iOS SDK

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iOS SDK (Software Development Kit)
Logo for iOS SDK.png
IOS SDK New Project.png
iOS SDK 8 included in Xcode 6.2 final.
Original author(s) Apple Inc.
Developer(s) Apple Inc.
Initial release March 6, 2008 (2008-03-06)
Stable release
iPhone 4S and above
iPad 2 and above (incl. Air and mini)
iPod Touch 5th generation
8.3 (Build 12F69 - 12F70) (April 8, 2015; 4 months ago (2015-04-08)) [±][1]
Preview release
iPhone 4S and above
iPad 2 and above (incl. Air and mini)
iPod Touch 5th generation
8.4 beta 4 (Build 12H4125a); 9.0 beta 1 (Build 13A4254v)
(8.4 - June 9, 2015; 2 months ago (2015-06-09)); (9.0 - June 8, 2015; 2 months ago (2015-06-08)) [±]
Development status Active
Written in Objective-C
Operating system iOS
Available in English
Type Software development kit
Website Apple Developer

The iOS SDK (Software Development Kit) (formerly iPhone SDK) is a software development kit developed by Apple Inc. and released in February 2008 to develop native applications for iOS.

Contents

History[edit]

On October 17, 2007, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, Steve Jobs announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008.[2] The SDK was released on March 6, 2008, and allows developers to make applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, as well as test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto the devices is only possible after paying an iOS Developer Program fee, which is $99.00 USD per year.[3] Since the release of Xcode 3.1, Xcode is the development environment for the iOS SDK. iPhone applications, like OS X applications, are written in Swift and Objective-C,[4] with some elements of an application able to be written in C or C++.

SDK release history[edit]

Apple normally releases a new SDK concurrently with every major (iOS x.0 – e.g. iOS 6.0) and minor (iOS x.x, e.g. iOS 5.1) iOS update. Several beta SDKs are usually released to developers before the version is released publicly. The betas are intended to be used for testing for compatibility with existing applications and to add features that are newly available in that version of iOS.[5]

Obsolete Discontinued Current release Old Release Beta Old beta Future Release

iPhone OS 1.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iPhone OS 1.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iPhone OS 1.2b1 Beta 1[edit]
5A147p March 6, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 1.0 Announced at an Apple press conference.[6]
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iPhone OS 2.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iPhone OS 2.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 2[edit]
5A225c March 27, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b2,[7] which added Interface Builder, an application for building graphical user interfaces for iPhone applications.[8]
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 3[edit]
5A240d April 8, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b3.[9]
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 4[edit]
5A258f April 23, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b4. This version of the SDK supports OpenGL 3D graphics, primarily used to make games,[10] and indications that some applications will be allowed to run in the background (as the iPod, Phone, and Mail applications do), something that Apple had previously stated was not possible.
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 5[edit]
5A274d May 6, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b5.[11]
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 6[edit]
5A292g May 28, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b6. The code in this update gave hints about updates to Apple's .Mac[12] service and also gave a first reference to the upcoming version of Mac OS X, version 10.6 Snow Leopard.[13]

This beta had two separate builds. The first on (5A292g) was an enterprise pre-release, while the second one (5A308) was the general developer release.[14]

5A308 May 29, 2008
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 7[edit]
5A331 June 9, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b7, which unlocked Apple's .Mac replacement, MobileMe. This release was for WWDC, Apple's developer's conference, which is noted as part of the name of the iPhone OS beta download.
iPhone OS 2.0 Beta 8[edit]
5A345 June 26, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b8.[15]
iPhone OS 2.0 Final[edit]
5A347 July 11, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0. This coincided with the launch of the App Store.
iPhone OS 2.1 Beta[edit]
5F90 [1] July 24, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.1.[16] Apple notes that applications built using the 2.1 SDK will not run on the iPhone 2.0 software, and will not yet be accepted into the App Store.
iPhone OS 2.1 Beta 2[edit]
 ? July 30, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.1.[17]


