|Born||Harold Walter Krotoschiner
7 October 1939
Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England
|Alma mater||University of Sheffield|
Sir Harold (Harry) Walter Kroto, FRS (born Harold Walter Krotoschiner; 7 October 1939), is an English chemist. He shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Curl and Richard Smalley. Kroto is the Francis Eppes Professor of Chemistry at the Florida State University, which he joined in 2004. Prior to that, he spent a large part of his career at the University of Sussex, where he now holds an emeritus professorship.
- 1 Early years
- 2 Education and academic career
- 3 Global Educational Outreach for Science Engineering and Technology
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Quotes
- 6 Honours and awards
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Kroto was born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, to Edith and Heinz Krotoschiner, with his name being of Silesian origin. His father's family came from Bojanowo, Poland, and his mother's from Berlin, Germany. Both his parents were born in Berlin and came to Great Britain in the 1930s as refugees from the Nazis because his father was Jewish. He was raised in Bolton, Lancashire, England, and attended Bolton School, where he was a contemporary of the highly acclaimed actor Ian McKellen. In 1955, the family name was shortened to Kroto.
As a child, he became fascinated by a Meccano set. Kroto credits Meccano — amongst other things — with developing skills useful in scientific research. He developed an interest in chemistry, physics, and mathematics in secondary school, and because his sixth form chemistry teacher (Harry Heaney – who subsequently became a University Professor) felt that the University of Sheffield had the best chemistry department in the United Kingdom, he went to Sheffield.
Although raised Jewish, Harry Kroto has stated that religion never made any sense to him. He is a humanist who claims to have three religions: Amnesty Internationalism, atheism, and humor. He is a distinguished supporter of the British Humanist Association. In 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.
Education and academic career
Kroto was educated at Bolton School and went to Sheffield University in 1958. At Sheffield he obtained a first class honours BSc degree in Chemistry (1961) and a PhD in Molecular Spectroscopy (1964). At University he also became art editor of “Arrows” the University student magazine, played tennis for the University team (reaching the UAU finals twice) and was President of the Student Athletics Council (1963–64). After a 2-year postdoctoral position at the National Research Council in Ottawa from 1964-1966 carrying out further work in molecular spectroscopy, he spent a year at the Murray Hill Bell Laboratories in New Jersey (1966-1967) carrying out Raman studies of liquid phase interactions and worked on quantum chemistry. He started his academic career at the University of Sussex in Brighton.
Among other things such as making the first phosphaalkenes (compounds with carbon phosphorus double bonds), his doctoral studies included some unpublished research on carbon suboxide, O=C=C=C=O, and this led to a general interest in molecules containing chains of carbon atoms with numerous multiple bonds. He started his work with an interest in organic chemistry, but when he learned about spectroscopy it inclined him towards quantum chemistry; he later developed an interest in astrochemistry.
After postdoctoral research at the National Research Council in Canada and Bell Laboratories in the United States he began teaching and research at the University of Sussex in England in 1967. He became a full professor in 1975, and a Royal Society Research Professor from 1991 – 2007.
Early work at University of Sussex
During 1967–1985 he carried out research mainly focused on the spectroscopic studies of new and novel unstable and semi-stable species. This work resulted in the birth of the various fields of new chemistry involving carbon multiply bonded to second and third row elements e.g. S, Se and P. A particularly important breakthrough (with Sussex colleague John Nixon) was the creation of several novel, new phosphorus species detected by microwave spectroscopy. This work resulted in the birth of the field(s) of phosphaalkene and phosphaalkyne chemistry. These species contain carbon double and triple bonded to phosphorus (C=P and C≡P).
In 1975 Sussex laboratory microwave measurements (with Sussex colleague David Walton) on long linear carbon chain molecules led to radio astronomy observations (with Canadian astronomers) which revealed the surprising fact that these unusual carbonaceous species existed in relatively large abundances in interstellar space as well as the outer atmospheres of certain stars – the carbon-rich red giants.
Discovery of buckminsterfullerene
In 1985, on the basis of the Sussex studies and the stellar discoveries, laboratory experiments (with co-workers Jim Heath Sean O’Brien, Yuan Liu, Robert Curl and Rick Smalley at Rice University) which simulated the chemical reactions in the atmospheres of the red giant stars uncovered the amazing fact that a stable C60 molecule could form spontaneously from a condensing carbon vapour.
