Hawker Hurricane

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Hurricane
Hurricane mk1 r4118 fairford arp.jpg
Hurricane Mk I (R4118), which fought in the Battle of Britain
Role Fighter
National origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer Hawker Aircraft
Designer Sydney Camm
First flight 6 November 1935
Introduction 25 December 1937[1]
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Produced 1937–1944
Number built 14,583[2]
Variants Hawker Hurricane variants

The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Although overshadowed by the Supermarine Spitfire, the aircraft became renowned during the Battle of Britain, accounting for 60 percent of the RAF air victories in the battle, and served in all the major theatres of the Second World War.

The Hurricane originated from discussions during the early 1930s between RAF officials and British aircraft designer Sir Sydney Camm on the topic of a proposed monoplane derivative of the Hawker Fury biplane. Despite an institutional preference for biplanes at the time and repeated lack of interest by the Air Ministry, Hawker chose to continue refining their monoplane proposal, which resulted in the incorporation of several innovations that would become critical to wartime fighter aircraft, such as a retractable undercarriage and the newly developed Rolls-Royce Merlin engine. In late 1934, the Air Ministry placed an order for Hawker's "Interceptor Monoplane". On 6 November 1935, the prototype Hurricane, K5083, performed its maiden flight.

In June 1936, the Hurricane was ordered into production by the Air Ministry; the type entered squadron service on 25 December 1937. The manufacture and maintenance of the aircraft was greatly eased by its use of conventional construction methods, which enabled squadrons to perform many major repairs themselves without much external support. The Hurricane was rapidly procured prior to the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, by which point, the RAF operated a total of 18 Hurricane-equipped squadrons. The aircraft quickly found itself being heavily relied upon to defend against the vast and varied German aircraft operated by Luftwaffe, including dogfighting with the capable Messerschmitt Bf 109, across multiple theatres of action. It is perhaps best known for its contribution to Britain's home defences during the Battle of Britain.

The Hurricane evolved through several versions and adaptations, resulting in a series of aircraft which acted as fighters, bomber-interceptors, fighter-bombers (also called "Hurribombers") and ground support aircraft. Further navalised versions, which were popularly known as the Sea Hurricane, received modifications that enabled their operation from ships; some of these were converted to be used as catapult-launched convoy escorts, known as "Hurricats". By the end of production in 1944, in excess of 14,583 Hurricanes had been completed (including at least 800 that had been converted to a Sea Hurricane configuration[3] and around 1,400 that had been constructed in Canada by Canadian Car and Foundry).

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

During the era in which the Hawker Aircraft company would develop the Hurricane, RAF Fighter Command consisted of just 13 squadrons, each equipped with either the Hawker Fury, Hawker Demon, or the Bristol Bulldog, all biplanes furnished with fixed-pitch wooden propellers and non-retractable undercarriages.[4][5] At the time, there was an institutional reluctance towards change within the Air Staff; according to aviation author Francis K. Mason, some senior figures were prejudiced against the adoption of monoplane fighter aircraft, while mid-level officers were typically approachable on the subject and design concepts that made use of such configurations.[5]

In 1934, the British Air Ministry issued Specification F.7/30 in response to demands within the Royal Air Force (RAF) for a new generation of fighter aircraft. Earlier, during 1933, British aircraft designer Sydney Camm had conducted discussions with Major John Buchanan of the Directorate of Technical Development on a monoplane based on the existing Fury.[6] Mason attributes Camm's discussions with figures within the RAF, such as Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley, as having provoked the specification and some of its details, such as the preference for armaments being installed within the wings instead of within the aircraft's nose.[7]

Camm's initial submission in response to F.7/30, the Hawker P.V.3, was essentially a scaled-up version of the Fury biplane.[8] However, the P.V.3 was not among the proposals which the Air Ministry had selected to be constructed as a government-sponsored prototype. After the rejection of the P.V.3 proposal, Camm commenced work upon a new design involving a cantilever monoplane arrangement, complete with a fixed undercarriage, armed with four machine guns and powered by the Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine. The original 1934 armament specifications for what would evolve into the Hurricane were for a similar armament fitment to the Gloster Gladiator: four machine-guns, two in the wings and two in the fuselage, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc. By January 1934, the proposal's detail drawings had been finished, but these failed to impress the Air Ministry enough for a prototype to be ordered.[9]

Camm's response to this rejection was to further develop the design, during which a retractable undercarriage was introduced and the unsatisfactory Goshawk engine was replaced by a new Rolls-Royce design, initially designated as the PV-12, which would subsequently go on to become famous as the Merlin engine. In August 1934, a one-tenth scale model of the design was produced and dispatched to the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington. A series of wind tunnel tests confirmed the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft were in order, and in September 1934, Camm again approached the Air Ministry. This time, the Ministry's response was favourable, and a prototype of the "Interceptor Monoplane" was promptly ordered.[10]

Prototype and trials[edit]

An early mock-up for the Hurricane's fuselage, showing side fuselage-mounted synchronized machine gun, like earlier British biplane fighters.

In November 1934, the Air Ministry issued Specification F.5/34 which, drawing on the work of Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley, called for new fighter aircraft to be armed with a total of eight guns. However, by this time, work had progressed too far to immediately modify the planned four-gun installation. By January 1935, a wooden mock-up had been finished, and although a number of suggestions for detail changes were made, construction of the prototype was approved, and a new specification (F.36/34) was written around the design. In July 1935, this specification was amended to include installation of eight guns.[11][7]

By the end of August 1935, work on the airframe, performed at Hawker's Kingston upon Thames facility, had been completed and the aircraft components were transported to Brooklands, Surrey, where Hawker had an assembly shed; on 23 October 1935, the prototype was fully re-assembled.[7] Ground testing and taxi trials took place over the following two weeks. On 6 November 1935, the prototype K5083 took to the air for the first time at the hands of Hawker's chief test pilot, Flight Lieutenant (later Group Captain) George Bulman.[12] Bulman was assisted by two other pilots in subsequent flight testing; Philip Lucas flew some of the experimental test flights, while John Hindmarsh conducted the firm's production flight trials.[13] As completed, the prototype had been fitted with ballast to represent the aircraft's armament prior to the acceptance of the final multi-gun wing armament.[14]

By March 1936, a total of ten flying hours had been performed by the prototype, covering all major portions of the flight envelope; early flight testing had gone reasonably well, especially in light of the trial status of the Merlin engine, which had itself yet to achieve full flight certification at this time and thus severe restrictions had been imposed upon use of the engine.[7] In early 1936, the prototype was transferred to RAF Martlesham Heath, Suffolk, to participate in initial service trials under the direction of squadron leader D. F. Anderson. Sammy Wroath, later to be the founding Commandant of the Empire Test Pilot School, was the RAF test pilot for the Hurricane: his report was favorable, stating that: "The aircraft is simple and easy to fly and has no apparent vices" and proceeded to praise its control response.[15]

K5083, the prototype, photographed before its first flight in November 1935

In the course of RAF trials, despite the Merlin engine proving to be problematic, having suffered numerous failures and necessitating several changes, enthusiastic reports were produced in the aircraft and its performance figures. The trials had observed the aircraft to possess a maximum level speed of 315 MPH at an altitude of 16,200 ft, a time-to-climb to an altitude of 15,000 ft from takeoff of 5.7 minutes, and a stalling speed of 57 MPH (only marginally higher than the Gladiator biplane), the last achieved using its flaps.[7]

In the course of further testing, it was found that the Hurricane had poor spin recovery characteristics, in which all rudder authority could be lost due to shielding of the rudder.[16] Hawker's response to the issue was to request that spinning tests be waived, but the Air Ministry refused the request;[17] the situation was resolved by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), who established that the aerodynamic problem had been caused by a breakdown of the airflow over the lower fuselage, and could be cured by the addition of a small ventral fairing and extension of the bottom of the rudder. This discovery had come too late for the changes to be incorporated in the first production aircraft, but were introduced upon the 61st built and all subsequent aircraft.[18]

In early 1936, the Hawker Board of Directors had decided, in the absence of official authorisation and at company expense, to proceed with issuing the design drawings to the production design office and to commence tooling-up for a production line capable of producing a batch of 1,000 Hurricanes.[19][20] In June 1936, the Air Ministry issued a contract to Hawker for the manufacture of an initial batch of 600 production aircraft. On 26 June 1936, the type name "Hurricane", which had been proposed by Hawker, was approved by the Air Ministry; an informal christening ceremony for the aircraft was carried out during the following month during an official visit by King Edward VIII to Martlesham Heath.[21][16]

Production[edit]

Hurricane production line, 1942
Trainee aircraft fitters working on instructional partly-assembled Hurricanes, circa 1939–1940

In June 1936, the Hurricane was formally ordered into production, the Air Ministry having placed its first order that month for 600 aircraft.[16] The Hurricane was a relatively easy aircraft to manufacture. In comparison to the Supermarine Spitfire, it was significantly cheaper and involved less labour, requiring 10,300 man hours to produce versus 15,200 for the Spitfire.[22]

A key reason for the aircraft's appeal was its relatively simple construction and ease of manufacture. As a large-scale war was looking increasingly likely, and time was of the essence in providing the RAF with an effective fighter aircraft, it was unclear if the more advanced Spitfire would enter production smoothly, while the Hurricane made use of well-understood manufacturing techniques.[22] This factor was equally applicable for its use within service squadrons as well, which were experienced in working on and repairing aircraft whose construction employed the same principles as the Hurricane, and the simplicity of its design enabled the improvisation of some remarkable repairs in squadron workshops.[22] A fabric-covered wing patterned upon traditional Hawker designs was initially adopted in order to speed up production; a higher-performing stressed-skin metal wing took its place in late 1939.[16]

On 12 October 1937, the maiden flight took place of the first production Hurricane I, which was powered by a Merlin II engine and flown by flight lieutenant Philip Lucas. Production deliveries had been delayed by roughly six months due to a decision to equip the Hurricane only with the improved Merlin II engine, while the earlier Merlin I had been prioritised for the Fairey Battle and the Hawker Henley.[16] By the following December, the first four aircraft to enter service with the RAF had joined No. 111 Squadron, stationed at RAF Northolt. By February 1939, No. 111 Squadron had received 16 Hurricanes.[16] Upon the outbreak of the Second World War, nearly 500 Hurricanes had been produced, which had equipped a total of 18 squadrons, while a further 3,500 aircraft were on order.[23][24]

During 1940, Lord Beaverbrook, who was the Minister of Aircraft Production, established an organisation in which a number of manufacturers were seconded to repair and overhaul battle-damaged Hurricanes. The Civilian Repair Organisation also overhauled battle-weary aircraft, which were later sent to training units or to other air forces; one of the factories involved was the Austin Aero Company's Cofton Hackett plant. Another was David Rosenfield Ltd, based at Barton aerodrome near Manchester.

