Square Enix's headquarters in Tokyo
|Traded as||TYO: 9684|
Books and magazines
|Founded||September 22, 1975Enix)
September 1986 (Square)
April 1, 2003 (as Square Enix)
October 1, 2008 (as Square Enix Holdings)
|Headquarters||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan|
(CEO, Square Enix Europe
President and CEO, Square Enix, Inc.)
|Revenue||¥167.9 billion (April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015)|
|¥6.598 billion (April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2014)|
Number of employees
|3,864 (as of March 31, 2015)|
|Subsidiaries||Square Enix Group
Square Enix Europe
Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. (株式会社スクウェア・エニックス・ホールディングス Kabushiki-gaisha Sukuwea Enikkusu Hōrudingusu?) is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company that is best known for its role-playing video game franchises, which include the Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts role-playing game series. Several of its franchises have sold over 10 million copies, with the Final Fantasy franchise selling over 100 million, and the company as a whole made over ¥150 billion in revenue in fiscal year 2014. The Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo, and the company employs over 3800 employees worldwide.
The original Square Enix Co., Ltd. was formed as the result of a merger between Square Co., Ltd. and Enix Corporation on April 1, 2003. Each share of Square's common stock was exchanged for 0.85 shares of Enix's common stock. At the time, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees. As part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda became its vice president and the founder of Enix, Yasuhiro Fukushima, was made the honorary chairman and largest shareholder of the corporation.
The company owns Taito Corporation, best known for arcade games such as Space Invaders, Bubble Bobble and Bust-a-Move, and former game publisher Eidos Interactive, which has been absorbed into Square Enix Europe. Square Enix now publishes all of Eidos's intellectual property and runs Eidos's development studios. Eidos was most well known for publishing the Tomb Raider, Hitman, Deus Ex, Legacy of Kain, and Thief series of games.
- 1 Corporate history
- 2 Corporate structure
- 3 Properties
- 4 Subsidiaries
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Square was founded in Yokohama in September 1983 by Masashi Miyamoto after he graduated from Waseda, one of Japan's top universities. At that time, Square was a computer game software division of Den-Yu-Sha, a power line construction company owned by Miyamoto's father. While at the time game development was usually conducted by only one programmer, Miyamoto believed that it would be more efficient to have graphic designers, programmers and professional story writers working together on common projects. In September 1986, Square spun off from Den-Yu-Sha and became an independent company officially named Square Co., Ltd. After releasing several unsuccessful games for the Famicom, Square relocated to Ueno, Tokyo in 1987 and developed a role-playing video game titled Final Fantasy, inspired by Enix's success with the genre, Dragon Quest (released in North America as Dragon Warrior until 2005). With 400,000 copies sold, Final Fantasy spawned multiple sequels over the years and became Square's main franchise.
Buoyed by the success of their Final Fantasy franchise, Square developed many other widely known games such as Chrono Trigger, Chrono Cross, Secret of Mana, Legend of Mana, Xenogears, Brave Fencer Musashi, Parasite Eve, Parasite Eve 2, Saga Frontier, Romancing Saga, Vagrant Story, Kingdom Hearts (done in collaboration with Disney Interactive), and Super Mario RPG (done under the guidance of Shigeru Miyamoto). By late 1994 they had developed a reputation as a producer of high quality role-playing video games (RPGs). Square was one of the many companies that had planned to develop and publish their games for the Nintendo 64, but with the cheaper costs associated with developing games on CD based consoles such as the Sega Saturn and the Sony PlayStation, Square decided to develop titles for the latter system. Final Fantasy VII was one of these games, and it sold 9.8 million copies, making it the second best selling game for the PlayStation.
Enix was founded on September 22, 1975 as Eidansha Boshu Service Center by Japanese architect-turned-entrepreneur Yasuhiro Fukushima. Enix focused on publishing games, often by companies who exclusively partnered with the company, and is perhaps most famous for publishing the Dragon Quest series of console games developed by Chunsoft. Key members of the developer's staff consisted of director Koichi Nakamura, writer Yuuji Horii, artist Akira Toriyama, and composer Koichi Sugiyama, among others. The first game in the Famicom-based RPG series was released in 1986, and would eventually sell 1.5 million copies in Japan, establishing Dragon Quest as the company's most profitable franchise. Despite the announcement that Enix's long-time competitor Square would develop exclusively for Sony PlayStation, Enix announced in January 1997 that it would release games for both Nintendo and Sony consoles. This caused a significant rise in stock for both Enix and Sony. By November 1999, Enix was listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange's 1st section, indicating it as a "large company".
A merger between Square and Enix was in consideration since at least 2000; however, the financial failure in 2001 of Square's first movie, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, made Enix hesitant to join with a company which was losing money. With the company in its second year of financial loss, Square approached Sony for a capital injection and on October 8, 2001, Sony Corp purchased 18.6% stake in Square to bandage their loss. Following the success of both Final Fantasy X and Kingdom Hearts, the company recovered to stability and recorded the highest operating margin in its history in fiscal year 2002. It was announced on November 25, 2002 that Square and Enix's previous plans to merge were to officially proceed, with the goal to mutually decrease development costs and to compete with foreign developers. As described by Yoichi Wada, Square's president and CEO: "Square has also fully recovered, meaning this merger is occurring at a time when both companies are at their height."