 ? August 8, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.1.[18]
iPhone OS 2.1 Beta 4[edit]
August 16, 2008
iPhone OS 2.1 Final[edit]
5F136 September 12, 2008 Release for iPhone OS 2.1.
iPhone OS 2.2 Beta[edit]
5G29 September 25, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.2.[19]
iPhone OS 2.2 Beta 2[edit]
5G53 [2] October 24, 2008
iPhone OS 2.2 Final[edit]
9M2621 November 20, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.2.
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iPhone OS 3.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iPhone OS 3.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iPhone OS 3.0 Beta 1[edit]
 ? March 17, 2009 Preview of iPhone OS version 3.0 and SDK 3.0 beta release.[20]
iPhone OS 3.0 Beta 2[edit]
7A259g March 31, 2009 Release for iPhone OS version 3.0.[21]
iPhone OS 3.0 Beta 3[edit]
 ? April 14, 2009 Release for iPhone OS version 3.0.[22]
iPhone OS 3.0 Beta 4[edit]
 ? April 28, 2009 Release for iPhone OS version 3.0.[23]
iPhone OS 3.0 Beta 5[edit]
 ? May 6, 2009 Release for iPhone OS version 3.0.[24]
iPhone OS 3.0 Golden Master[edit]
5A331 June 8, 2009 Final Release for iPhone OS version 3.0 for developers and private testers only.[25]
iPhone OS 3.0 Final[edit]
5A345 June 17, 2009 Final release for iPhone OS version 3.0 for standard users was released on June 17.[25]
iPhone OS 3.1 Beta 1[edit]
 ? June 30, 2009 First beta release for iPhone OS version 3.1 released to developers June 30.
iPhone OS 3.1 Beta 2[edit]
5F90 July 14, 2009 Second beta release for iPhone OS version 3.1 released to developers July 14.
iPhone OS 3.1 Beta 3[edit]
 ? July 27, 2009 Third beta release for iPhone OS version 3.1 released to developers July 27.
iPhone OS 3.1 Final[edit]
7C144 September 9, 2009 Final release for iPhone OS version 3.1 for standard users was released in the Apple "It's Only Rock and Roll, but we like it" special event on September 9, 2009.
iPhone OS 3.2 Beta 1[edit]
 ? January 27, 2010 Initial, developer-only beta release for iPhone OS version 3.2. iPad only.
iPhone OS 3.2 Beta 2[edit]
 ? February 9, 2010 iPad only.
iPhone OS 3.2 Beta 3[edit]
 ? February 23, 2010 iPad only.
iPhone OS 3.2 Beta 4[edit]
10M2144 March 9, 2010 iPad only.
iPhone OS 3.2 Beta 5[edit]
10M2148 March 17, 2010 iPad only.
iPhone OS 3.2 Golden Master[edit]
10M2144 March 29, 2010 iPad only.
iPhone OS 3.2 Final[edit]
10M2148 April 3, 2010 First public release of iPhone OS version 3.2. iPad only.
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iOS 4.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iOS 4.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iOS 4.0 Beta 1[edit]
8A230m April 8, 2010 First beta release for iOS version 4.0 released to developers April 8.
iOS 4.0 Beta 2[edit]
8A248c April 20, 2010 Second beta release for iOS version 4.0 released to developers April 20.
iOS 4.0 Beta 3[edit]
8A260b May 4, 2010 Third beta release for iOS version 4.0 released to developers May 4.
iOS 4.0 Beta 4[edit]
8A260b May 18, 2010 Fourth beta release for iOS version 4.0 released to developers May 18.
iOS 4.0 Golden Master[edit]
8A293 June 7, 2010 Golden Master release for iOS version 4.0 released to developers June 7.
iOS 4.0 Final[edit]
5A331 June 8, 2010 Final Release for iPhone OS version 4.0 for developers and private testers only.[25]
iOS 4.1 Beta 1[edit]
 ? July 14, 2010 First beta release for iOS version 4.1 released to developers July 14.
iOS 4.1 Beta 2[edit]
 ? July 27, 2010 Second beta release for iOS version 4.1.
iOS 4.1 Beta 3[edit]
 ? August 3, 2010 Third beta release for iOS version 4.1.
iOS 4.1 Final[edit]
10M2309 September 8, 2010 Final release for iOS version 4.1 released to developers September 8.