The C60 molecule is an elegant molecule with the same symmetry pattern as a football, with 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. Kroto named the molecule buckminsterfullerene, after Buckminster Fuller who had conceived of the geodesic domes, as the dome concept had provided a clue to the likely structure of the new species.
The discovery of C60 caused Kroto to postpone his dream of setting up an art and graphic design studio – he had been doing graphics semi-professionally for years. Indeed his first major award was for graphics – The Sunday Times Book Jacket Design Award (1964). In 1985 the C60 discovery appeared so exciting that he shifted his research from spectroscopy in order to probe the consequences of the C60 structural concept (and prove it correct) and to exploit the implications for chemistry and material science. His present research is in the areas of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.
Research at Florida State University
During the period 2004-5 he left the University of Sussex to take up a new position as Francis Eppes Professor of Chemistry at Florida State University. At FSU he is carrying out fundamental research on: Carbon vapour with Professor Alan Marshall; Open framework condensed phase systems with strategically important electrical and magnetic behaviour with Professors Naresh Dalal (FSU) and Tony Cheetham (Cambridge); and the mechanism of formation and properties of nano-structured systems. In addition, he participates in research initiatives at FSU that probe the astrochemistry of fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar/circumstellar space, as well as their relevance to stardust. In 2007 he started a new Internet educational initiative. This Global Education Outreach in Science, Engineering and Technology – project known as GEOSET is streaming SET programmes of all kinds at www.geoset.info and www.geoset.fsu.edu. This project aims to help teachers improve the quality of science education in schools worldwide. From 2004 he has been on the Scripps Research Institute Board of Scientific Governors and was elected a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in 2007.
Educational outreach and public service
In 1995 he jointly set up the Vega Science Trust a UK educational charity to create high quality science films including lectures, interviews with Nobel Laureates, discussion programmes, careers and teaching resources for TV and Internet Broadcast. Vega has produced some 280 plus programmes of which 50 have been broadcast on BBC TV. All programmes stream for free from the Vega website which acts as a TV science channel. The website which is accessed by over 165 countries is designed by Harry Kroto and shows his other main interest – graphic design.
In 2009, Kroto spearheaded the development of a second science education initiative, GEOSET. Short for the Global Educational Outreach for Science, Engineering and Technology, GEOSET is an ever-growing online cache of recorded teaching modules that are freely downloadable to educators and the public. The program aims to increase knowledge of the sciences by creating a global repository of educational videos and presentations from leading universities and institutions.
In 2003, prior to the Blair/Bush invasion of Iraq on the pretext that Iraq had Weapons of Mass Destruction, Harry Kroto initiated and organised the publication of a letter to be signed by a dozen UK Nobel Laureates and published in the Times. It was composed by his friend the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate the late Sir Joseph Rotblat and published in The Times February 15 (2003).
From 2002–2004, Kroto served as President of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Since 2004, he has held the Francis Eppes Professorship in the chemistry department at Florida State University and presently carries out research in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
In October 2010 Kroto participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Lunch with a Laureate program where middle and high school students had the opportunity to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize–winning scientist.
Kroto spoke at CSIcon 2011. CSIcon is a convention "dedicated to scientific inquiry and critical thinking" organized by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry in association with Skeptical Inquirer magazine and the Center for Inquiry. He also delivered the IPhO 2012 lecture at the International Physics Olympiad held in Estonia.
In 2014, Kroto spoke at the Starmus Festival in the Canary Islands, delivering a lecture about his life in science, chemistry, design, and more.
Kroto's graphic design work has resulted in numerous posters, letterheads, logos, book/journal covers, medal design, etc. He has produced numerous artwork after receiving graphic awards in the Sunday Times Book Jacket Design competition (1964) and the Moet Hennesy/Louis Vuitton Science pour l'Art Prize (1994). Other notable graphical works include the design of the Nobel UK Stamp for Chemistry (2001) and features at the Royal Academy (London) Summer Exhibition (2004).
Global Educational Outreach for Science Engineering and Technology
The Global Educational Outreach for Science Engineering and Technology (Geoset) initiative uses new IT technology to provide imaginative teaching material in modules focused relatively tighly on specific topics. It is a highly flexible medium enabling a wide range of different educational approaches to be explored and it is particularly useful for STEM teachers who will find valuable downloadable teaching resource material created by innovative science and technology experts and educators. The materials has been created by faculty and students in universities as well as by high schools, thus guaranteeing a measure of reliability. A wonderful bonus of GEOSET recordings is that they provide revolutionary additions to the students' resumes, as they improve immeasurable succuess in gaining jobs, cholarships, award, and postdocs. The key aim of GEOSET is the creation of global network of participating sites catering to local and globed need for much improved STEM education. Participating institutions each set up its own streaming node and upload URLs with associated information to the searchable gateway www.geoset.info.
