] After the sale of those assets and studios, Square Enix Europe will continue with its own projects and publishing games from external studios including Outriders, Life Is Strange and Just Cause.

Eidos Shanghai was transferred to Gearbox Entertainment and rebranded as Gearbox Studio Shanghai in November 2022 by Embracer Group.[74]


Former studios[edit]

Games published[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Square Enix Limited's area of activity are former PAL territories, while Square Enix Incorporated's area of activity are the Americas.[3][4]
  2. ^ Square's former British subsidiary was named Square Europe Limited from its incorporation in 1998 to 2003. After the Square and Enix merger, it was renamed to Square Enix Europe Limited and in 2004 to its current legal name, Square Enix Limited.


  1. ^ a b c "SQUARE ENIX LIMITED - Overview". beta.companieshouse.gov.uk. Companies House. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  2. ^ "A Look Inside Square Enix's Stylish London Office". Officelovin'. 21 July 2015.
  3. ^ "SQUARE ENIX - Documents". square-enix-games.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  4. ^ "SQUARE ENIX TERMS OF SERVICE". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  5. ^ Gibson, Ellie (30 September 2005). "Livingstone takes on new role at Eidos". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  6. ^ Remo, Chris (23 April 2010). "Eidos Life President Ian Livingstone Granted British Inspiration Award". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  7. ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (30 September 2013). "Eidos President and CEO Ian Livingstone departs after 20 years". Polygon. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  8. ^ Martin, Matt (30 September 2013). "Ian Livingstone leaves Eidos". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  9. ^ Fahey, Rob (2 July 2004). "Square Enix announces European reorganisation". GamesIndustry.biz.
  10. ^ "Square Enix | Jobs & Career Opportunities". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  11. ^ "SQUARE ENIX - Modern Slavery Act Transparency In Supply Chain Statement". square-enix-games.com. 17 March 2020. Corporate Structure: i. USA – Eidos Inc. and Crystal Dynamics Inc. ii. Canada – Eidos Interactive Corp. iii. UK – SCi Games Ltd, Eidos Ltd, Centregold Ltd and SCi Entertainment Group Ltd. iv. France – Square Enix SARL. v. Germany – Square Enix GmbH. vi. Denmark – IO Interactive Holdings A/S. vii. China – Eidos Creative Software (Shanghai) Co. Ltd.
  12. ^ a b c d Crookes, David (10 November 2011). "From the Archives: Domark". Retro Gamer. No. 96. Imagine Publishing. pp. 36–41.
  13. ^ "EIDOS ACQUIRES THREE COMPANIES, UNVEILS PLACING". Telecompaper. 25 September 1995. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  14. ^ Sherman, Christopher (April 1996). "Four Way Merger Between Domark, Big Red, Simis, and Eidos". Next Generation. No. 16. Imagine Media. p. 23.
  15. ^ Publishing (25 July 2008). "Deals that shook the industry: 5/10". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  16. ^ IGN Staff (15 July 2003). "Core Founder Steps Down". IGN. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  17. ^ "SILICON DREAMS TO BE 75% ACQUIRED BY NEW FIRM". Telecompaper. 16 December 1996. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  18. ^ a b c Moss, Richard (31 March 2015). ""It felt like robbery": Tomb Raider and the fall of Core Design". Ars Technica. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  19. ^ "Square Enix Restructures Beautiful Game Studios, Cuts Positions". Game Developer. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  20. ^ Maragos, Nich; Carless, Simon (21 March 2005). "Elevation Partners Purchases Eidos". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  21. ^ Szalai, George (29 March 2005). "Eidos Accepts Elevation Buyout; SCi Makes Play". Billboard. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  22. ^ Fildes, Nic (8 April 2005). "Eidos Accepts Offer From SCi, Drops Support for Elevation". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  23. ^ Smith, Tony. "Eidos board quits". www.theregister.com. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  24. ^ Prince, Chloe (5 August 2020). "Inside The Cancelled Tomb Raider Game From The Original Creators". TheGamer. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  25. ^ "Rebellion acquires Core Design staff and assets". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  26. ^ Dobson, Jason; Boyer, Brandon (15 December 2006). "Warner Bros, SCi Sign Investment, Licensing Agreement". Gamasutra.com. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  27. ^ Alexander, Leigh (26 November 2007). "Eidos Announces Deus Ex 3, Talks New Montreal Studio". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  28. ^ Thorsen, Tor (26 November 2007). "Eidos resurrecting Deus Ex?". GameSpot. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  29. ^ Sliwinski, Alexander (23 January 2009). "Eidos closes mobile developer Rockpool Games". Engadget. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  30. ^ "Eidos buys into digital distribution, casual games". GameSpot. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  31. ^ a b PARFITT, BEN (7 April 2008). "INTERVIEW – Phil Rogers". MCV. ISSN 1469-4832. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  32. ^ Elliott, Phil (4 September 2007). "SCi confirms approach has been made". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  33. ^ "Lara Croft firm scraps bid talks". BBC. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  34. ^ "Takeover talk at Tomb Raider firm". BBC. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  35. ^ Armitstead, Louise (13 January 2008). "Game Over for Tomb Raider boss". The Times. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  36. ^ Gage, Terence (18 January 2008). "Eidos management quit due to pressure from shareholders". Thunderbolt. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  37. ^ Publishing (15 September 2008). "SCi results reaction". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  38. ^ Dobson, Jason (16 March 2007). "Former EA Exec Joins SCi To Identify 'Development Ops'". Game Developer. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  39. ^ a b Publishing (19 September 2008). "Eidos opens Shanghai base". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  40. ^ Nutt, Christian (1 August 2011). "Square Enix Nabs Rights To True Crime: Hong Kong From Activision". www.gamasutra.com.