iOS 4.2 Beta 1[edit]
 ? September 15, 2010 First beta release for iOS version 4.2.
iOS 4.2 Beta 2[edit]
 ? September 28, 2010 Second beta release for iOS version 4.2.
iOS 4.2 Beta 3[edit]
 ? October 12, 2010 Third beta release for iOS version 4.2.
iOS 4.2 Golden Master[edit]
 ? November 1, 2010 Golden Master seed release for iOS version 4.2.
iOS 4.2 Golden Master 2[edit]
 ? November 18, 2010 Second Golden Master seed release for iOS version 4.2, numbered as 4.2.1.
iOS 4.2 Final[edit]
8C134 November 22, 2010 Final release for iOS version 4.2 released to developers November 22.
iOS 4.3 Beta 1[edit]
8F5148b January 12, 2011 Drops support for iPhone 3G, and second-generation iPod touch.
iOS 4.3 Beta 2[edit]
9F5135d January 19, 2011
iOS 4.3 Beta 3[edit]
8F5166b February 1, 2011
iOS 4.3 Golden Master[edit]
8F190 March 3, 2011 Also includes Xcode 4 golden master to support iOS 4.3. Xcode 4 golden master
iOS 4.3 Final[edit]
8F190 March 9, 2011 Also includes Xcode 4 final. Xcode 4 final
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iOS 5.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iOS 5.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iOS 5.0 beta 1[edit]
9a5220p June 6, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 1
iOS 5.0 beta 2[edit]
9A524Bd June 24, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 2
iOS 5.0 beta 3[edit]
9A5259f July 11, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 3
iOS 5.0 beta 4[edit]
9A5274d July 22, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 4 Xcode 4.2 Preview 4
iOS 5.0 beta 5[edit]
9A5288d August 6, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 5 Xcode 4.2 Preview 5
iOS 5.0 beta 6[edit]
9A5302b August 19, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 6 Xcode 4.2 Preview 6
iOS 5.0 beta 7[edit]
9A5313e August 31, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 7 Xcode 4.2 Preview 7
iOS 5.0 Golden Master[edit]
9A334 October 4, 2011 iTunes 10.5 beta 9 Xcode 4.2 Golden Master
iOS 5.0 Final[edit]
9A334 October 12, 2011 iTunes 10.5 Xcode 4.2
iOS 5.0.1 beta 1[edit]
9A402 November 4, 2011 iTunes 10.5.1 beta 1 Xcode 4.2
iOS 5.0.1 Final[edit]
9A405 November 11, 2011 iTunes 10.5.1 Final Xcode 4.2
iOS 5.1 beta 1[edit]
9B5117b November 28, 2011 Xcode 4.3 Beta preview
iOS 5.1 beta 2[edit]
9B5127c December 12, 2011 Xcode 4.3 Beta preview 2
iOS 5.1 beta 3[edit]
9B5141a January 9, 2012 Xcode 4.3 Beta preview
iOS 5.1 Final[edit]
9B176, 9B179 P5 (iPhone 4S only) March 7, 2012 iTunes 10.6 Xcode 4.3
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iOS 6.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iOS 6.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iOS 6.0 beta 1[edit]
10A5316k June 11, 2012 iTunes 10.6.3 Xcode 4.5 Beta preview
iOS 6.0 beta 2[edit]
10A5338d June 25, 2012 Xcode 4.5 Beta 2 preview
iOS 6.0 beta 3[edit]
10A5355d July 16, 2012 Xcode 4.5 Beta 3 preview
iOS 6.0 beta 4[edit]
10A5376e August 6, 2012 Xcode 4.5 Developer Preview 4
iOS 6.0 Golden Master[edit]
10A403 September 12, 2012 iTunes 10.7 Xcode 4.5 Golden Master
iOS 6.0 Final[edit]
10A403, 10A405 (iPhone 5),10A406 (iPod Touch 5th Gen.) September 19, 2012 iTunes 10.7 Xcode 4.5
iOS 6.1 beta 1[edit]
10B5095f November 1, 2012 iTunes 10.7 Xcode 4.6
iOS 6.1 beta 2[edit]
10B5105c November 12, 2012 iTunes 10.7 Xcode 4.6
iOS 6.1 beta 3[edit]
10B5117b December 3, 2012 iTunes 10.7 Xcode 4.6
iOS 6.1 beta 4[edit]
10B5126b December 17, 2012 iTunes 10.7 Xcode 4.6
iOS 6.1 Final[edit]
10B141 P3 S2 S2C S2D S3 S3L S3D S4 S4L S4D M1 M1C T5
10B142 P4S
10B143 P5 T4
10B144 P4 P4C
January 28, 2013 iTunes 11 Xcode 4.6