A major manufacturer of the Hurricane was Canada Car and Foundry at their factory in Fort William, Ontario, Canada (the facility's Chief Engineer, Elsie MacGill, became known as the "Queen of the Hurricanes").[24] The initiative was commercially led rather than governmentally, but was endorsed by the British government; Hawker, having recognised that a major conflict was all but inevitable after the Munich Crisis of 1938, drew up preliminary plans to expand Hurricane production via a new factory in Canada. Under this plan, samples, pattern aircraft, and a complete set of design documents stored on microfilm, were shipped to Canada; 22 early British-produced Hurricanes were transferred to support the development.[24] As a result, Canadian-built Hurricanes were shipped to Britain to participate in events such as the Battle of Britain.[24]

Overall, some 14,000 Hurricanes and Sea Hurricanes were produced.[3][clarification needed] The majority of Hurricanes were built by Hawker (who produced the type until 1944), while Hawker's sister company, the Gloster Aircraft Company, constructed 2,750. The Austin Aero Company completed 300 Hurricanes. Canada Car and Foundry was responsible for the production of 1,400 Hurricanes, designated as the Mk X.

In 1939, production of 100 Hurricanes was initiated in Yugoslavia by Zmaj and Rogožarski.[25] Of these, 20 were built by Zmaj by April 1941. Recognising that the supply of British-made Merlin engines might not be guaranteed, it was decided to fit one of the Yugoslavian Hurricanes with a Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine instead; this aircraft was test flown in 1941.[24] In 1938, a contract for 80 Hurricanes was placed with Fairey's Belgian subsidiary Avions Fairey SA for the Belgian Air Force; it was intended to arm these aircraft with an arrangement of four 13.2 mm Browning machine guns. Three were built and two flown with this armament by the time of the Blitzkrieg in May 1940, with at least 12 more constructed by Avions Fairey armed with the conventional eight rifle calibre machine gun armament.[26][24]

Design[edit]

Mk I in France, November 1939, showing original fabric-covered outer wing and two-bladed propeller
Underside view of R4118, a preserved Hurricane from the Battle of Britain

The Hawker Hurricane is a low-wing cantilever monoplane outfitted with retractable undercarriage and an enclosed cockpit for the pilot.[27] A clean, single-seat fighter, it was developed to provide a competent combatant for aerial combat against the latest fighter designs that were emerging amongst the air services of other powers of the era. The Hurricane was initially armed with an arrangement of eight remotely-operated wing-mounted Browning machine guns, intended for conducting rapid engagements.[28] The Hurricane was typically equipped for flying under both day and night conditions, being provided with navigation lights, Harley landing lights, complete blind-flying equipment, and two-way radios. Upon its entry to service, much of the performance data was intentionally concealed from the general public, but it was known that the type possessed a speed range of 6:1.[29]

Though faster and more advanced than the RAF's current front line biplane fighters, the design of the Hurricane's construction was already considered to be somewhat outdated when introduced to service and resembled those used on the earlier biplanes.[30] Hawker had decided to employ its traditional construction techniques instead of radical measures such as the adoption of a stressed-skin metal exterior.[31] The primary structure comprised a Warren truss box-girder that made use of high-tensile steel longerons and duralumin cross-bracing, which were mechanically fastened instead of welded.[32] Over this, a secondary structured composed of wooden formers and stringers gave the fuselage a rounded external shape, which carried a doped linen covering. The majority of the external surfaces were linen, save for a section between the cockpit and the engine cowling that used lightweight metal panels instead.[33]

Similarly, a simple steel tube structure in the nose of the fuselage was used to support the engine; detachable panels across the cowling provided access to most of the engine's areas for inspection or adjustment purposes.[34] Installed underneath the fuselage, the liquid-cooled radiator has a rectangular opening to its aft; this is covered by a hinged flap via which the pilot was able to actively vary the cooling level. An atypical feature for the era was the use of tungum pipes throughout the cooling system.[34]

Initially, the structure of the Hurricane's cantilever wing consisted of two steel spars, which possessed considerable strength and stiffness.[35] The wing was described by aviation publication Flight as being relatively straightforward to manufacture, employing simple vertical jigs to attach the two spars, after which the wing ribs would be installed using horizontal bolts, forming separate units between the front and rear spars. Hydraulically-actuated split trailing edge flaps were present on the inner end of the wings.[36] The original wing was predominantly fabric-covered, like the fuselage, while some use of lightweight metal sheets was made upon the exterior surface of the inner wing and its leading edge. The majority of the Flight control surfaces, such as the Frise-type ailerons, also had fabric coverings.[36]

An all-metal, stressed-skin wing of duraluminium (a DERD specification similar to AA2024) was introduced in April 1939 and was used for all of the later marks.[12] "The metal skinned wings allowed a diving speed that was 80 mph (130 km/h) higher than the fabric-covered ones. They were very different in construction but were interchangeable with the fabric-covered wings; one trials Hurricane, L1877, was even flown with a fabric-covered port wing and metal-covered starboard wing. The great advantage of the metal-covered wings over the fabric ones was that the metal ones could carry far greater stress loads without needing so much structure beneath."[37] Several fabric-wing Hurricanes were still in service during the Battle of Britain, although a good number had had their wings replaced during servicing or after repair. Changing the wings only required three hours work per aircraft.[37]

The Hurricane was furnished with a laterally-retracting undercarriage, the main undercarriage units being able to slide into recesses within the wing upon retraction.[34] Hinged telescopic Vickers-built legs are attached to the bottom boom of the wing's forward spar. A hydraulic jack served to actuate the undercarriage, folding and pivoting the legs as to reposition the wheel unit rearwards well as inwards in order to clear the front spar when retracted.[34] Two separate hydraulic systems, one being power-operated and the other hand operated, are present for the deployment and retraction of the undercarriage; in the event of both failing, pilots can release the retaining catches holding the undercarriage in place, deploying the wheels to the 'down' position using weight alone. A wide wheel-track was used to allow for considerable stability during ground movements and to enable tight turns to be performed.[38]

The prototype and early production Hurricanes were fitted with a Watts two-bladed fixed-pitch wooden propeller. Flight commented of this arrangement: "Many have expressed surprise that the Hurricane is not fitted with variable-pitch airscrews".[29] The original two-bladed propeller was found to be inefficient at low airspeeds and the aircraft required a long ground run to get airborne, which caused concern at Fighter Command. Accordingly, trials with a De Havilland variable-pitch propeller demonstrated a reduction in the Hurricane's take-off run from 1,230 to 750 ft (370 to 230 m). Deliveries of these began in April 1939: this was later replaced by the hydraulically operated constant-speed Rotol propeller, which came into service in time for the Battle of Britain.[39]

Then, with tail trimmer set, throttle and mixture lever fully forward... and puffs of grey exhaust smoke soon clearing at maximum r.p.m. came the surprise! There was no sudden surge of acceleration, but with a thunderous roar from the exhausts just ahead on either side of the windscreen, only a steady increase in speed... In retrospect that first Hurricane sortie was a moment of elation, but also of relief. Apart from the new scale of speeds that the pilot had to adapt to, the Hurricane had all the qualities of its stable, secure biplane predecessor the Hart, but enhanced by livelier controls, greater precision and all this performance.
Roland Beamont, a trainee pilot, describing his first flight in a Hurricane.[40]

Camm's priority was to provide the pilot with good all-round visibility. To this end, the cockpit was mounted reasonably high in the fuselage, creating a distinctive "hump-backed" silhouette. Pilot access to the cockpit was aided by a retractable "stirrup" mounted below the trailing edge of the port wing. This was linked to a spring-loaded hinged flap which covered a handhold on the fuselage, just behind the cockpit. When the flap was shut, the footstep retracted into the fuselage. In addition, both wing roots were coated with strips of non-slip material.

An advantage of the steel-tube structure was that cannon shells could pass right through the wood and fabric covering without exploding. Even if one of the steel tubes were damaged, the repair work required was relatively simple and could be done by ground crew at the airfield. Damage to a stressed skin structure, as used by the Spitfire, required more specialised equipment to repair.[41] The old-fashioned structure also permitted the assembly of Hurricanes with relatively basic equipment under field conditions. Crated Hurricanes were assembled at Takoradi in West Africa and flown across the Sahara to the Middle East theatre and, to save space, some Royal Navy aircraft carriers carried their reserve Sea Hurricanes dismantled into their major assemblies, which were slung up on the hangar bulkheads and deckhead for reassembly when needed.

In contrast, the contemporary Spitfire used all-metal monocoque construction and was thus both lighter and stronger, though less tolerant to bullet damage. With its ease of maintenance, widely set landing gear and benign flying characteristics, the Hurricane remained in use in theatres of operations where reliability, easy handling and a stable gun platform were more important than performance, typically in roles like ground attack. One of the design requirements of the original specification was that both the Hurricane and the Spitfire were also to be used as night fighters. The Hurricane proved to be a relatively simple aircraft to fly at night, and was instrumental in shooting down several German aircraft on night raids. From early 1941 the Hurricane was also used as an "intruder" aircraft, patrolling German airfields in France at night to catch bombers taking off or landing.