Some shareholders expressed concerns about the merger, notably Square's original founder and largest shareholder, Masashi Miyamoto, who would find himself holding significantly less if the two companies went through with the deal. Other criticism came from Takashi Oya of Deutsche Securities who expressed doubts about the benefits of such a merger: "Enix outsources game development and has few in-house creators, while Square does everything by itself. The combination of the two provides no negative factors but would bring little in the way of operational synergies." Miyamoto's issue was eventually resolved by altering the exchange ratio from one Square share for 0.81 Enix shares to 0.85 Enix shares, and the merger was greenlit. The merge was set for April 1, 2003, when the new merged entity Square Enix came into being. At the time of the merger, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees. As part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda became its vice president. The founder of Enix, Yasuhiro Fukushima, was made honorary chairman and largest shareholder of the corporation. In July of that year, the Square Enix headquarters were set to Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo as part of combining the two companies.
Acquisitions and subsidiaries
Since its foundation, Square Enix has acquired a number of companies, as well as founding several subsidiary companies. To strengthen its wireless market, Square Enix acquired mobile application developer UIEvolution in March 2004, though it was sold in December 2007, and the company instead founded its own Square Enix MobileStudio in January 2008 to focus on mobile products. In January 2005 Square Enix founded Square Enix China, expanding their interests in the People's Republic of China. In September of that year Square Enix bought the gaming developer and publisher Taito Corporation, renowned for their arcade hits such as Space Invaders and the Bubble Bobble series; Taito's home and portable console games divisions were merged into Square Enix itself by March 2010. In August 2008, Square Enix made plans for a similar expansion by way of a friendly takeover of video game developer Tecmo by purchasing shares at a 30 percent premium, but Tecmo rejected the proposed takeover. Instead, in February 2009, Square Enix announced a takeover deal for Eidos plc, the holding company for Eidos Interactive, the UK-based publisher of the Tomb Raider, Hitman, Deus Ex, Thief and Legacy of Kain franchises, along with its multiple subsidiary development studios which developed the games. The acquisition of Eidos was completed in April 2009, and in November the publisher was merged with Square Enix's European publishing organization to form Square Enix Europe. In March 2011 Square Enix founded another mobile development studio, Hippos Lab, followed by another in 2012, Square Enix Montreal. A third mobile studio was founded in Indonesia in June 2013, Smileworks, but was closed in January 2015. The latest subsidary company to be created was Shinra Technologies, a cloud gaming company, but it was only run from September 2014 to January 2016.
On October 1, 2008, Square Enix transformed into a holding company and was renamed to Square Enix Holdings. At the same time the gaming, contents and publishing businesses were transferred to a spin-off named Square Enix, sharing the same corporate leadership and offices with the holding. The primary offices for Square Enix and Square Enix Holdings are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo.
After the merger in 2003, Square Enix's development department was organized into eight Square and two Enix Product Development Divisions (開発事業部 kaihatsu jigyōbu?), each focused on different groupings of games. The divisions were spread around different offices; for example, Product Development Division 5 had offices both in Osaka and Tokyo. According to Yoichi Wada, the development department was reorganized away from the Product Development Division System by March 2007 into a project-based system. As of 2014, the teams in charge of the Final Fantasy and Kingdom Hearts series are still collectively referred to as the 1st Production Department (第1制作部 dai-ichi seisakubu?). The 1st Production Department was formed from the fall 2010 combination of Square Enix's Tokyo and Osaka development studios, with Shinji Hashimoto as its corporate executive.
The business model of Square Enix is centered on the idea of "polymorphic content", which consists of developing franchises on multiple potential hardware or media rather than being restricted by a single gaming platform. An early example of this strategy is Enix's Fullmetal Alchemist manga series, which has been adapted into two anime TV series, two movies, and several novels and video games. Other polymorphic projects include Compilation of Final Fantasy VII, Code Age, World of Mana, Ivalice Alliance and as of 2016 the ongoing Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy series. According to Yoichi Wada, "It's very difficult to hit the jackpot, as it were. Once we've hit it, we have to get all the juice possible out of it". Similar to Sony's Greatest Hits program, Square Enix also re-releases their best selling games at a reduced price under a label designated "Ultimate Hits".
The standard game design model Square Enix employs is to establish the plot, characters and art of the game first. Battle systems, field maps and cutscenes are created next. According to Taku Murata, this process became the company's model for development after the success of Square's Final Fantasy VII in 1997. The team size for Final Fantasy XIII in 2012 peaked at 180 artists, 30 programmers, and 36 game designers, but analysis and restructuring were done to outsource large scale development in the future.