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iOS 7.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iOS 7.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iOS 7.0 beta 1[edit]
11A4372q June 10, 2013 Release of iOS 7 beta iTunes 11 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 beta 2[edit]
11A4400f June 24, 2013 iPad support added iTunes 11 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 beta 3[edit]
11A4414e July 8, 2013 Bug fixes and crashes iTunes 11 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 beta 4[edit]
11A4435d July 29, 2013 Bug fixes and crashes iTunes 11 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 beta 5[edit]
11A4449a August 6, 2013 Minor Bug fixes and changes to appearance iTunes 11.1 beta 1 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 beta 6[edit]
11A4449d August 15, 2013 Minor Bug fixes iTunes 11.1 beta 1 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 Golden Master[edit]
11A465 September 10, 2013 Many Bug fixes iTunes 11.1 beta 2 Xcode 5
iOS 7.0 Final[edit]
11A465 September 18, 2013 iTunes 11.1 Xcode 5
iOS 7.1 beta 1[edit]
11D5099e November 18, 2013
iOS 7.1 beta 2[edit]
11D5115d December 13, 2013
iOS 7.1 beta 3[edit]
11D5127c January 7, 2014
iOS 7.1 beta 4[edit]
11D5134c January 20, 2014 iTunes 11.1.4 Xcode 5.1
iOS 7.1 beta 5[edit]
11D5145e Feb 4, 2014 iTunes 11.1.4 Xcode 5.1
iOS 7.1 Final[edit]
11D167 Mar 10, 2014 Xcode 5.1
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iOS 8.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iOS 8.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iOS 8.0 beta 1[edit]
12A4265u June 2, 2014 Release of iOS 8 beta iTunes 11.2.2 Xcode 6
iOS 8.0 beta 2[edit]
12A4297e June 17, 2014 Xcode 6
iOS 8.0 beta 3[edit]
12A4318c July 7, 2014 Xcode 6
iOS 8.0 beta 4[edit]
12A4331d July 21, 2014 Xcode 6
iOS 8.0 beta 5[edit]
12A4345d August 4, 2014 Xcode 6
iOS 8.0 Golden Master[edit]
12A365 September 9, 2014 iTunes 11.4.0 Xcode 6
iOS 8.0 Final[edit]
12A365 September 17, 2014 iTunes 11.4.018 Xcode 6.0.1
iOS 8.1 beta 1[edit]
12B401 September 29, 2014 Release of iOS 8.1 beta Xcode 6.1
iOS 8.1 beta 2[edit]
12B407 October 7, 2014 Xcode 6.1 GM seed 2
iOS 8.1 Final[edit]
12B410 (iPad)
12B411 (iPhone)
October 20, 2014 iTunes 12.0.1 Xcode 6.1 build 6A1052d
iOS 8.1.1 beta 1[edit]
12B432 November 3, 2014 Release of iOS 8.1.1 beta
iOS 8.1.1 Final[edit]
12B435 November 17, 2014
iOS 8.2 beta 1[edit]
12B436 November 18, 2014 Release of iOS 8.2 beta Xcode 6.2 with WatchKit
iOS 8.2 beta 2[edit]
12D445d December 10, 2014 Xcode 6.2
iOS 8.2 beta 3[edit]
December 18, 2014 Xcode 6.2
iOS 8.2 beta 4[edit]
January 12, 2015 Xcode 6.2
iOS 8.2 beta 5[edit]
February 2, 2015 Xcode 6.2
iOS 8.2 Final[edit]
12D508 March 9, 2015 Apple Watch support and initial WatchKit SDK iTunes 12.1.1 Xcode 6.2
iOS 8.3 beta 1[edit]
12F5027d February 9, 2015 Release of iOS 8.3 beta, concurrent with iOS 8.2 beta 5 Xcode 6.3
iOS 8.3 beta 2[edit]
February 23, 2015 Xcode 6.3
iOS 8.3 beta 3[edit]
March 12, 2015 Xcode 6.3
iOS 8.3 beta 4[edit]
March 24, 2015 Xcode 6.3
iOS 8.3 Final[edit]
12F69 - 12F70 April 8, 2015 Apple Watch Support iTunes 12.1.2.27 Xcode 6.3 build 6D570
iOS 8.4 beta 1[edit]
12H4074d April 13, 2015 Redesigned Music App Xcode 6.3 build 6D570
iOS 8.4 beta 2[edit]
12H4086d April 27, 2015 Xcode 6.4 beta 2
iOS 8.4 beta 3[edit]
12H4098c May 11, 2015 Xcode 6.4 beta 3
iOS 8.4 beta 4[edit]
12H4125a June 9, 2015 Xcode 6.4 beta 4
iOS 8.4 Final[edit]
12H143 June 30, 2015 Apple Music Xcode 6.4
iOS 8.4.1 beta 1[edit]
12H304 July 14, 2015 Xcode 6.4 build 6E35b
iOS 8.4.1 beta 2[edit]
12H318 July 31, 2015 Xcode 6.4 build 6E35b
iOS 8.4.1 Final[edit]
12H321 August 13, 2015 Apple Music Updates iTunes 12.2.2 Xcode 6.4
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