Operational history[edit]

Pre-war[edit]

Yugoslavian Hurricane Mark. I

By the middle of 1938, the first 50 Hurricanes had reached squadrons and, at that time, it had been assessed that the rate of production was slightly greater than the RAF's capacity to introduce the new aircraft, which had already been accelerated.[42] Accordingly, the British government gave Hawker the clearance to sell excess aircraft to nations that were likely to oppose German expansion. As a result, there were some modest export sales made to other countries; at the earliest opportunity, a former RAF Hurricane I was dispatched to Yugoslavia for evaluation purposes.[42] Shortly after this evaluation, an order for 24 Hurricane Mark Is for the Royal Yugoslav Air Force was received; this was followed by the purchase of a production licence for the Hurricane by Yugoslavia.[25] Yugoslavia Hurricanes saw action against the Luftwaffe during the invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941 by the Axis powers.[24]

Hurricane production was increased as part of a plan to create a reserve of attrition aircraft as well as re-equip existing squadrons and newly formed ones such as those of the Auxiliary Air Force. Expansion scheme E included a target of 500 fighters of all types by the start of 1938. By the time of the Munich Crisis, there were only two fully operational RAF squadrons of the planned 12 to be equipped with Hurricanes.[43] By the time of the German invasion of Poland there were 18 operational Hurricane squadrons, and three more that were in the process of converting.[citation needed]

The Phoney War[edit]

Personnel of 85 Sqn next to a Hurricane I, Lille, Seclin, France, on 10 May 1940

The Hurricane had its first combat action on 21 October 1939, at the start of the Phoney War. That day, “A” Flight of 46 Squadron took off from North Coates satellite airfield, on the Lincolnshire coast, and was directed to intercept a formation of nine Heinkel He 115B floatplanes from 1/KüFlGr 906, searching for ships to attack in the North Sea. The Heinkels had already been attacked and damaged by two Spitfires from 72 Squadron when six Hurricanes intercepted them, which were flying at sea level in an attempt to avoid fighter attacks. The Hurricanes shot down four of the enemy in rapid succession, 46 Squadron claiming five and the Spitfire pilots two.[44]

In response to a request from the French government for the provision of 10 fighter squadrons to provide air support, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding, Commander-in-Chief of RAF Fighter Command, insisted that this number would deplete British defences severely, and so initially only four squadrons of Hurricanes, 1, 73, 85 and 87, were relocated to France, keeping Spitfires back for "Home" defence.[45] The first to arrive was No.73 Squadron on 10 September 1939, followed shortly by the other three. A little later, 607 and 615 Squadrons joined them.[46]

After his first flight in October 1939, Hurricane pilot Roland Beamont subsequently flew operationally with 87 Squadron, claiming three enemy aircraft during the French campaign, and delivered great praise for his aircraft's performance:

Throughout the bad days of 1940, 87 Sqn had maintained a proficient formation aerobatic team, the precise flying controls and responsive engines permitting precision formation through loops, barrel rolls, 1g semi-stall turns and rolls off half-loops ... My Hurricane was never hit in the Battles of France and Britain, and in over 700 hr on type I never experienced an engine failure.

— Roland Beamont, summarising his wartime experience as a pilot.[47]
Hurricane Mk I of the 46th Squadron RAF during the Norwegian campaign, May 1940. This aircraft was abandoned in Norway

While the opening months of the war were characterised by little air activity in general, there were sporadic engagements and aerial skirmishes between the two sides.[46] On 30 October 1939 Hurricanes saw action over France. That day, Pilot Officer P. W. O. "Boy" Mould of 1 Squadron, flying Hurricane L1842, shot down a Dornier Do 17P from 2(F)/123. The German aircraft, sent to photograph Allied airfields close to the border, fell in flames about 10 miles (16 km) west of Toul. Mould was the first RAF pilot to down an enemy aircraft on the European continent in the Second World War.[48][N 1] According to Mason, the experiences gained in these early engagements proved invaluable in developing tactics which became tried and tested, and rapidly spread throughout Fighter Command.[46]

On 6 November 1939 Pilot Officer P.V. Ayerst from 73 Squadron was the first to clash with a Messerschmitt Bf 109. After the dogfight, he came back with five holes in his fuselage.[49] Flying Officer E. J. "Cobber" Kain, a New Zealander, was responsible for 73 Squadron's first victory on 8 November 1939 while stationed at Rouvres.[50] He went on to become one of the RAF's first fighter aces of the war, being credited with 16 kills. On 22 December the Hurricanes in France suffered their first losses: three of them, while trying to intercept an unidentified aircraft between Metz and Thionville, were jumped by four Bf 109Es from III./JG 53, with their Gruppenkommandeur, Spanish Civil War ace Captain Werner Mölders, in the lead. Mölders and Leutnant Hans von Hahn shot down the Hurricanes of Sergeant R. M. Perry and J. Winn for no loss.[49]

Battle of France[edit]

Hurricane I of 1 Sqn being refuelled at Vassincourt, France

In May 1940, Nos. 3, 79 and 504 Squadrons reinforced the earlier units as Germany's Blitzkrieg gathered momentum. On 10 May, the first day of the Battle of France, Flight Lieutenant R. E. Lovett and Flying Officer "Fanny" Orton, of 73 Squadron, were the first R.A.F pilots to engage enemy aircraft in the campaign. They attacked one of three Dornier Do 17s from 4. Staffel/KG 2 that were flying over their airfield at Rouvres-en-Woevre. The Dornier went away unscathed, while Orton was hit by defensive fire and had to force land.[51] On the same day the Hurricane squadrons claimed 42 German aircraft, none of them fighters, shot down during 208 sorties; seven Hurricanes were lost but no pilots were killed.[51]

On 12 May several Hurricanes units were committed to escort bombers. That morning, five Fairey Battle volunteer crews from 12 Squadron took off from Amifontaine base to bomb Vroenhoven and Veldwezelt bridges on the Meuse, at Maastricht. The escort consisted of eight Hurricanes of 1 Squadron, with Squadron Leader P. J. H. "Bull" Halahan in the lead. When the formation approached Maastricht, it was bounced by 16 Bf 109Es from 2./JG 27. Two Battles and two Hurricanes (including Halahan's) were shot down, two more Battles were brought down by flak and the fifth bomber had to crash-land. The 1 Squadron pilots claimed four Messerschmitts and two Heinkel He 112s,[N 2] while the Luftwaffe actually lost only one Bf 109.[52][53]

On 13 May 1940, a further 32 Hurricanes arrived. All ten requested Hurricane squadrons were then operating from French soil and felt the full force of the Nazi offensive. The following day, Hurricanes suffered heavy losses: 27 being shot down, 22 by Messerschmitts, with 15 pilots killed (another died some days later), including Squadron Leader J. B. Parnall (504 Sqn),[N 3] and the Australian ace Flying Officer Les Clisby (1 Sqn).[54][N 4] On the same day, 3 Squadron claimed 17 German aircraft shot down, 85 and 87 Squadrons together claimed four victories, while 607 Squadron claimed nine.[55] During the following three days (15–17 May), no fewer than 51 Hurricanes were lost, in combat or in accidents.[56]

Mechanics servicing the engine of a Hurricane I of 501 Sqn at No. 1 Repair Centre, Reims, Champagne, France

By 17 May, the end of the first week of fighting, only three of the squadrons were near operational strength, but the Hurricanes had managed to destroy nearly twice as many German aircraft.[57] On 18 May 1940, air combat continued from dawn to dusk; Hurricane pilots claimed 57 German aircraft and 20 probables (Luftwaffe records show 39 aircraft lost). The following day, 1 and 73 Squadrons claimed 11 German aircraft (three by "Cobber" Kain and three by Paul Richey). On these two days Hurricanes suffered heavier losses, with 68 Hurricanes shot down or forced to crash-land due to combat damage. Fifteen pilots were killed, eight were taken prisoner and 11 injured. Two-thirds of the Hurricanes had been shot down by Messerschmitt Bf 109s and Bf 110s.[58]

In the afternoon of 20 May 1940, the Hurricane units based in northern France were ordered to abandon their bases on the continent and return to Great Britain. On the same day, "Bull" Halahan requested the repatriation of the pilots serving in 1 Squadron. During the previous 10 days, the unit had been the most successful of the campaign; it had claimed 63 victories for the loss of five pilots: two killed, one taken prisoner and two hospitalised. 1 Squadron was awarded ten DFCs and three DFMs during the Blitzkrieg.[59] On the evening of 21 May, the only Hurricanes still operational were those of the AASF that had been moved to bases around Troyes.[60]

During the 11 days of fighting in France and over Dunkirk from 10–21 May, Hurricane pilots claimed 499 kills and 123 probables. Contemporary German records, examined postwar, attribute 299 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed and 65 seriously damaged by RAF fighters.[61] The last 66 Hurricanes of the 452 engaged during the Battle of France left France on 21 June; 178 were abandoned at several airfields, notably Merville, Abbeville, and Lille/Seclin.[60][62]

Operation Dynamo[edit]

During Operation Dynamo (the evacuation from Dunkirk of British, French and Belgian troops cut off by the German army during the Battle of Dunkirk), the Hawker Hurricanes operated from British bases. Between 26 May and 3 June 1940, the 14 Hurricane units involved were credited with 108 air victories. A total of 27 Hurricane pilots became aces during Operation Dynamo, led by Canadian Pilot Officer W. L. Willie McKnight (10 victories) and Pilot Officer Percival Stanley Turner (seven victories), who served in No. 242 Squadron, consisting mostly of Canadian personnel.[63] Losses were 22 pilots killed and three captured.[64]