Square Enix's main concentration is on video gaming, and it is primarily known for its role-playing video game franchises. Of its properties, the Final Fantasy franchise, begun in 1987, is the best-selling, with a total worldwide sales of over 110 million units as of June 2014. The Dragon Quest franchise, begun in 1986, is also high-selling; it is considered one of the most popular game series in Japan and new installments regularly outsell other games at the times of their release, with a total worldwide sales of over 64 million units as of June 2014. More recently, the Kingdom Hearts series (developed in collaboration with Disney's Buena Vista Games beginning in 2002) has become popular, with over 20 million units sold as of March 2014. Other popular series developed by Square Enix include the SaGa series with nearly 10 million copies sold since 1989, the Mana series with over 6 million sales since 1991, and the Chrono series with over 5 million sold since 1995. In addition to their sales numbers, many Square Enix games have been highly reviewed; 27 Square Enix games were included in Famitsu magazine's 2006 'Top 100 Games Ever', with 7 in the top 10 and Final Fantasy X claiming the number 1 position. The company also won IGN's award for Best Developer of 2006 for the PlayStation 2.
Square and Enix initially targeted Nintendo home consoles with their games, but Square Enix currently develops games for a wide variety of systems. In the seventh generation of video game consoles, Square Enix released new installments from its major series across all three systems, including Final Fantasy XIII on both the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, and Dragon Quest X on the Wii. Square Enix has also developed titles for handheld game consoles, including the Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, Nintendo 3DS and PlayStation Vita. In addition, they have published games for Microsoft Windows-based personal computers, and for various models of mobile phones and modern smartphones. Square Enix mobile phone games became available in 2004 on the Vodafone network in some European countries, including Germany, United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy.
Before its launch, Michihiro Sasaki, senior vice president of Square Enix, spoke about the PlayStation 3, saying "We don't want the PlayStation 3 to be the overwhelming loser, so we want to support them, but we don't want them to be the overwhelming winner either, so we can't support them too much." Square Enix continued to reiterate their devotion to multi-platform publishing in 2007, promising more support for the North American and European gaming markets where console pluralism is generally more prevalent than in Japan. Their interest in multi-platform development was made clear in 2008 when the previously PlayStation 3-exclusive game Final Fantasy XIII was announced for release on the Xbox 360.
In 2008, Square Enix released their first game for the iPod, Song Summoner: The Unsung Heroes. Square Enix made a new brand for younger children gaming that same year, known as Pure Dreams. Pure Dreams' first two games, Snoopy DS: Let's Go Meet Snoopy and His Friends! and Pingu's Wonderful Carnival were released that year. After acquiring Eidos in 2009, Square Enix combined it with its European publishing wing to create Square Enix Europe, which continues to publish high-selling Eidos franchises such as Tomb Raider (45 million sales), Hitman (15 million), Deus Ex (4 million), Thief (2.5 million) and Legacy of Kain (3.5 million). Square Enix also serves as the Japanese publisher for Ubisoft games since 2009.
Square Enix does not usually use other companies' game engines, preferring to code from scratch. Square Enix has developed two notable in-house game engines. In 2004, Square Enix began to work on a "common 3D format" which would allow the entire company to develop titles without being restricted to a specific platform: this led to the creation of a game engine named Crystal Tools, which is compatible with the PlayStation 3, the Xbox 360, Windows-based PCs and to some extent the Wii. It was first shown off at a tech demo shown off at E3 2005, and was later used for Final Fantasy XIII based on the demo's reception. Crystal Tools was also used for Final Fantasy Versus XIII before its re-branding as Final Fantasy XV and shift onto next-gen platforms. Refinement of the engine continued through the development of Final Fantasy XIII-2, and it underwent a major overhaul for Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII. No new titles have been announced for the engine, and it is believed that development of the engine has halted permanently in favor of Luminous Studio.
The second major in-house engine is Luminous Studio, intended for eighth-generation consoles, which was originally unveiled at E3 2012 through a tech demo titled Agni's Philosophy. The first major console title to be developed with the Luminous Studio was Final Fantasy XV. Luminous's development was done in tandem with XV, and the game's development helped the programming team optimize the engine.
In addition to their two major cross-platform engines and the custom engines made for individual games and platforms before and since, Square Enix uses and continues to consider other companies' engines and programming languages for their video game properties. Known examples are licensing Epic Games' Unreal Engine in 2007 for use in The Last Remnant, and using the Squirrel language for the WiiWare title Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: My Life as a King.
Before the merger, Enix published its first online game Cross Gate in Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan in 2001, and Square released Final Fantasy XI in Japan in 2002 for the PlayStation 2 and later the personal computer. With the huge success of Final Fantasy XI, the game was ported to the Xbox 360 two years later, and was the first MMORPG on the console. All versions of the game used PlayOnline, a cross-platform internet gaming platform and internet service developed by Square Enix. The platform was used as the online service for many games Square Enix developed and published throughout the decade. Due to the success of their MMORPG, Square Enix began a new project called Fantasy Earth: The Ring of Dominion. GamePot, a Japanese game portal, got the license to publish Fantasy Earth in Japan and it was released in Japan as "Fantasy Earth ZERO." In 2006, however, Square Enix dropped the Fantasy Earth Zero project, and sold it to GamePot. Square Enix released Concerto Gate, the sequel to Cross Gate, in 2007.