iOS 9.x: SDK[edit]

Table of versions: iOS 9.x SDK
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version
iOS 9.0 beta 1[edit]
13A4254v June 8, 2015 Xcode 7.0 beta 1
iOS 9.0 beta 2[edit]
13A4280e June 23, 2015 Xcode 7.0 beta 2
iOS 9.0 beta 3[edit]
13A4293g July 8, 2015 Xcode 7.0 beta 3 build 7A152u
iOS 9.0 beta 4[edit]
13A4305g July 21, 2015 Xcode 7.0 beta 4 build 7A165t
iOS 9.0 beta 5[edit]
13A4325c August 6, 2015 Xcode 7.0 beta 5 build 7A176x
Version Build Release date Features/Notes iTunes version Xcode version

Features[edit]

Developers are able to set any price above a set minimum for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70% share. Alternately, they may opt to release the application for free and need not pay any costs to release or distribute the application except for the membership fee.[26]

Since its release, there has been some controversy regarding the refund policy in the fine print of the Developer Agreement with Apple. According to the agreement that developers must agree to, if someone purchases an app from the app store, 30% of the price goes to Apple, and 70% to the developer. If a refund is granted to the customer (at Apple's discretion), the 30% is returned to the customer from Apple, and 70% from the developer; however, Apple can then take another 30% of the cost from the developer to make up for Apple's loss.[27]

SDK contents[edit]

As iOS uses a variant of the same XNU kernel that is found in OS X, the tool chain used for developing on iOS is also based on Xcode.

The SDK contents is broken down into the following sets:[28]

Along with the Xcode toolchain, the SDK contains the iPhone Simulator, a program used to simulate the look and feel of the iPhone on the developer's desktop. Originally called the Aspen Simulator, it was renamed with the Beta 2 release of the SDK. Note that the iPhone Simulator is not an emulator and runs code generated for an x86 target rather than ARM.