In 1963, he married Margaret Henrietta Hunter, also a student at the University. Harry and Margaret Kroto have two sons: Stephen and David. Throughout his entire life, Kroto has been a lover of film, theatre, art, and music and has published his own artwork. Kroto calls himself a devout atheist. On 15 September 2010, Kroto, along with 54 other public figures, signed an open letter published in The Guardian, stating their opposition to Pope Benedict XVI's state visit to the UK.
- “The humanitarian philosophies that have been developed (sometimes under some religious banner and invariably in the face of religious opposition) are human inventions, as the name implies - and our species deserves the credit. I am a devout atheist - nothing else makes any sense to me and I must admit to being bewildered by those, who in the face of what appears so obvious, still believe in a mystical creator. However I can see that the promise of infinite immortality is a more palatable proposition than the absolute certainty of finite mortality which those of us who are subject to free thought (as opposed to free will) have to look forward to and many may not have the strength of character to accept it.
- "Thus I am a supporter of Amnesty International, a humanist and an atheist. I believe in a secular, democratic society in which women and men have total equality, and individuals can pursue their lives as they wish, free of constraints - religious or otherwise. I feel that the difficult ethical and social problems which invariably arise must be solved, as best they can, by discussion and am opposed to the crude simplistic application of dogmatic rules invented in past millennia and ascribed to a plethora of mystical creators - or the latest invention; a single creator masquerading under a plethora of pseudonyms. Organisations which seek political influence by co-ordinated effort disturb me and thus I believe religious and related pressure groups which operate in this way are acting antidemocratically and should play no part in politics. I also have problems with those who preach racist and related ideologies which seem almost indistinguishable from nationalism, patriotism and religious conviction.”
- In reference to Kroto's view that religious dogma causes people to accept unethical or inhumane actions: "The only mistake Bernie Madoff made was to promise returns in this life."
- "Scientists have a responsibility, or at least I feel I have a responsibility, to ensure that what I do is for the benefit of the human race. It is important that we try to point out facts to help those in power to make decisions. Unfortunately, this is not often the case. Although knowledge cannot guarantee good decisions, common sense suggests that wisdom is an unlikely consequence of ignorance."
Honours and awards
- Tilden Lectureship of the RSC, 1981
- International Prize for New Materials American Physical Society, 1992 (with R F Curl and R E Smalley)
- Italgas Prize for Innovation in Chemistry, 1992
- Royal Society of Chemistry Longstaff Medal, 1993
- Hewlett Packard Europhysics Prize, 1994 (with Wolfgang Kraetschmer, Don Huffman and Richard Smalley)
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1996 (shared with Robert Curl and Richard Smalley)
- American Carbon Society Medal for Achievement in Carbon Science, 1997 (shared with Robert Curl and Richard Smalley)
- Blackett Lectureship (Royal Society), 1999
- Faraday Award and Lecture (Royal Society), 2001
- Dalton Medal (Manchester Lit and Phil), 1998
- Erasmus Medal of Academia Europaea, 2002
- Copley Medal of the Royal Society, 2002
- Order of Cherubini (Torino), 2005
- Kavli Lecturer, 2008
- Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
- University of Stockholm (Sweden)
- University of Limburg (Belgium)
- University of Sheffield (UK)
- University of Kingston (UK)
- University of Sussex (UK)
- University of Helsinki (Finland)
- University of Nottingham (UK)
- Yokohama City University (Japan)
- University of Sheffield-Hallam (UK)
- University of Aberdeen (Scotland)
- University of Leicester (UK)
- University of Aveiro (Portugal)
- University of Bielefeld (Germany)
- University of Hull (UK)
- Manchester Metropolitan University (UK)
- Hong Kong City University (HK China)
- Gustavus Adolphus College (Minnesota, US)
- University College London (UK)
- University of Patras (Greece)
- University of Dalhousie (Halifax, NovaScotia, Canada)
- University of Strathclyde (Scotland)
- University of Manchester (UK)
- Kraków Mining University (Poland)
- University of Durham (UK)
- Queens University Belfast (NI)
- University of Surrey (UK)
- Polytechnico di Torino (Italy)
- University of Chemical Technology – Beijing (China)
- University of Liverpool (UK)
- Florida Southern College (US)
- Keio University (Japan)
- University of Chiba (Japan)
- University of Bolton (UK)
- University of Hartford (US)
- University of Tel Aviv (Israel)
- University of Poitiers (France)
- Universidad Complutense de Madrid
- Naresuan University (Thailand)
- Vietnam National University (Hanoi)
- Edinburgh University (UK)
- University of Primorska (Slovenia)
Honorary degrees returned due to closure of Chemistry Departments
- "Sir Harold Kroto - Nobel Autobiography".