A next-gen MMORPG code named Rapture was developed by the Final Fantasy XI team using the company's Crystal Tools engine. It was unveiled at E3 2009 that the MMO, Final Fantasy XIV, for PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Windows, would be released on September 30, 2010. Dragon Quest X was announced in September 2011 as an MMORPG being developed for Nintendo's Wii and Wii U consoles, which released on August 2, 2012 and March 30, 2013 respectively. Like XIV, it used Crystal Tools.
Square Enix also made browser games and Facebook games, like Legend World, Chocobo's Crystal Tower and Knights of the Crystals, and online games for Yahoo! Japan, such as Monster x Dragon, Sengoku Ixa, Bravely Default: Praying Brage, Star Galaxy and Crystal Conquest.
On May 8, 2012, Square Enix announced a collaboration with Bigpoint Games to create a free-to-play cloud gaming platform that "throws players into 'limitless game worlds' directly through their web browser". The service was launched under the name CoreOnline in August 2012. Claiming "limited commercial take-up," the service was cancelled on November 29, 2013. Square Enix launched another online game service in Japan called Dive In on October 9, 2014 that allowed players to stream console games to their iOS or Android devices. The service was monetized by the amount of time players spent playing, with each game offered for free for thirty minutes. The service was cancelled on September 13, 2015.
With the merger of Taito Corporation businesses into Square Enix, the company gained possession of Taito's arcade infrastructure and facilities, and entered the arcade market in 2005. In 2010 Taito revealed NESiCAxLive, a cloud-based system of storing games and changing them through the internet instead of acquiring physical copies. This system was added to its many arcade gaming locations. The company continues to cater to the arcade audience in Japan with arcade-only titles, with game producers in 2015 stating that Square Enix as it has a loyal fan base that values the arcade gaming experience.
The company has made two forays into the film industry. The first, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within (2001), was produced by Square subsidiary Square Pictures prior to the merger (Square Pictures is now a consolidated subsidiary of Square Enix). Its box-office failure caused Enix to delay the merger, which was already considered before the creation of the film, for fear of associating itself with a company that loses money. In 2005, Square Enix released Final Fantasy VII Advent Children, a CGI-animation movie based on the PlayStation game Final Fantasy VII, set two years after the events of the game. A Deus Ex film is currently in pre-production and as of 2014 is undergoing rewrites. In 2016 Square Enix revealed a new movie called Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV based in the world of Final Fantasy XV and a new web series released on YouTube and Crunchyroll entitled Brotherhood: Final Fantasy XV
The company has a manga publishing division in Japan (originally from Enix) called Gangan Comics, which publishes content for the Japanese market only. However, in 2010, Square Enix launched a digital manga store for North American audiences via its Members services, which contains several notable series published in Gangan anthologies. Titles published by Gangan Comics include Fullmetal Alchemist, Soul Eater, and many others. Other titles include manga adaptations of various Square Enix games, like Dragon Quest, Kingdom Hearts and Star Ocean. Some of these titles have also been adapted into anime series. Fullmetal Alchemist is the most successful title of Square Enix's manga branch, with more than 64 million volumes sold worldwide. It is licensed in North America by Viz Media, while its two anime adaptations are licensed by Funimation Entertainment in the United States.
Square Enix has created merchandise for virtually all of their video game franchises, though many items are Japan exclusive. Square Enix's former online gaming portal PlayOnline sold merchandise from game franchises including Parasite Eve, Vagrant Story, Chocobo Racing, Front Mission, Chrono Cross, and Final Fantasy. Mascots from game franchises are a popular focus for merchandise, such as the Chocobo from Final Fantasy which has been seen as a a rubber duck, a plush baby Chocobo, and on coffee mugs. Square Enix also designed a Chocobo character costume for the release of Chocobo Tales. The Slime character from Dragon Quest has also been frequently used in Square Enix merchandise, especially in Japan. On the Japanese Square Enix shopping website there is also a Smile-focused section called "Smile Slime". Slime merchandise includes plush toys, pencil cases, keychains, game controllers, a stylus, and several boardgames including one titled Dragon Quest Slime Racing. In Japan, pork filled steam buns shaped like slimes have been sold. For Dragon Quest's 25th anniversary, special items were sold including business cards, tote bags, and crystal figurines. Rabites from the Mana series have appeared in several pieces of Square Enix merchandise, including plush dolls, cushions, lighters, mouse pads, straps, telephone cards, and T-shirts. Square Enix has also made merchandise for series they do not own, including figures Mass Effect and Halo.