Over Dunkirk, the Luftwaffe suffered its first serious rebuff of the war. As Galland has noted, the nature and style of the air battles over the beaches should have provided a warning as to the inherent weaknesses of the Luftwaffe's force structure. Admittedly, the Germans fought at a disadvantage. Although positioned forward at captured airfields, the Bf 109 was at the outer limits of its range and possessed less flying time over Dunkirk than did the "Hurricanes" and "Spitfires" operating from southern England. German bombers were still located in western Germany and had even farther to fly. Thus, the Luftwaffe could not bring its full weight to bear so that when its bombers hammered those on the beaches or embarking, the RAF intervened in a significant fashion. German aircraft losses were high, and British fighter attacks often prevented German bombers from performing with full effectiveness. Both sides suffered heavy losses. During the nine days from May 26 through June 3, the RAF lost 177 aircraft destroyed or damaged; the Germans lost 240. For much of the Luftwaffe, Dunkirk came as a nasty shock. Fliegerkorps II reported in its war diary that it lost more aircraft on the 27th attacking the evacuation than it had lost in the previous ten days of the campaign.
Murray. Strategy for Defeat. The Luftwaffe 1935–1945[65]

On 27 May 1940, in one of the final mass encounters of the Blitzkrieg, 13 Hurricanes from 501 Squadron intercepted 24 Heinkel He 111s escorted by 20 Bf 110s; during the ensuing battle, 11 Heinkels were claimed as "kills" and others damaged, with little damage to the Hurricanes.[66] On 7 June 1940, "Cobber" Kain, the first RAF ace of the war, got word that he was to return to England for "rest leave" at an Operational Training Unit. On leaving his airfield, he put on an impromptu aerobatic display and was killed when his Hurricane crashed after completing a loop and attempting some low altitude "flick" rolls.[67]

Initial engagements with the Luftwaffe had showed the Hurricane to be a tight-turning and steady platform, but the Watts two-bladed propeller was clearly unsuitable. At least one pilot complained of how a Heinkel 111 was able to pull away from him in a chase, yet by this time the Heinkel was obsolete.[37] At the start of the war, the engine ran on standard 87 octane aviation spirit. From early 1940, increasing quantities of 100 octane fuel imported from the U.S. became available.[68][69] In February 1940, Hurricanes with the Merlin II and III engines began to receive modifications to allow for an additional 6 psi (41 kPa) of supercharger boost for five minutes (although there are accounts of its use for 30 minutes continuously).[70]

The extra supercharger boost, which increased engine output by nearly 250 hp (190 kW), gave the Hurricane an approximate increase in speed of 25 to 35 mph (40 to 56 km/h), under 15,000 ft (4,600 m)[70] altitude and greatly increased the aircraft's climb rate. "Overboost" or "pulling the plug", a form of war emergency power as it was called in later Second World War aircraft, was an important wartime modification that allowed the Hurricane to be more competitive against the Bf 109E and to increase its margin of superiority over the Bf 110C, especially at low altitude. With the +12 psi (83 kPa) "emergency boost", the Merlin III was able to generate 1,310 hp (980 kW) at 9,000 ft (2,700 m).[71]

Flight Lieutenant Ian Gleed of 87 Squadron wrote about the effect of using the extra boost on the Hurricane while chasing a Bf 109 at low altitude on 19 May 1940: "Damn! We're flat out as it is. Here goes with the tit.[N 5] A jerk – boost's shot up to 12 pounds; speed's increased by 30 mph. I'm gaining ground – 700, 600, 500 yards. Give him a burst. No, hold your fire you fool! He hasn't seen you yet..."[70] Gleed ran out of ammunition before he could shoot the 109 down although he left it heavily damaged and flying at about 50 ft (15 m).[N 6]

Hurricanes equipped with Rotol constant-speed propellers were delivered to RAF squadrons in May 1940, with deliveries continuing throughout the Battle of Britain. According to aviation author David Donald, the Rotol propeller had the effect of transforming the Hurricane's performance from "disappointing" to "acceptable mediocrity"; modified aircraft were reportedly much sought after among squadrons which had also been equipped with Hurricanes that were fitted with the older de Havilland two-position propeller.[72][73]

Battle of Britain[edit]

Hurricane I of 1 Sqn flown by Plt Off A.V. Clowes.

At the end of June 1940, following the fall of France, the majority of the RAF's 36 fighter squadrons were equipped with Hurricanes.[74] The Battle of Britain officially lasted from 10 July until 31 October 1940, but the heaviest fighting took place between 8 August and 21 September. Both the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hurricane are renowned for their part in defending Britain against the Luftwaffe; generally, the Spitfire would intercept the German fighters, leaving Hurricanes to concentrate on the bombers, but, despite the undoubted abilities of the "thoroughbred" Spitfire, it was the "workhorse" Hurricane that scored the higher number of RAF victories during this period, accounting for 55 percent of the 2,739 German losses, according to Fighter Command, compared with 42 per cent by Spitfires.[75] On 8 August 1940, Hurricanes of No. 145 Squadron were recorded as having fired the first shots of the Battle of Britain.[76]

Another thing we did was to devise a manoeuvre which was aimed at getting us out of a difficult corner if we ever got into one. This may sound very extraordinary, probably, to practising pilots today, but it consisted of putting everything into the left hand front corner of the cockpit. If you saw a 109 on your tail, and it hadn't shot you down at that point, you put on full throttle, fine pitch, full left rudder, full left stick and full forward stick. This resulted in a horrible manoeuvre which was, in fact, a negative g spiral dive. But you would come out of the bottom with no 109 on your tail and your aeroplane intact.
Roland Beaumont describing how a Hurricane can get away from an Me109.[77]

As a fighter, the Hurricane had some drawbacks. It was slightly slower than both the Spitfire I and II and the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, and the thicker wing profiles compromised acceleration; but it could out-turn both of them. In spite of its performance deficiencies against the Bf 109, the Hurricane was still capable of destroying the German fighter, especially at lower altitudes. The standard tactic of the 109s was to attempt to climb higher than the RAF fighters and "bounce" them in a dive; the Hurricanes could evade such tactics by turning into the attack or going into a "corkscrew dive", which the 109s, with their lower rate of roll, found hard to counter. If a 109 was caught in a dogfight, the Hurricane was just as capable of out-turning the 109 as the Spitfire. In a stern chase, the 109 could evade the Hurricane.[78]

In September 1940, the more powerful Mk IIa series 1 Hurricanes started entering service, although only in small numbers.[79] This version was capable of a maximum speed of 342 mph (550 km/h).[80]

The Hurricane was a steady gun platform,[81] and had demonstrated its ruggedness as several were badly damaged yet returned to base. But the Hurricane's construction made it dangerous if it caught fire; the wood frames and fabric covering of the rear fuselage allowed fire to spread through the rear fuselage structure easily. In addition, the gravity fuel tank in the forward fuselage sat right in front of the instrument panel, without any form of protection for the pilot. Many Hurricane pilots were seriously burned as a consequence of a jet of flame which could burn through the instrument panel. This became of such concern to Hugh Dowding that he had Hawker retrofit the fuselage tanks of the Hurricanes with a self-expanding rubber coating called Linatex.[82] If the tank happened to be punctured by a bullet, the linatex coating would expand when soaked with petrol and seal it.[83] Some Hurricane pilots also felt that the fuel tanks in the wings, although they were protected with a layer of Linatex, were vulnerable from behind, and it was thought that these, not the fuselage tank, were the main fire risk.[84][85]

Groundcrew refuelling a Hurricane Mk I of 32 Sqn, RAF Biggin Hill, Bromley, London, August 1940

From 10 July to 11 August 1940, RAF fighters fired at 114 German bombers and shot down 80, a destruction ratio of 70 per cent. Against the Bf 109, the RAF fighters attacked 70 and shot down 54 of these, a ratio of 77 per cent. It has been suggested that part of the success of the British fighters was possibly due to the use of the de Wilde incendiary round.[86]

The Hurricane with the highest number of kills during the Battle of Britain was P3308, a Mk1, flown between 15 August and 7 October 1940 by RAF (auxiliary) pilot Archie McKellar of 605 Squadron.[87] He is credited with 21 kills, 19 of those in a Hurricane during the Battle of Britain. On 7 October he is credited with shooting down 5 Bf 109s, making him one of only 2 RAF pilots (the other Brian Carbury of New Zealand) to become an Ace in a Day during the Battle of Britain.[88][89] During his brief fighting career, McKellar earned the DSO [90] DFC & Bar [91][92] MacKellar has remained in relative obscurity in Battle of Britain history, as he was killed in action one day after the date set by the War Ministry (after the War) as the official end date for the Battle of Britain. He was killed on 1 November 1940 while taking on a superior number of Bf109s.[93]

As in the Spitfire, the Merlin engine suffered from negative-G cut-out, a problem not cured until the introduction of Miss Shilling's orifice in early 1941.

The only Battle of Britain Victoria Cross, and the only one awarded to a member of Fighter Command during the war,[94] was awarded to Flight Lieutenant Eric Nicolson of 249 Squadron as a result of an action on 16 August 1940 when his section of three Hurricanes was "bounced" from above by Bf 110 fighters. All three were hit simultaneously. Nicolson was badly wounded, and his Hurricane was damaged and engulfed in flames. While attempting to leave the cockpit, Nicolson noticed that one of the Bf 110s had overshot his aircraft. He returned to the cockpit, which by now was an inferno, engaged the enemy, and may have shot down the Bf 110.[95][96][N 7]

Night fighters and intruders[edit]

Wartime colour photo of Hurricane IIC BE500 flown by Sqn Ldr Denis Smallwood of 87 Sqn in the RDM2 ("Special Night") scheme and used on intruder operations 1941–1942.

Following the Battle of Britain the Hurricane continued to give service; through the Blitz of 1941 it was the principal single-seat night fighter in Fighter Command. F/Lt. Richard Stevens claimed 14 Luftwaffe bombers flying Hurricanes in 1941. In 1942 the cannon-armed Mk IIc performed further afield, as a night intruder over occupied Europe. F/Lt. Karel Kuttelwascher of 1 Squadron proved the top scorer, with 15 Luftwaffe bombers claimed shot down.