- Harold Walter Kroto Biography – life, family, parents, name, wife, school, mother, young, born, college, time, year, Studied Chemistry in College. Notablebiographies.com. Retrieved on 25 December 2011.
- "Harry Kroto – Autobiography". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "A Round Peg in a Square World". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Nobel Laureate talk Inspiration, Education, Science - and Snoopy".
- "The Science Studio with Sir Harold Kroto" (PDF).
- "Harry Kroto - quotes".
- "Distinguished supporters". British Humanist Association. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "The detection of unstable molecules by microwave spectroscopy: phospha-alkenes". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications: 513. 1976. doi:10.1039/C39760000513.
- "Detection of the Heavy Interstellar Molecule Cyanodiacetylene". The Astrophysical Journal 205: L173. 1976. Bibcode:1976ApJ...205L.173A. doi:10.1086/182117.
- "C60: Buckminsterfullerene". Nature 318 (6042): 162–163. 1985. doi:10.1038/318162a0.
- "Architects of the Microcosmos".
- "C60 - the Celestial Sphere that Fell to Earth".
- "Sir Harold Kroto FSU Profile".
- "Tiny buckyball grown around metal atom".
- "Buckyballs grow by gobbling up carbon".
- "Multiferroic Behavior Associated with an Order−Disorder Hydrogen Bonding Transition in Metal−Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with the Perovskite ABX3 Architecture". Journal of the American Chemical Society 131: 13625–13627. 2009. doi:10.1021/ja904156s.
- "Closed Network Growth of Fullerenes". Nature Communications 3 (5): 855. 2012. doi:10.1038/ncomms1853.
- "Boron vapour trail leads to heterofullerenes".
- "Bottom-up formation of endohedral mono-metallofullerenes is directed by charge transfer". Nature Communications 5: 5844. doi:10.1038/ncomms6844.
- "Metallofullerene and Fullerene Formation from Condensing Carbon Gas under Conditions of Stellar Outflows and Implication to Stardust". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 2013.
- "Sodium aids metallofullerene formation in stellar outflows". PNAS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Supernova Chemistry". PNAS Science Session Podcast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "5 days of opening minds (2013)".
- "Nobel laureates against the war". The Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Kroto, Harry. "Times Higher Education". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Abstracts of Kroto's Times Higher Education Articles". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- RSC Presidents 1980 to Present Day. Rsc.org. Retrieved on 25 December 2011.
- "FSU Profile".
- James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy Rice University | Events | Civic Scientist Lecture – Robert F. Curl Jr., Ph.D., and Sir Harry W. Kroto, Ph.D. Bakerinstitute.org (13 October 2010). Retrieved on 25 December 2011.
- Lunch with a Laureate at the Wayback Machine (archived April 21, 2010). usasciencefestival.org
- Erudite. Mgu.ac.in. Retrieved on 25 December 2011.
- "SCIcon 2011 Speakers". Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "SCIcon Official Site". Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- http://www.kroto.info/Graphics/Covers/sundaytimes2.jpg. Missing or empty
- http://www.stamp-photos.com/picture/number144.asp. Missing or empty
- "Letters: Harsh judgments on the pope and religion". The Guardian (London). 15 September 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
- Harry Kroto Quotes http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/3096030.Harry_Kroto. Retrieved 31 August 2014. Missing or empty
- "Think About It: Nobel Prize Winner Sir Harold Kroto Throws Down the Gauntlet". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- The London Gazette. 29 December 1995 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/54255/supplements/2. Retrieved 21 August 2011. Missing or empty
- "Kroto Researach Institute".
- "Kroto Buildings in North Campus of Sheffield". https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/northcampus.
- "Kroto Confocal Facility".
- "Kroto protests cutbacks".
- "Nobel prize winner joins Exeter closure protest".
- Harry Kroto personal website
- Florida State University page
- University of Sheffield page
- Vega Science Trust
- Kroto Research Campus