|Square Enix, Inc. (previously Square Soft, Inc.)||March 1989||N/A||El Segundo, California, United States||American publishing|||
|Square Enix, Ltd. (previously Square Europe, Ltd.)||December 1998||November 10, 2009||London, United Kingdom||European publishing|||
|Visual Works (previously Square Visual Works)||June 1999||N/A||Japan||CGI movie production|||
|UIEvolution||March 2004||December 17, 2007||Bellevue, Washington, United States||Mobile applications|||
|Square Enix (China) Co., Ltd.||January 2005||N/A||Haidian District, Beijing, People's Republic of China||Chinese publishing|||
|Taito||September 28, 2005||N/A||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan||Space Invaders series, Bubble Bobble series|||
|Square Enix MobileStudio||January 2008||N/A||Sapporo, Japan||Mobile games|||
|Square Enix Co., Ltd. (previously the parent company)||October 1, 2008||N/A||Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan||Video games, manga comics|||
|Eidos Interactive||April 22, 2009||November 10, 2009||Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom||Just Cause series|||
|Beautiful Game Studios||April 22, 2009||N/A||London, United Kingdom||Championship Manager series|||
|Crystal Dynamics||April 22, 2009||N/A||Redwood City, California, United States||Tomb Raider series|||
|Eidos Montreal||April 22, 2009||N/A||Montreal, Quebec, Canada||Deus Ex series|||
|Eidos Shanghai||April 22, 2009||N/A||Shanghai, China||Outsourcing support|||
|IO Interactive||April 22, 2009||N/A||Copenhagen, Denmark||Hitman series|||
|Square Enix Europe (merger of Square Enix, Ltd. and Eidos)||November 10, 2009||N/A||Blackfriars, London, United Kingdom||European publishing, Just Cause series|||
|Hippos Lab||March 7, 2011||N/A||Tokyo, Japan||Smartphone games|||
|Square Enix Montreal||2012||N/A||Montreal, Quebec, Canada||Mobile games|||
|Smileworks||June 17, 2013||January 14, 2015||Indonesia||iOS, Android, Windows Phone and Nokia smartphones|||
|Shinra Technologies||September 18, 2014||January 2016||New York City, New York State, United States||Cloud services|||
- "Corporate Profile". Square Enix Holdings. Archived from the original on 2016-04-10. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- "Financial Highlights" (PDF). Square Enix. 2014-06-01. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- Fujii, Daiji (January 2006). "Entrepreneurial choices of strategic options in Japan's RPG development" (PDF). Faculty of Economics, Okayama University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-08. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- "History". Square Enix Holdings. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- "Square Enix Company Timeline". Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2009-03-05.
- "Chrono Trigger". Electronic Gaming Monthly (Ziff Davis) (66): 22. January 1995.
- IGN staff (1996-12-11). "Sony Officially Announces Alignment With Square". IGN. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06.
- Square Enix. "Square Enix History (timeline)". Square Enix. Archived from the original on 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Gotemba, Goro and Iwamoto, Yoshiyuki (2006-04-02). Japan On The Upswing: Why the Bubble Burst and Japan's Economic Renewal. Algora Publishing. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-87586-461-7.
- Rusel DeMaria, Johnny L. Wilson (2004). "Across the Pacific". High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 374. ISBN 0-07-223172-6.
- "Square Enix: February 2, 2004 - February 4, 2004" (PDF). Square Enix. 2004-02-04. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
- IGN staff (1997-01-09). "Enix To Develop Titles For The PlayStation". IGN. Archived from the original on 2016-03-16. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- IGN staff (1997-01-16). "Enix/Sony Update". IGN. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- "Transfers to 1st section". Tokyo Stock Exchange. 2008-03-01. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- Long, Andrew (2008-10-13). "RPGamer > Square-Enix Gives Chrono Break Trademark Some Playmates". RPGamer. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- Long, Andrew (2003). "Square-Enix Gives Chrono Break Trademark Some Playmates". RPGamer. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
- "Sony buys stake in Square". IGN. 2001-10-08. Archived from the original on 2012-12-28.