The latest SDK, iOS 6.0 SDK in Xcode 4.5, requires an Intel Mac running Mac OS X 10.7.4 "Lion" or later. Other operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and older versions of Mac OS X, are not supported.[29]

Core Location[edit]

Core Location is a software framework in iOS. It is primarily used by applications on iOS (formerly iPhone OS) 2.0 or later for detection of the device's location, and on supported devices running iPhone OS 3.0 or later, the device's heading. On the iPod Touch and iPad (Wifi-only models), Core Location uses Skyhook Wireless's Wi-Fi-based positioning system. On the original iPhone, it uses cellular tower triangulation in addition to Wi-Fi positioning. On the iPhone 3G or newer and iPad (Wifi + Cellular models), it also uses the available GPS hardware, and the iPhone 4S uses all the aforementioned technologies with the addition of GLONASS. The actual selection of location method is abstracted from the user and developer.

Core Location also allows applications to retrieve the device's heading from the built-in magnetometer (digital compass). It not only can detect the magnetic heading and true heading (combined with the GPS), but also can get raw heading data.[30] Heading information is only available in iPhone OS 3.0 or later running on the iPhone 3GS or newer and all iPad models.

The framework was announced as part of the iPhone Software Roadmap event on March 6, 2008,[31] and was made available as part of the iOS SDK.

SVG[edit]

Mobile Safari supports SVG starting with iPhone OS 2.1. The SVG support features scripting and most of the static parts of the SVG 1.1. specification. SMIL animation is not yet supported for SVG graphics. It will be delivered after the Webkit SMIL implementation is mature enough. In addition to SVG, the HTML Canvas is supported.

Alternatives[edit]

Restrictions imposed by iOS Developer Program License[edit]

Terms in the iOS Developer Program License were relaxed by Apple in September 2010 with regard to using other interpreter languages. [32][33]

Java[edit]

Java running on an iOS platform currently is outside the bounds of the iOS SDK Agreement. The guideline in question is rule 3.3.2, which reads and which was changed after Sept 2010:

3.3.2 — An Application may not itself install or launch other executable code by any means, including without limitation through the use of a plug-in architecture, calling other frameworks, other APIs or otherwise. No interpreted code may be downloaded or used in an Application except for code that is interpreted and run by Apple’s Documented APIs and built-in interpreter(s).

In 2008, Sun Microsystems announced plans to release a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) for iOS, based on the Java Platform, Micro Edition version of Java. This would enable Java applications to run on iPhone and iPod Touch.[34] Soon after the announcement, developers familiar with the SDK's terms of agreement believed that by not allowing 3rd-party applications to run in the background (answer a phone call and still run the application, for example),[35] allowing an application to download code from another source, or allowing an application to interact with a 3rd-party application (Safari with JVM, for example), could hinder development of the JVM without Apple's cooperation.[36]

It is possible to install and use a J2ME stack on an iPhone, though it involves jailbreaking.[37][38]

In 2008, there were talks between Sun and Apple concerning the availability of Java on the iPhone, and that Sun was working in that intent with a company called Innaworks.[39][40] Since it is required that all ARM9 or later processors include Jazelle support, the iPhone includes the hardware for accelerated Java execution.[41]

.NET/CLI[edit]

It is not permissible to install a .NET Framework or similar runtime on an iPhone, but by using Xamarin's commercial MonoTouch framework it is possible to achieve similar results. MonoTouch uses a custom fork of the Mono Project to compile all CLI bytecode in .NET to native ARM machine-code ahead of time.[42]

Since this framework is fully compatible with CLI compliant languages that do not emit runtime compiled code it is possible to develop with the wide range of languages supported by .NET, including C# and Visual Basic .NET. Though at this time the MonoTouch native ARM code compiler only supports C# with plans for Visual Basic .NET in the future.[43]

Flash[edit]

iOS does not support Adobe Flash, and Flash movies on web pages cannot be viewed in Mobile Safari[note 1]. Although Adobe has two versions of its software – Flash and Flash Lite – Apple views neither as suitable for the iPhone, claiming that full Flash would be too cumbersome for the iPhone, while Flash Lite would not provide a worthy experience for the users.[45]

Flash for Apple is a virtual machine with a just-in-time compiler. Apple's iOS SDK prevents any software on the iPhone from downloading or running external executable code (e.g. a virtual machine). Additionally, apps built under the iPhone Developer Program License Agreement for the iPhone SDK 4 Beta may not be originally written in any other programming language than C, C++, or Objective-C.[46] What Adobe had done in their CS5 release for the iPhone was to create a static compiler that allows developers to compile their Flash programs into apps that can run on the iPhone.[47] This would have allowed many Flash games to become apps, but still preventing web interfaces such as Hulu from working on the iPhone. But as these apps wouldn't have been originally written in C, C++ or Objective-C, they may not pass the App Store approval process when done under the terms of the iPhone SDK 4 Beta.