1942 also saw the manufacture of twelve Hurricane II C(NF) night fighters, equipped with pilot-operated Air Interception Mark VI radar. After a brief operational deployment with No. 245 and No. 247 Squadron RAF during which these aircraft proved too slow for operations in Europe, the aircraft were sent to India to serve with No. 176 Squadron RAF in the defence of Calcutta.[98] They were withdrawn from service at the end of December 1943.[99]

North Africa[edit]

Maintenance work being carried out on a Hurricane of 274 Sqdn during the siege of Tobruk

The Hurricane Mk II was hastily tropicalised following Italy's entry into the war in June 1940.[100] These aircraft were initially ferried through France and Malta by air to 80 Squadron in Egypt, replacing Gladiator biplanes.[101] The Hurricane claimed its first kill in the Mediterranean on 19 June 1940, when F/O P.G. Wykeham-Barnes reported shooting down two Fiat CR.42s. Hurricanes served with several British Commonwealth squadrons in the Desert Air Force. They suffered heavy losses over North Africa after the arrival of Bf 109E and F-variants and were progressively replaced in the air superiority role from June 1941 by Curtiss Tomahawks/Kittyhawks. However, fighter-bomber variants ("Hurribombers") retained an edge in the ground attack role, due to their impressive armament of four 20 mm (.79 in) cannon and a 500 lb (230 kg) bomb load. From November 1941, beginning in the Libyan desert, it had to face a new formidable opponent: the new Regia Aeronautica Macchi C.202 Folgore. The Italian aircraft proved superior to the Hawker fighter[102] and, thanks to its excellent agility and a new, more powerful inline engine license-built by Alfa Romeo, could outperform it in a dogfight.[103]

During and following the five-day Second Battle of El Alamein artillery barrage that commenced on the night of 23 October 1942, six squadrons of Hurricanes, including the 40 mm cannon-armed Hurricane Mk.IID version, claimed to have destroyed 39 tanks, 212 lorries and armoured troop-carriers, 26 bowsers, 42 guns, 200 various other vehicles and four small fuel and ammunition dumps, flying 842 sorties with the loss of 11 pilots. Whilst performing in a ground support role, Hurricanes based at RAF Castel Benito, Tripoli, knocked out six tanks, 13 armoured vehicles, 10 lorries, five half-tracks, a gun and trailer, and a wireless van on 10 March 1943, with no losses to themselves.[104]

In the spring of 1943, during the German Ochsenkopf offensive in Tunisia, Hurricane MKIIDs conducted many sorties after fog had lifted, helping to blunt the final attack at Hunts Gap.[105]

Defence of Malta[edit]

The Hurricane played a significant role in the defence of Malta. When Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940, Malta's air defence rested on Gloster Gladiators, which managed to hold out against vastly superior numbers of the Italian air force during the following 17 days. (According to myth, after the first one was lost, the remaining three were named “Faith, Hope and Charity”; in reality, there were at least six Gladiators.) Four Hurricanes joined them at the end of June, and together they faced attacks throughout July from the 200 enemy aircraft based in Sicily, with the loss of one Gladiator and one Hurricane. Further reinforcements arrived on 2 August in the form of 12 more Hurricanes and two Blackburn Skuas.[106] [N 8]

For weeks a handful of Hurricane IIs, aided by Group Captain A.B. Woodhall's masterly controlling, had been meeting, against all the odds, the rising crescendo of Field Marshal Kesselring's relentless attacks on Grand Harbour and the airfields. Outnumbered, usually, by 12 or 14 to one and, later – with the arrival of the Bf 109Fs in Sicily – outperformed, the pilots of the few old aircraft which the ground crews struggled valiantly to keep serviceable, went on pressing their attacks, ploughing their way through the German fighter screens, and our flak, to close in with the Ju 87s and 88s as they dived for their targets.
Wing Commander P.B. "Laddie" Lucas D.S.O., D.F.C.[107]

The increasing number of British aircraft on the island, at last, prompted the Italians to employ German Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers to try to destroy the airfields. Finally, in an attempt to overcome the stiff resistance put up by these few aircraft, the Luftwaffe took up base on the Sicilian airfields, only to find that Malta was not an easy target. After numerous attacks on the island over the following months, and the arrival of an extra 23 Hurricanes at the end of April 1941, and a further delivery a month later, the Luftwaffe left Sicily for the Russian Front in June that year.[108]

As Malta was situated on the increasingly important sea supply route for the North African campaign, the Luftwaffe returned with a vengeance for a second assault on the island at the beginning of 1942. It wasn't until March, when the onslaught was at its height, that 15 Spitfires flew in off the carrier HMS Eagle to join with the Hurricanes already stationed there and bolster the defence, but many of the new aircraft were lost on the ground and it was again the Hurricane that bore the brunt of the early fighting until further reinforcements arrived.[107]

Air defence in Russia[edit]

Hurricane Mark IIB of No. 81 Squadron RAF at Murmansk-Vaenga airfield, Russia

The Hawker Hurricane was the first Allied Lend-Lease aircraft to be delivered to the Soviet Union with a total of 2,952 Hurricanes eventually delivered,[109] becoming the most numerous British aircraft in Soviet service.[110] Many Soviet pilots were disappointed by the Hawker fighter, regarding it as inferior to both German and Russian aircraft.[109][111]

During 1941, Mk II Hurricanes played an important air defence role when the Soviet Union found itself under threat from the approaching German Army, who were advancing across a broad front stretching from Leningrad, Moscow, and to the oil fields in the south. Britain's decision to aid the Soviets meant sending supplies by sea to the far northern ports, and as the convoys would need to sail within range of enemy air attack from the Luftwaffe based in neighbouring Finland, it was decided to deliver a number of Hurricane Mk IIBs, flying with Nos. 81 and 134 Squadrons of No. 151 Wing RAF, to provide protection. Twenty-four were transported on the carrier Argus, arriving just off Murmansk on 28 August 1941, and another 15 crated aircraft on board merchant vessels. In addition to their convoy protection duties, the aircraft also acted as escorts to Russian bombers.

Enemy attention to the area declined in October, at which point the RAF pilots trained their Soviet counterparts to operate the Hurricanes themselves. By the end of the year, the RAF's direct role in the region had ended, but the aircraft themselves remained behind and became the first of thousands of Allied aircraft that were accepted by the Soviet Union.[112] Although Soviet pilots were not universally enthusiastic about the Hurricane, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Lt. Col. Boris Safonov "loved the Hurricane", and RAF Hurricane Mk IIB fighters operating from Soviet soil in defence of Murmansk, destroyed 15 Luftwaffe aircraft for only one loss in combat.[113] However, in some Soviet war memoirs, the Hurricane has been described in very unflattering terms.[114]

The "Soviet" IIB Hurricane as a multi-role fighter-bomber had quite a few drawbacks. First of all, it was 40–50 km/h (25/31 mph) slower than its main opponent, the Bf 109E interceptor, at low and medium height, and had a slower rate of climb. The Messerschmitt could outdive the Hurricane because of the thicker wing profile of the British fighter. But the main source of complaints was the Hurricane's armament. On occasion, the eight or 12 small-calibre machine guns did not damage the sturdy and heavily armoured German aircraft; consequently, Soviet ground crews started to remove the Brownings. Retaining only four or six of the 12 machine guns, two 12.7 mm Berezin UBs or two or even four 20 mm ShVAK cannons were substituted, but overall performance deteriorated as a result.[115][N 10]

Burma, Ceylon, Singapore, and the Netherlands East Indies[edit]

Hawker Hurricane Mk.II of 232 Squadron shot down on 8 February 1942 during the Battle of Singapore

Following the outbreak of the war with Japan, 51 Hurricane Mk IIBs were disassembled and sent in crates to Singapore; these and the 24 pilots (many of whom were veterans of the Battle of Britain), who had been transferred to the theatre, formed the nucleus of five squadrons. They arrived on 3 January 1942, by which time the Allied fighter squadrons in Singapore, flying Brewster Buffalos, had been overwhelmed during the Malayan campaign. The Imperial Japanese Army Air Force's fighter force, especially the Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar, had been underestimated in its capability, numbers and the strategy of its commanders.[117][118]

Thanks to the efforts of the 151st Maintenance unit, the 51 Hurricanes were assembled and ready for testing within 48 hours, and of these, 21 were ready for operational service within three days. The Hurricanes were fitted with bulky 'Vokes' dust filters under the nose and were armed with 12, rather than eight, machine guns. The additional weight and drag made them slow to climb and unwieldy to manoeuvre at altitude, although they were more effective bomber killers.[119]

The recently arrived pilots were formed into 232 Squadron. In addition, 488(NZ) Squadron, a Buffalo squadron, converted to Hurricanes. On 18 January, the two squadrons formed the basis of 226 Group. 232 Squadron became operational on 22 January and suffered the first losses and victories for the Hurricane in Southeast Asia.[120] Between 27 and 30 January, another 48 Hurricanes (Mk IIA) arrived with the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable, from which they flew to airfields code-named P1 and P2, near Palembang, Sumatra in the Netherlands East Indies.

Because of inadequate early warning systems (the first British radar stations became operational only towards the end of February), Japanese air raids were able to destroy 30 Hurricanes on the ground in Sumatra, most of them in one raid on 7 February. After Japanese landings in Singapore, on 10 February, the remnants of 232 and 488 Squadrons were withdrawn to Palembang. However, Japanese paratroopers began the invasion of Sumatra on 13 February. Hurricanes destroyed six Japanese transport ships on 14 February, but lost seven aircraft in the process. On 18 February, the remaining Allied aircraft and aircrews moved to Java. By this time, only 18 serviceable Hurricanes remained out of the original 99.[121]

That same month, 12 Hurricane Mk IIB Trops were supplied to the Dutch forces on Java. With dust filters removed and fuel and ammo load in wings halved, these were able to stay in a turn with the Oscars they fought.[122] After Java was invaded, some of the New Zealand pilots were evacuated by sea to Australia. One aircraft which had not been assembled, was transferred to the RAAF, becoming the only Hurricane to see service in Australia, in training and other non-combat units.