- Winkler, Chris (2002-11-13). "Square Expects Strong Financial Results". RPG Fan. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
- "Square Enix Financial data" (PDF). Square Enix. 2003-07-30. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
- Anoop Gantayat (November 25, 2002). "Square and Enix Merge". IGN. Archived from the original on 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- "Square and Enix to merge". IGN.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-24. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
- Stone, Courtney (2003-01-11). "Trouble in paradise". RPGamer. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
- Jim (November 26, 2002). "Japan Game Software Firms Square, Enix to Merge". GameCubicle.com. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
- Winkler, Chris (2003-01-14). "Square Enix Merger gets greenlight". RPGFan. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
- "Square Enix: 2004 Annual Report" (PDF). Square Enix. 2004-08-06. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- "Square Enix: 2004 Annual Report" (PDF). Square Enix. 2004-08-06. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Winkler, Chris (2004-04-23). "Square Enix - One Year After the Merger". RPGFan. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- "Square and Enix Merge". IGN. 2002-11-25. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
- "Shareholder Information". Square Enix Holdings. Archived from the original on 2013-03-23. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- Keener, Dan (2007-12-17). "Square Enix sheds UIEvolution". Gaming Nexus. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- "Group Companies". Square Enix. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- "お知らせ｜TECH事業｜法人さま向け｜株式会社タイトー". Taito Corporation. 2010-03-11. Archived from the original on 2014-07-06. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Thorsen, Tor (2008-08-29). "Report: Square Enix makes $200M Tecmo bid". Gamespot. Archived from the original on 2009-01-10. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
- Ashcraft, Brian (2008-09-04). "Report: Square Enix Takes "No" For An Answer, Withdraws Takeover Offer". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2011-02-10. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
- "Offer for Eidos plc". Square Enix Holdings Co Limited. 2009-02-12. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
- Andy Chalk (2014-10-27). "The $200 Eidos Anthology arrives on Steam". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- Corporate Strategy meeting regarding Eidos integration (PDF), Square Enix, 2009-04-22, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-07
- "Square Enix Europe New Identity Confirmed for Square Enix and Eidos" (PDF). Square Enix. November 10, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
- Rose, Mike (2011-03-23). "Square Enix Forms New Japanese Mobile Studio Hippos Lab". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- "Square Enix to Expand Further in Montreal". Square Enix. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- Romano, Sal (2014-09-18). "Square Enix announces Shinra cloud gaming service". Gematsu. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- Purchese, Robert (2016-01-06). "Square Enix closes cloud gaming company Shinra Technologies". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
- 会社概要 (in Japanese). Square Enix. Archived from the original on 2012-05-14. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- "Map". Square Enix Corporation. Archived from the original on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- "スクウェアエニックス、合併後の事業部の様子と開発中ソフト". V Jump (Shueisha Inc.). 2003-09-20. Archived from the original on 2003-12-27.
- Winkler, Chris (2003). "Square Enix Talks Current Status". RPGFan. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "(TGS)スクエニ第1開発事業部新規タイトル発表会、詳細レポート！". Dengeki Online (in Japanese). ASCII Media Works Inc. 2003-09-26. Archived from the original on 2011-01-20. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "2003年5月29日開催スクウェア・エニックス戦略説明会概要" (PDF). Square Enix. 2003-06-05. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- "PS3向けタイトル開発に向けた準備も万全（スクウェア・エニックス 代表取締役社長 和田洋一氏）". Nikkei Trendy. 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- Gantayat, Anoop (2011-12-04). "Square Enix 1st Production Dept. Developing Action RPG For PS3 and Vita". Andraisang. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- 4Gamer.net (2011-01-18). 「Final Fantasy XIII-2」が2011年発売予定，「Agito」は「Final Fantasy 零式」と名称変更して2011年夏発売。「Square Enix 1st Production Department Premiere」をTwitterで実況 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (2014-02-19). "Square Enix "definitely interested" in bringing future Final Fantasy games to PC". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- "「Final Fantasy XIII-2」が2011年発売予定，「Agito」は「Final Fantasy 零式」と名称変更して2011年夏発売。「Square Enix 1st Production Department Premiere」をTwitterで実況". 4Gamer.net (in Japanese). Aetas, Inc. 2011-01-18. Archived from the original on 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
- Fahey, Rob (16 July 2004). "Square Peg, European Hole". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
- "FMA's Irie Confirms Animating Manga's End in 2 Months". Anime News Network. May 6, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- "New Fullmetal Alchemist TV Anime Series Confirmed". Anime News Network. August 20, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2008.
- "Manga UK Adds New Fullmetal Alchemist, Sengoku Basara". Anime News Network. February 9, 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- "Japanese Box Office". Anime News Network. 27 July 2005. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood Movie Teaser Streamed". Anime News Network. November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- 原作/荒川 弘 著者/井上 真 (in Japanese). Square Enix. Archived from the original on March 5, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
- "Fullmetal Alchemist DS-bound". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
- "Fullmetal Alchemist video games" (in Japanese). Sony. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved August 5, 2006.
- "2007 Profile" (PDF). Square Enix. 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- Welsh, Oli (2008-01-15). "Square Dance". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
- Gantayat, Anoop (2005-07-01). "SQUARE ENIX ANNOUNCES ULTIMATE HITS COLLECTION". IGN. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
- Kohler, Chris (2008-02-21). "How WiiWare Changed Square Enix". Wired. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29.
- Sheffield, Brandon (2012-06-27). "Square Enix to avoid large-scale internal development after Final Fantasy XIII-2". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
- Bertschy, Zac (2008-08-03). "Interview: Square Enix's National Manager of Merchandise, Kanji Tashiro". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- "Square Enix Press Center - CRYSTAL DYNAMICS UNVEILS RISE OF THE TOMB RAIDER". Square Enix. 2014-06-09. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
- "Digital Entertainment and Amusement Businesses Related IPs". Square Enix. 2014-03-31. Archived from the original on 2012-05-16. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "Square Enix franchises and businesses". Square Enix. Archived from the original on 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- Wollenschlaeger, Alex (2006-03-06). "Japan Picks the Best Games Ever". Kikizo. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "IGN presents Best of 2006". IGN. 2006. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "Square Enix Game List". IGN. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- "Corporate History - 1975 - 2002". Square Enix. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13.