  41. ^ "Enix rising". MCV/DEVELOP. 14 April 2010.
  42. ^ Caoili, Eric (3 December 2008). "SCi Finalizes Name Change To Eidos As Buyout Rumors Mount". Game Developer. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  43. ^ Martin, Matt (23 January 2009). "Eidos closes Manchester studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  44. ^ Plunkett, Luke (12 February 2009). "Square Enix Trying To Buy Tomb Raider". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  45. ^ Fahey, Mike (4 March 2009). "Eidos Pencils In Square Enix Takeover For May". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  46. ^ Jenkins, David (16 February 2009). "Warner Backs Square Enix Bid For Eidos". Gamasutra. UBM plc. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  47. ^ Bradshaw, Tim; Palmer, Maija (27 March 2009). "Eidos approves takeover by Square Enix". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  49. ^ Fahey, Mike (27 March 2009). "Square Enix Lets Eidos Be Eidos". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  50. ^ "SQUARE ENIX (2009) LIMITED - Overview (free company information from Companies House)". find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk.
  51. ^ "Square Enix Annual Report for 2004" (PDF). Square Enix. 2004. p. 67. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  52. ^ Elliott, Phil (7 July 2009). "Square Enix revamps Europe operation". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  53. ^ Plunkett, Luke (8 July 2009). "Goodbye Eidos, Hello Square Enix Europe". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  54. ^ Elliott, Phil (10 November 2009). "Square Enix confirms European identity". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  55. ^ "The Square Enix reboot". MCV/DEVELOP. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  56. ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (29 April 2013). "Square Enix Europe hit with layoffs as company-wide restructuring continues". Polygon. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  57. ^ Rogers, Phil. "A note from Phil Rogers, CEO". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  58. ^ Weber, Rachel. "Square Roots: The man in charge of Square Enix's Western future". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  59. ^ Weber, Rachel. "Square Enix Collective launches". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  60. ^ "Hip to be Square: US and EU boss Phil Rogers on the publisher's huge line-up". MCV/DEVELOP. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2020. The industry changes and one of the big things over the last couple of the years has been the European team working hand-in-hand with the American team, and since March this year we've had them working officially across LA and London
  61. ^ Tucker, Jake (15 May 2019). "Norwegian studio Artplant buy Project IGI brand from Square Enix". MCV. ISSN 1469-4832. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  62. ^ "Square Enix Explains Why It Sold Hitman's Franchise Rights Back To Io Interactive". Comicbook.com. 27 November 2017.
  63. ^ Kerr, Chris (7 September 2018). "Obituary: Square Enix America and Europe COO Mike Sherlock". www.gamasutra.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  64. ^ McCaffrey, Ryan (18 August 2020). "Outriders Bosses Discuss Working on Hitman, Just Cause, Sleeping Dogs, and More – IGN Unfiltered #52 - IGN". IGN. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  65. ^ Fogel, Stefanie (20 September 2018). "'Life Is Strange: Before the Storm' Dev Making New Square Enix Game". Variety. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  66. ^ "SQUARE ENIX UNVEILS OUTRIDERS". press.na.square-enix.com. 10 June 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  67. ^ "Square Enix announces John Heinecke as new CMO". MCV/DEVELOP. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  68. ^ Reed, Chris (11 May 2020). "Square Enix Eidos Anthology: Get 54 Games for $39, for Charity". IGN.
  69. ^ Kratky, Otto (18 June 2020). "Square Enix Raises $2.4 Million With Stay Home & Play Campaign". DualShockers. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  70. ^ a b Batchelor, James (20 October 2021). "Square Enix opens London mobile studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  71. ^ Bankhurst, Adam (2 May 2022). "Embracer Group Enters Agreement to Acquire Eidos, Crystal Dynamics, and Square Enix Montreal for $300 Million". IGN.
  72. ^ Ivan, Tom (20 May 2022). "Embracer sees 'great potential' in Crystal Dynamics and Eidos Montreal sequels, remakes and remasters". VGC. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  73. ^ "Embracer Group completes acquisition of Crystal Dynamics, Eidos-Montréal, Square Enix Montréal amongst other assets".
  74. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (15 November 2022). "Eidos Shanghai becomes Gearbox Shanghai". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  75. ^ Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy L. (2012). The video game industry: formation, present state, and future. New York: Routledge. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-203-10649-5. OCLC 809638566.
  76. ^ "Eidos acquires mobile developer Morpheme". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  77. ^ "Eidos drops casual games studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  78. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (13 August 2018). "Crystal Dynamics opening Washington studio". GamesIndustry.biz.
  79. ^ Knoop, Joseph (26 May 2021). "Crystal Dynamics Opens Southwest Studio Led by Industry Vets". IGN.
  80. ^ Eidos-Montréal 15th Anniversary, retrieved 11 April 2022
  81. ^ Dealessandri, Marie (16 June 2020). "Square Enix announces new Eidos-Sherbrooke studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 16 June 2020.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]