Hurricane V7476, which was transferred from Singapore and was the only Hurricane based in Australia during the Second World War. Note the tropicalised Vokes air filter which was fitted to many types operating in the Pacific.

When a Japanese carrier task force under the command of Admiral Chūichi Nagumo made a sortie into the Indian Ocean in April 1942, RAF Hurricanes based on Ceylon saw action against Nagumo's forces during attacks on Colombo on 5 April 1942 and on Trincomalee harbour on 9 April 1942.[123]

On 5 April 1942, Captain Mitsuo Fuchida of the Imperial Japanese Navy, who led the attack on Pearl Harbor, led a strike against Colombo with 53 Nakajima B5N torpedo bombers and 38 Aichi D3A dive bombers, escorted by 36 Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters.[124] They were opposed by 35 Hurricane I and IIBs of 30 and 258 Squadrons, together with six Fairey Fulmars of 803 and 806 Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm.[125] The Hurricanes mainly tried to shoot down the attacking bombers, but were engaged heavily by the escorting Zeros.[126] A total of 21 Hurricanes were shot down (although two of these were repairable),[127] together with four Fulmars[128] and six Swordfish of 788 Naval Air Squadron that had been surprised in flight by the raid.[129] The RAF claimed 18 Japanese aircraft destroyed, seven probably destroyed and nine damaged, with one aircraft claimed by a Fulmar and five by anti-aircraft fire. This compared with actual Japanese losses of one Zero and six D3As, with a further seven D3As, five B5Ns and three Zeros damaged.[126][130]

On 9 April 1942, the Japanese task force sent 91 B5Ns escorted by 41 Zeros against Trincomalee port and the nearby China Bay airfield.[131] A total of 16 Hurricanes opposed the raid, of which eight were lost with a further three damaged.[132] They claimed eight Japanese aircraft destroyed with a further four probably destroyed and at least five damaged. Actual Japanese losses were three A6Ms and two B5Ns, with a further 10 B5Ns damaged.[133]

Epilogue[edit]

The battles over the Arakan in 1943 represented the last large-scale use of the Hurricane as a pure day fighter. But they were still used in the fighter-bomber role in Burma until the end of the war and they were occasionally caught up in air combat as well. For example, on 15 February 1944, Flg Off Jagadish Chandra Verma of No 6 Sqdn of the Royal Indian Air Force shot down a Japanese Ki-43 Oscar: it was the only RIAF victory of the war.[134] The Hurricane remained in service as a fighter-bomber over the Balkans and at home as well where it was used mainly for second-line tasks and occasionally flown by ace pilots. For example, in mid-1944, ace Sqdn Leader 'Jas' Storrar flew No 1687 Hurricane to deliver priority mail to Allied armies in France during the Normandy invasion.[134]

Sea Hurricane Mk IB in formation, December 1941

Aircraft carrier operations[edit]

The Sea Hurricane became operational in mid-1941 and scored its first kill while operating from HMS Furious on 31 July 1941. During the next three years, Fleet Air Arm Sea Hurricanes were to feature prominently while operating from Royal Navy aircraft carriers. The Sea Hurricane scored an impressive kill-to-loss ratio,[135][N 11] primarily while defending Malta convoys, and operating from escort carriers in the Atlantic Ocean. As an example, on 26 May 1944, Royal Navy Sea Hurricanes operating from the escort carrier HMS Nairana claimed the destruction of three Ju 290 reconnaissance aircraft during the defence of a convoy.[136]

Hurricane aces[edit]

The top scoring Hurricane pilot was Squadron Leader Marmaduke "Pat" Pattle, DFC & Bar, with 35 Hawker fighter victories (out of career 50 total, with two shared) serving with No. 80 and 33 Squadrons. All of his Hurricane kills were achieved over Greece in 1941. He was shot down and killed in the Battle of Athens. Wing Commander Frank Reginald Carey claimed 28 air victories while flying Hurricanes during 1939–43, and Squadron Leader William "Cherry" Vale DFC and Bar, AFC totalled 20 kills (of 30) in Greece and Syria with No. 80 Squadron. Czech pilot F/Lt Karel M. Kuttelwascher achieved all of his 18 air victories with the Hurricane, most as an intruder night fighter with No. 1 Squadron. Pilot Officer V.C. Woodward (33 and 213 Squadrons) was another top-scoring ace with 14 (out of 18 total, three of which are shared), while F/Lt Richard P. Stevens claimed all of his 14.5 enemy aircraft flying the Hurricane.[137] Richard "Dickie" Cork was the leading Fleet Air Arm Sea Hurricane ace, with nine destroyed, two shared, one probable, four damaged and seven destroyed on the ground.[138] Czech pilot Josef František, flying with 303 Polish Squadron, shot down at least 17 enemy aircraft over southeast England during September–October 1940. Polish pilot Witold Urbanowicz, flying with 303 Polish Squadron, had 15 confirmed kills and one probable during the Battle of Britain.

Variants[edit]