- Shreier, Jason (September 18, 2014). "Final Fantasy XIII Is Coming To PC". Kotaku. Archived from the original on September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- Agnello, Anthony John (April 26, 2012). "Dragon Quest X begins the unusual transition from Wii to Wii U in Japan this August". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- Gann, Patrick (December 12, 2009). "Sayuri Sugawara - Because You're Here". RPGFan. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Square Enix. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Jenkins, David (2004-07-08). "Square Enix Sign Euro Mobile Deal". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- Sinclair, Brian (2006). "Square Enix wants a three-way race". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- Berti, Matt (2007). "Square Enix to devote more attention to U.S., European markets". SquareHaven. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
- Leadbetter, Richard (2010-03-05). "Digital Foundry: Face-Off: Final Fantasy XIII". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2011-05-08. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
- Bailey, Kat (2008-07-07). "Square's First iPod Game Uses Music to Fight". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- JC Fletcher (2008-08-01). "Square Enix launches new label casual, family-oriented games.". joystiq. Archived from the original on 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- "SCi Entertainment Group Plc Annual Report 2007" (PDF). SCI Entertainment Group. Archived from the original on 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- Burnes, Andrew (2009-04-23). "Eidos & Square Enix Sales Figures Revealed". Voodoo Extreme. IGN. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2011-09-07.
- "Deus Ex: Human Revolution sells 2.18 million". Eurogamer. 2011-11-04. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
- "Thief - SteamSpy". Steam Spy. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- Fahey, Mike (2009-01-08). "Square Enix To Deliver Ubisoft Games To Japan". Kotaku. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- Boyer, Brandon. "Gamasutra - GDC 2008 Event Coverage". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2008-02-27.
- Nakamura, Seiji (2008-02-25). "スクエニ村田琢氏、「ホワイトエンジン」改め「Crystal Tools」を正式発表 「The Technology of FINAL FANTASY」、質疑応答も全文収録!!". Game Watch. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- "GDC08: Square Enix unveils Crystal Tools engine". Engadget. Archived from the original on 2015-01-28.
- Cook, Dave (2012-10-03). "Final Fantasy anniversary interview: Toriyama speaks". VG247. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
- Gantayat, Anoop (2006-11-08). "Final Fantasy XIII Update". IGN. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
- Gantayat, Anoop (2011-09-21). "Why is Final Fantasy Versus XIII Using the Luminous Engine?". Andriasang. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13.
- Leo, Jon (2011-06-14). "Final Fantasy XIII-2 Q&A: Yoshinori Kitase and Motomu Toriyama". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- "【E3 2013】2013年はいろいろな形で「FF」を盛り上げたい―「ファイナルファンタジー」シリーズを手がける北瀬佳範氏、鳥山求氏にインタビュー". Gamer. 2013-06-13. Archived from the original on 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- Heemsbergen, Derek (2014-11-02). "Review - Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII". RPGFan. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- Chan, Leo (2011-08-26). "Square Enix shines light on new in-house HD game engine". Neoseeker. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- "Agni’s Philosophy – FINAL FANTASY REALTIME TECH DEMO". 2013-01-01.
- "Square Enix Releases AGNI’S PHILOSOPHY, A Real Time Tech Demo [VIDEO]". Zoknowsgaming. 2012-06-20. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- "今週のスクープ ファイナルファンタジーXV". Weekly Famitsu (Enterbrain) (1281): 11ff. 2013-06-20.
- Tomer (2007). "Square Enix Acquires Unreal Engine 3 License". Forever Fantasy. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- "Gamers Meet Square Enix for Free in Concerto Gate". IGN. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
- Thorsen, Tor (2006-04-17). "Shippin' Out 4/17-4/21: Final Fantasy XI Online, Brain Age". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2006-12-20.