Unofficially, some Flash video sites can be viewed by using a jailbroken iPhone with certain third-party applications.[48] However, it results on extremely low frame rate due to the lack of memory bandwidth and CPU speed for Flash JIT execution. Another reason is the general lack of optimization of Flash for iOS, which can be seen in several benchmarks of Flash in Mac OS X.[49]

Since November 2009, Adobe has posted the following notice on the Flash download page when viewed from an iPhone:[50]

Flash Player not available for your device

“Apple restricts use of technologies required by products like Flash Player. Until Apple eliminates these restrictions, Adobe cannot provide Flash Player for the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad.”

In November 2011, Adobe announced that they would no longer continue to develop a mobile version of Flash.[51]

Licensing[edit]

The SDK itself is a free download, but beta SDKs require a paid developer account. In order to release software, one must enroll in the iPhone Developer Program—a step requiring payment and Apple's approval. As of February 2015, cost of enrollment in the iPhone Developer Program is US$99 per year (the cost varies from country to country) for the standard program. Signed keys are provided to upload the application to Apple's App Store. Applications can be distributed in three ways: through the App Store, through enterprise deployment to a company's employees only, and on an "Ad-hoc" basis to up to 100 iPhones. Once distributed through the App Store, a developer can request up to 50 promotional codes that can be used to freely distribute a commercial application he or she has developed. The SDK can only be installed in OS X, and the latest SDK (iOS SDK 8.0 with Xcode 6.0.1, as of September 2014) requires OS X 10.9.4 "Mavericks" or later.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Note that there are workarounds available which implement Flash in JavaScript – though they are not widely used.[44]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "iOS 8.3". Apple. 2015-04-08. 
  2. ^ Jobs, Steve (October 17, 2007). "Third Party Applications on the iPhone". Apple. Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2014. 
  3. ^ "iOS Developer Program". Apple. Retrieved March 7, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Did Apple Make A Mistake Choosing Objective-C For iPhone SDK? at Simon’s Blog". Psynixis. April 25, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Pre-Release Software". Apple Developer (support). Apple. Retrieved October 5, 2012. 
  6. ^ Block, Ryan (March 6, 2008). "Live from Apple's iPhone SDK press conference". Engadget. Weblogs. Retrieved December 12, 2008. 
  7. ^ Dan, Moren (March 27, 2008). "iPhone SDK: now with 100% more Interface Builder". Macworld. Retrieved March 27, 2008. 
  8. ^ "Interface Builder". Apple Inc. Retrieved March 27, 2008. 
  9. ^ Apple Seeds New iPhone OS 2.0 Beta (5A240d), SDK Update (Beta 3) - MacRumors April 8, 2008.
  10. ^ iPhone SDK Beta 4 Now Available, Comes with OpenGL ES 3D Graphics Support - Gizmodo.
  11. ^ iPhone SDK Beta 5 Now Up: Bug Fixes, Updated OS Support - Gizmodo.
  12. ^ MacRumors - Apple's .Mac Service to be Renamed, Revamped? - MacRumors May 30, 2008.
  13. ^ Mac OS 10.6 reference in iPhone SDK beta 6 - MacRumors May 29, 2008.
  14. ^ "Beta Firmware". The iPhone Wiki. iPhone. 
  15. ^ "iPhone SDK beta release 8 - Download Notes" (PDF). Apple Inc. June 26, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008. 
  16. ^ "iPhone SDK 2.1 beta release 1 released". Gearlive. July 25, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  17. ^ "Apple Seeds 2nd Beta of iPhone 2.1 Firmware to Developers". MacRumors. July 30, 2008. 
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