Mk Is in France with original two-bladed Watts propellers
Hurricane Mk I
First production version, with fabric-covered wings, a wooden two-bladed, fixed-pitch propeller, powered by the 1,030 hp (770 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin Mk II or III engines and armed with eight .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns. Produced between 1937 and 1939.
Hurricane Mk I (revised)
A revised Hurricane Mk I series built with a de Havilland or Rotol constant speed metal propeller, metal-covered wings, armour and other improvements. In 1939, the RAF had taken on about 500 of this later design to form the backbone of the fighter squadrons.
Hurricane Mk IIA Series 1
Hurricane Mk I powered by the improved Merlin XX engine with two-speed supercharger. This new engine used a mix of 30 per cent glycol and 70 per cent water. Pure glycol is flammable, so not only was the new mix safer, but the engine also ran approximately 21 °C (70 °F) cooler, which gave longer engine life and greater reliability.[139] The new engine was longer than the earlier Merlin and so the Hurricane gained a 4.5 in "plug" in front of the cockpit, which made the aircraft slightly more stable due to the slight forward shift in centre of gravity.[140] First flew on 11 June 1940 and went into squadron service in September 1940.
Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB Z5140
Hurricane Mk IIB (Hurricane IIA Series 2)
The Hurricane II B were fitted with racks allowing them to carry two 250 lb or two 500 lb bombs. This lowered the top speed of the Hurricane to 301 mph (484 km/h), but by this point mixed sweeps of Hurricanes carrying bombs, protected by a screen of fighter Hurricanes were not uncommon. The same racks allowed the Hurricane to carry two 45-gallon (205 l) drop tanks instead of the bombs, more than doubling the Hurricane's fuel load.[141]
Hurricane Mk IIA Series 2 was equipped with new and slightly longer propeller spinner and new wing-mounting 12 x .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns. The first aircraft were built in October 1940 and were renamed Mark IIB in April 1941.
Hurricane Mk IIB Trop.
For use in North Africa the Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB (and other variants) were tropicalised. They were fitted with Vokes and Rolls-Royce engine dust filters and the pilots were issued with a desert survival kit, including a bottle of water behind the cockpit.[142]
Hurricane Mk IIC BD867 of 3 Sqn RAF, 1942
Hurricane Mk IIC (Hurricane Mk IIA Series 2)
Hurricane Mk IIA Series 1 equipped with new and slightly longer propeller spinner, and fully replaced the machine-gun armament with four 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk II cannons, two per side. Hurricane IIA Series 2 became the Mk IIC in June 1941, using a slightly modified wing. The new wings also included a hardpoint for a 500 or 250 lb (230 or 110 kg) bomb and, later in 1941, fuel tanks. By then performance was inferior to the latest German fighters, and the Hurricane changed to the ground-attack role, sometimes referred to as the Hurribomber. The mark also served as a night fighter and intruder.
Hurricane Mk IID
Hurricane Mk IIB conversion armed with two 40 mm (1.57 in) anti-tank autocannons in a gondola-style pod, one under each wing and a single Browning machine gun in each wing loaded with tracers for aiming purposes. The first aircraft flew on 18 September 1941 and deliveries started in 1942. Serial-built aircraft had additional armour for the pilot, radiator and engine, and were armed with a Rolls-Royce gun with 12 rounds, later changed to the 40 mm (1.57 in) Vickers S gun with 15 rounds. The outer wing attachments were strengthened so that 4G could be pulled at a weight of 8,540 lb (3,874 kg).[143] The weight of guns and armour protection marginally impaired the aircraft's performance. These Hurricanes were nicknamed "Flying Can Openers", perhaps a play on the logo of No. 6 Squadron, which flew the Hurricane starting in 1941.
Hurricane IID of 6 Sqn showing Vokes tropical filter and RAF desert camouflage in 1942.
Hurricane Mk IIE
Another wing modification was introduced in the Mk IIE, but the changes became extensive enough that it was renamed the Mk IV after the first 250 had been delivered.
Hurricane Mk T.IIC
A Two-seat Hawker Hurricane of Air Force of Iran.jpg
Two-seat training version of the Mk. IIC. Only two aircraft were built, for the Imperial Iranian Air Force.
Hurricane Mk III
Version of the Hurricane Mk II powered by a US Packard-built Merlin engine, intending to provide supplies of the British-built engines for other designs. By the time production was to have started, British Merlin production had increased to the point where the idea was abandoned.
Hurricane Mk IV, armed with RP-3 rockets
Hurricane Mk IV
The last major change to the Hurricane was the introduction of the "universal Wing", a single design able to mount two 250 or 500 lb (110 or 230 kg) bombs, two 40 mm (1.57 in) Vickers S guns, drop tanks or eight "60 pounder" RP-3 rockets. Two .303 in Brownings were fitted to aid aiming of the heavier armament.[144] The new design also incorporated the improved Merlin 24 or 27 engines of 1,620 hp (1,210 kW), equipped with dust filters for desert operations. The Merlin 27 had a redesigned oil system that was better suited to operations in the tropics, and which was rated at a slightly lower altitude in keeping with the Hurricane's new role as a close-support fighter. The radiator was deeper and armoured. Additional armour was also fitted around the engine.[145]
Hurricane Mk V
The final variant to be produced. Only three were built, and the variant never reached production. This was powered by a Merlin 32 boosted engine to give 1,700 hp at low level and was intended as a dedicated ground-attack aircraft to use in Burma. All three prototypes had four-bladed propellers. Speed was 326 mph (525 km/h) at 500 ft, which is comparable with the Hurricane I despite being one and a half times as heavy.[145]
Hurricane Mk X
Canadian-built variant. Single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber. Powered by a 1,300 hp (970 kW) Packard Merlin 28. Eight 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns mounted in the wings. In total, 490 were built.
Hurricane Mk XI
Canadian-built variant. 150 were built.
Hurricane Mk XII
Canadian-built variant. Single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber. Powered by a 1,300 hp (969 kW) Packard Merlin 29. Initially armed with 12 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, but this was later changed to four 20 mm (.79 in) cannon.
Hurricane Mk XIIA
Canadian-built variant. Single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber. Powered by a 1,300 hp (970 kW) Packard Merlin 29, armed with eight 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns.
The Royal Navy during the Second World War A9421.jpg
Sea Hurricane Mk IA
The Sea Hurricane Mk IA was a Hurricane Mk I modified by General Aircraft Limited. These conversions numbered approximately 250 aircraft. They were modified to be carried by CAM ships (catapult-armed merchantman), whose ships' crews were Merchant Marine and whose Hurricanes were crewed and serviced by RAF personnel, or Fighter Catapult Ships, which were Naval Auxiliary Vessels crewed by naval personnel and aircraft operated by the Fleet Air Arm. These ships were equipped with a catapult for launching an aircraft, but without facilities to recover them. Consequently, if the aircraft were not in range of a land base, pilots had to bail out or to ditch.
Both of these options had their problems—there was always a chance of striking part of the fuselage when bailing out, and a number of pilots had been killed in this way. Ditching the Hurricane in the sea called for skill as the radiator housing acted as a water brake, pitching the nose of the fighter downwards when it hit the water, while also acting as a very efficient scoop, helping to flood the Hurricane so that a quick exit was necessary before the aircraft sank.[145] Then the pilot had to be picked up by a ship. More than 80 modifications were needed to convert a Hurricane into a Sea Hurricane, including new radios to conform with those used by the Fleet Air Arm and new instrumentation to read in knots rather than miles per hour.[142] They were informally known as "Hurricats".
The majority of the aircraft modified had suffered wear-and-tear serving with front line squadrons, so much so that at least one example used during trials broke up under the stress of a catapult launching. CAM Sea Hurricanes were launched operationally on eight occasions and the Hurricanes shot down six enemy aircraft for the loss of one Hurricane pilot killed.[146] The first Sea Hurricane IA kill was an FW 200C Condor, shot down on 2 August 1941.[147]
Preserved Sea Hurricane of the Fleet Air Arm.
Sea Hurricane Mk IB
Hurricane Mk I version equipped with catapult spools plus an arrester hook.[148] From July 1941 they operated from HMS Furious and from October 1941, they were used on merchant aircraft carrier (MAC) ships, which were large cargo vessels with a flight deck fitted, enabling aircraft to be launched and recovered. A total of 340 aircraft were converted. The first Sea Hurricane IB kill occurred on 31 July 1941 when Sea Hurricanes of 880 squadron FAA operating from HMS Furious shot down a Do 18 flying-boat.[149]
Sea Hurricane Mk IC
Hurricane Mk I[148] version equipped with catapult spools, an arrester hook and the four-cannon wing. From February 1942, 400 aircraft were converted. The Sea Hurricane IC used during Operation Pedestal had their Merlin III engines modified to accept 16 lb boost, and could generate more than 1,400 hp at low altitude.[150][151] Lt. R. J. Cork was credited with five kills while flying a Sea Hurricane IC during Operation Pedestal.[152]
Sea Hurricane Mk IIC
Hurricane Mk IIC version equipped with naval radio gear; 400 aircraft were converted and used on fleet carriers. The Merlin XX engine on the Sea Hurricane generated 1,460 hp at 6,250 ft and 1,435 hp at 11,000 ft. Top speed was 322 mph at 13,500ft and 342 mph at 22,000 ft.[146]
Sea Hurricane Mk XIIA
Canadian-built Hurricane Mk XIIA converted into Sea Hurricanes.
Hillson F.40 (a.k.a. F.H.40)
A full-scale version of the Hills & Son Bi-mono slip-wing Biplane/monoplane, using a Hawker Hurricane Mk I returned from Canada as RCAF ser no 321 (RAF serial L1884). Taxi and flight trials carried out at RAF Sealand during May 1943, and at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe Down from September 1943. The upper wing was not released in flight before the programme was terminated due to poor performance.[153]
Hurricane Photo Reconnaissance
The Service Depot at Heliopolis in Egypt converted several Hurricanes Is for photo reconnaissance. The first three were converted in January 1941. Two carried a pair of F24 cameras with 8-inch focal length lenses. The third carried one vertical and two oblique F24s with 14-inch focal length lenses mounted in the rear fuselage, close to the trailing edge of the wing, and a fairing was built up over the lenses aft of the radiator housing. A further five Hurricanes were modified in March 1941, and two were converted in a similar manner in Malta during April 1941. During October 1941 a batch of six Hurricane IIs was converted to PR Mark II status and a final batch, thought to be of 12 aircraft, was converted in late 1941. The PR Mark II was said to be capable of slightly over 350 mph (560 km/h) and was able to reach 38,000 ft (12,000 m).[141]
Hurricane Tac R
For duties closer to the front lines some Hurricanes were converted to Tactical Reconnaissance (Tac R) aircraft. An additional radio was fitted for liaison with ground forces who were better placed to direct the Hurricane. Some Hurricane Tac R aircraft also had a vertical camera fitted in the rear fuselage, so to compensate for the extra weight either one or two Brownings or two cannons would be omitted. Externally these aircraft were only distinguishable by the missing armament.[141]

Operators[edit]

Hawker Hurricane Mk IVRP with Yugoslav Air Force markings, Museum of Aviation in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Due to its lightweight, yet robust, construction and ease of maintenance, the Hurricane had a long operational life in many theatres of war. It was also built by, or exported to, several other countries. The Hurricane was unusual in that it was flown operationally by both the Allies and the Axis during the war. In some cases (e.g. Portugal and Ireland) the Hurricane was pressed into service after being forced to land in a neutral country.

In 1939 Latvia ordered 30 Hurricane fighters and paid for them. However, due to the start of the Second World War in September 1939, the aircraft were never delivered.[154]

Surviving aircraft[edit]

The last of the 14,583 Hurricanes built, s/n PZ865, . A Mk IIc version, originally known as "The Last of the Many" and owned by Hawker, this aircraft is now flown by the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight

Of more than 14,583 Hurricanes that were built,[155] only 12 (including three Sea Hurricanes) are in airworthy condition worldwide, although many other non-flying examples survive in various air museums.

Specifications (Hurricane Mk.IIC)[edit]

A Hawker Hurricane on display at the National Air and Space Museum's Udvar-Hazy Center of the Smithsonian Institution

Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II[156]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 32 ft 3 in (9.84 m)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 1½ in (4.0 m)
  • Wing area: 257.5 ft² (23.92 m²)
  • Empty weight: 5,745 lb (2,605 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 7,670 lb (3,480 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 8,710 lb (3,950 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Merlin XX liquid-cooled V-12, 1,185 hp (883 kW) at 21,000 ft (6,400 m)

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 4 × 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk II cannon
  • Bombs: 2 × 250 or 500 lb (110 or 230 kg) bombs

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists
Replicas

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mould was shot down on 1 October 1941 by Italian Macchi MC.202s north of Malta and declared "missing in action".
  2. ^ The Heinkel He 112 was never operational in France.
  3. ^ J. B. Parnall was the first RAF flight commander to be killed in action during the war.
  4. ^ Australian ace Les Clisby was credited with 16 individual air victories, one shared and one not confirmed. Postwar research reduced his score to nine individual kills and three shared. According to some sources, he was killed on 15 May 1940.
  5. ^ This was the pilot's term for the Boost Cut-Out Control which was adjacent to the throttle lever.
  6. ^ Gleed rose through the ranks to become a wing commander flying Spitfire VBs over North Africa; he was shot down and killed by Oberleutnant Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert on 16 April 1943. Gleed was credited with 15 victories.
  7. ^ As far as can be determined, no Messerschmitt Bf 110 crashes on land for 16 August 1940 can be attributed to Nicholson, although Nicholson himself believed the 110 crashed into the sea.[97]
  8. ^ This was code-named Operation Hurry. These aircraft were flown off the carrier HMS Argus.
  9. ^ Soviet Hurricanes were fuelled with 95 octane avgas, not the 100 Octane fuel that the Merlin XX was designed to use.
  10. ^ Soviet pilot Nikolai G. Golodnikov remembered: "The Hurricane’s engine was powerful, but it couldn’t stand long periods of work at maximum regimes and would quickly break down. The engine worked very clean, it had exhaust stacks and flame suppressors, mounted like mufflers.[N 9] This was very comfortable as the flames did not blind the pilot. Our planes were much worse in this respect. But at negative G-forces the engine chocked. There was no compensating tank. This was very bad because we had to execute any manoeuvre with positive G-forces. It had a very thick wing profile and poor acceleration characteristics. It was not slow in responding to the control stick, but everything happened smoothly, slowly. It had good lifting strength and was very good in horizontal manoeuvrability. But the Hurricane was very poor in vertical manoeuvre, due to thick wing profile. We mostly tried to impose a battle in the horizontal plane and would not go into a vertical one. The Hurricane burned rapidly — and to cinders like a match — as it had dural covering only on the tail and wings, the rest was percale."[116]
  11. ^ Malta: The Spitfire Year 1942 records 28 Sea Hurricane victories against eight losses during Operation Harpoon and Operation Pedestal.
  12. ^ 320 mph (510 km/h) at 19,700 ft (6,000 m) with two 250 lb (110 kg) bombs