- "The Most Profitable Final Fantasy of All-Time is...". IGN. Archived from the original on 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
- Gabe Wollenburg. "Square Announces Pay-Online Play Online". RPGamer. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- GameSpot Staff (April 18, 2005). "'Final Fantasy XI' under attack". CNET. Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- GameSpot Staff (2004-09-15). "Square Enix developing new MMORPG". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- Lefebvre, Eliot (2010-01-14). "Gamepot Partners with Square-Enix for Fantasy Earth Zero". Engadget. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
- Spencer (January 24, 2007). "Introducing Square-Enix’s new online game: Concerto Gate". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- Juba, Joe (2010-03-10). "The Making of Final Fantasy XIII". Game Informer. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- Tong, Sophia (2009-06-03). "Square Enix 'considering' FFXIV Online for 'Microsoft hardware'". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Brown, Nathan. "Square Enix to launch Dragon Quest X for Wii U". EDGE Online. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Ould Braham, Idir Alexander (2012-07-14). "Notre interview vidéo exclusive de Julien Merceron". FFDream.com. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- "Chocobo's Crystal Tower". IGN. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- "Knights of the Crystals". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- Ashcraft, Brian (2011-10-06). "It's Square Enix x Yahoo! Monster x Dragon". Kotaku. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
- Spencer (2012-03-30). "Crystal Conquest Is A Massively Multiplayer Strategy Game… With Summon Monsters". Siliconera. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- Rose, Mike (2012-05-08). "Square Enix, Bigpoint partner for player-powered Gameglobe". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- Lee, Dave (2012-08-29). "Square Enix's CoreOnline makes console games 'free' online". BBC. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- Handrahan, Matthew (2014-01-17). "Square Enix shutters CoreOnline". Gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- Eisenbeis, Richard (2014-09-19). "Hands On with Square Enix's New Streaming Service". Kotaku. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- Alvarez, Edgar (2015-08-14). "Square Enix is killing its game-streaming service in Japan". Engadget. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- Jenkins, David (2005-12-12). "Square Enix To Complete Taito Takeover". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "Taito Announces Digital Download System For Arcades". Gamasutra. Gamasutra. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Sato (2015-05-07). "Square Enix Developers On Why They Make Arcade Games". Siliconera. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- "Annual Report 2007" (PDF). Square Enix. p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- Long, Andrew. "Square-Enix Gives Chrono Break Trademark Some Playmates". RPGamer.
- IGN Staff (2006-04-17). "Final Fantasy VII Advent Children Review". IGN. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- Tilly, Chris (2012-07-10). "Deus Ex Movie in the Works". IGN. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- Farokhmanesh, Megan (2014-03-21). "Deus Ex film 'still alive,' undergoing rewrites". Polygon. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
- Sato (2016-03-30). "Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV Revealed As An Advent Children-Style CGI Film". Siliconera. Archived from the original on 2016-03-31. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- "SQUARE ENIX LAUNCHES ONLINE MANGA STORE". Square Enix. 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- 週刊少年ジャンプ [Weekly Shōnen Jump] (in Japanese) 45. Japan: Kazuhiko Torishima. 1989. p. 72.
- "USA Today Best-Selling Books Database - Top 150 best sellers". USA Today. Archived from the original on 2012-04-05. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- Clements, Jonathan; Helen McCarthy (2001-09-01). The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese animation since 1917. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 375. ISBN 1-880656-64-7. OCLC 47255331.
- Ashcraft, Brian (2011-04-01). "Manga From Square Enix Coming To TV And Film". Kotaku. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- "Businesses". Square Enix. May 18, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
- "Fullmetal Alchemist, Volume 1". Viz Media. Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- "Fullmetal Alchemist, Volume 1: The Curse (Episodes 1-4) (2004)". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on 2009-09-16. Retrieved October 10, 2008.
- IGN Staff (August 18, 2000). "PlayOnline Displays Cool Square Stuff". IGN. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Michael McWhertor (2008-01-22). "Final Fantasy's Chocobo Goes Rubbery, Ducky". Kotaku. Archived from the original on January 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- SQUARE ENIX MEMBERS (2008-04-24). "NY Comic Con Event Diary: Day 2". Square Enix. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
- "PlayStation: The Official Magazine Holiday Gift Guide '08," PlayStation: The Official Magazine 13 (Holiday 2008): 37.
- McWhertor, Michael (2007-05-16). "Chocobo Coffee Mugs". Kotaku. Archived from the original on April 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Fahey, Mike (2006-12-14). "Chocobos In The Wild". Kotaku. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
- Henry Gilbert (July 11, 2010). "Everything you need to know about Dragon Quest". GamesRadar. Future plc. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Mike Schramm (June 19, 2011). "Dragon Quest 25th anniversary merch features plushie slimes, business card cases". Joystiq. AOL. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "Slime Plush Toys". Slimeshrine. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
- Joshua Fruhlinger (October 28, 2004). "Dragon Quest Slime PS2 controller from Hori". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Smile Slime". Square Enix Shop. Square Enix JP Shopping Site. Archived from the original on December 23, 2006. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
- Candace Savino (November 26, 2007). "Dragon Quest board game out in Japan, looks like good times". Joystiq. AOL. Archived from the original on 2007-11-26. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Jasmine Maleficent Rea (July 29, 2012). "Dragon Quest slime racing is now a board game". Games Beat. Venture Beat.
- Chris Kohler (April 27, 2010). "Eating Slime Buns at Tokyo’s Dragon QuestBar". Wired Magazine. Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on 2014-03-24. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- "Legend of Mana Products". RPGFan. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
- Ashcraft, Brian (2012-09-22). "From Mass Effect to Metal Gear, This is a Symphony in Plastic". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2013-01-28.
- McLaughlin, Rus (April 30, 2008). "IGN Presents: The History of Final Fantasy VII". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
- Klepek, Patrick (2005-09-28). "Square Enix Swallows Taito". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- Gera, Emily (2013-06-17). "Square Enix opens mobile studio in Indonesia". Polygon. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
- Anne-Lee, Mary (2015-01-14). "Square Enix shuts down Indonesia spin-off studio, Smileworks". Tehcinasia. Retrieved 2015-08-10.