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ C. Peter Chen. "Hurricane Fighter". WW2DB. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Green 1957, p. 24.
  3. ^ a b Thetford 1994, p. 232.
  4. ^ Bader 2004, p. 36.
  5. ^ a b Mason 1967, p. 3.
  6. ^ Mason 1967, pp. 3–4.
  7. ^ a b c d e Mason 1967, p. 4.
  8. ^ Mason 1992, p. 242.
  9. ^ McKinstry 2010, p. 30.
  10. ^ McKinstry 2010, p. 34.
  11. ^ McKinstry 2010, p. 40.
  12. ^ a b Cacutt 1989, pp. 204–212.
  13. ^ Bader 2004, pp. 37, 40.
  14. ^ Mason, Francis K. (1962). The Hawker Hurricane. London: MacDonald. p. 21. 
  15. ^ McKinstry 2010, p. 52.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Mason 1967, p. 5.
  17. ^ McKinstry 2010, p. 64.
  18. ^ Mason 1992, p. 254.
  19. ^ "World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines – 5th edition" by Bill Gunston, Sutton Publishing, 2006, p. 188.
  20. ^ Mason 1967, pp. 4–5.
  21. ^ "The King Inspects his Air Force." Flight, 16 July 1936.
  22. ^ a b c Postan 1952, p. Chapter IV, footnote 89.
  23. ^ Bader 2004, p. 41.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Mason 1967, p. 7.
  25. ^ a b Mason 1967, pp. 6–7.
  26. ^ Air International, July 1987, p. 34.
  27. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, p. 468.
  28. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, pp. 468, 473.
  29. ^ a b Flight 12 May 1938, p. 473.
  30. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, pp. 467–470.
  31. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, pp. 467, 468.
  32. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, p. 469.
  33. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, pp. 469, 470.
  34. ^ a b c d Flight 12 May 1938, p. 472.
  35. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, pp. 469–471.
  36. ^ a b Flight 12 May 1938, p. 471.
  37. ^ a b c Hiscock 2003, p. 12.
  38. ^ Flight 12 May 1938, pp. 471–472.
  39. ^ McKnstry 2010, p. 87.
  40. ^ Beamont January 1994, pp. 17, 18.
  41. ^ "Best of Battle of Britain." Air & Space, February–March 2008, p. 4.
  42. ^ a b Mason 1967, p. 6.
  43. ^ Shacklady 2000, pp. 47–49.
  44. ^ Holmes 1999, p. 12.
  45. ^ Mason 1967, pp. 8–9.
  46. ^ a b c Mason 1967, p. 9.
  47. ^ Beamont January 1994, p. 19.
  48. ^ Holmes 1999, pp. 15–16.
  49. ^ a b Holmes 1999, p. 18.
  50. ^ Burns 1992, pp. 56–57.
  51. ^ a b Holmes 1996, p. 24.
  52. ^ Holmes 1996, pp. 41–42.
  53. ^ Two of the crew of the leading Battle, Donald Garland and Thomas Gray were awarded the Victoria Cross for pressing home the attack
  54. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 47.
  55. ^ Holmes 1996, pp. 48–49.
  56. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 49.
  57. ^ Shores, Christopher. "France, 1940: 1 Squadron." BBC, 8 September 2010. Retrieved: 29 September 2010.
  58. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 51.
  59. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 52.
  60. ^ a b Holmes 1996, p. 55.
  61. ^ Holmes 1998, p. 47.
  62. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 23.
  63. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 58.
  64. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 57.
  65. ^ Murray 2002, pp. 38–39.
  66. ^ Bader 2004, pp. 50–55.
  67. ^ Burns 1992, pp. 165–167.
  68. ^ Wood and Dempster 1990, p. 87.
  69. ^ "10/282 Minutes of Oil Policy Committee meetings." National Archives AVIA, 2 April, 18 May, 7 August 1940. Retrieved: 15 June 2009.
  70. ^ a b c Gleed 1942, p. 61.
  71. ^ Harvey-Bailey 1995, p. 155.
  72. ^ Donald 1999, p. 38.
  73. ^ Mason 1967, pp. 5–6.
  74. ^ Mason 1967, pp. 12–13.
  75. ^ Bywater, Michael. "Our forgotten freedom fighter: Why the unsung Hurricane is the true ace of the Battle of Britain." The Independent, 17 January 2011.
  76. ^ Mason 1967, p. 12.
  77. ^ Merlin In Perspective p136,Alec Harvey-Bailey, Rolls Royce Heritage Trust.
  78. ^ Bungay 2000, pp. 264–267.
  79. ^ Ramsay 1989, pp. 415, 516, 526, 796.
  80. ^ Mason 1991, pp. 279, 300.
  81. ^ Bungay 2000, p. 82.
  82. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/FlightPDFArchive/1945/1945%20-%201890.jpg
  83. ^ Bungay 2000, pp. 77, 197–198.
  84. ^ Bungay 2000, p. 198.
  85. ^ Wilkinson Rubber Linatex advert September 27th, 1945
  86. ^ Bungay 2000, pp. 200–201.
  87. ^ Holmes, Tony. (1998) Hurricane Aces 1939–1940. Osprey Publishing. London. p. 128 ISBN 978-1-85532-597-5
  88. ^ Holmes 1998, p. 106
  89. ^ Shores, Christopher and Williams, Clive. (1966). Aces High. Neville Spearman. p. 226. No ISBN
  90. ^ Baker, E.C.R (1962). The Fighter Aces of the RAF. p. 95. William Kimber.
  91. ^ Baker 1962, p. 134
  92. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34945. p. 5487. 13 September 1940. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
  93. ^ The London Gazette: no. 35001. p. 6753. 26 November 1940. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
  94. ^ Ramsay 1989, p. 306.
  95. ^ Ramsay 1989, pp. 306–313, 362.
  96. ^ Mason 1967, p. 13.
  97. ^ Ramsay 1989, p. 311.
  98. ^ Marchant 1996, pp. 53–54.
  99. ^ Thomas 1996, pp. 550–554.
  100. ^ Mason 1967, pp. 14–15.
  101. ^ Mason 1967, p. 15.
  102. ^ Glancey 2006, p. 165.
  103. ^ Snedden 1997, p. 51.
  104. ^ Bader 2004, pp. 165–167.
  105. ^ "War Monthly" (1–9). 1974: 14. Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  106. ^ Shores et al. 1987, pp. 43–47.
  107. ^ a b Bader 2004, pp. 147–155.
  108. ^ Bader 2004, pp. 125–127.
  109. ^ a b Morgan 1999, p. 55.
  110. ^ Yefim 2008, p. 480.
  111. ^ Drabkin 2007, p. 11.
  112. ^ Bader 2004, pp. 135–137.
  113. ^ Jacobs 1998, pp. 84–85.
  114. ^ Yefim 2008, p. 482.
  115. ^ Yefim 2008, pp. 483–484.
  116. ^ Drabkin 2007, pp. 127–128:
  117. ^ Cull and Sortehaug 2004
  118. ^ Mason 1967, p. 17.
  119. ^ Shores 1992, p. 297.
  120. ^ "Your Planes and Your Work Defend Your Empire (Poster)." Imperial War Museum (Printer: Fosh and Cross Ltd, London). Retrieved: 17 November 2011.
  121. ^ Derry and Robinson, p. 27
  122. ^ Boer 2006, p. 83.
  123. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, pp. 392–393, 395, 399.
  124. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, p. 395.
  125. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, p. 397.
  126. ^ a b Vaccari 1995, p. 39.
  127. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, p. 403.
  128. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, pp. 397–398.
  129. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, pp. 395–397.
  130. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, pp. 403–404.
  131. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, p. 413.
  132. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, p. 420.
  133. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1993, pp. 421–422.
  134. ^ a b Thomas 2003, p. 81.
  135. ^ Shores et al., 1987
  136. ^ "Obituary of Lt-Cdr Sammy Mearns." The Telegraph 14 June 2009. Retrieved: 20 September 2010.
  137. ^ Thomas 2003, p. 83.
  138. ^ Thomas 2007, p. 87.
  139. ^ Schlaiefer 1950, p. 220.
  140. ^ Hiscock 2003, p. 16.
  141. ^ a b c Hiscock 2003, p. 18.
  142. ^ a b Hiscock 2003, p. 19.
  143. ^ Hiscock 2003, p. 17.
  144. ^ Mason 1991, p. 285.
  145. ^ a b c Hiscock 2003, p. 20.
  146. ^ a b Brown 1980, p. 112.
  147. ^ Brown 1980, p. 109.
  148. ^ a b Brown 1980, p. 114.
  149. ^ Thetford 1994, p. 228.
  150. ^ Brown 1980, p. 115.
  151. ^ Data on the Merlin III engine and 16 lb boost.
  152. ^ Thetford 1994, p. 231.
  153. ^ Jarrett Aeroplane Monthly January 1991, pp. 18–23.
  154. ^ Ilmārs. "Latavio". lffb.lv (in Latvian). 
  155. ^ "Hawker Hurricane – Great Britain." The Aviation History On-Line Museum.. Retrieved: 17 January 2011.
  156. ^ Bridgman 1946, pp. 128–129.

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