Lay's

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Lay's
Lays brand logo.png
2019-04-01 23 16 02 Lay's Classic Potato Chips in the Dulles section of Sterling, Loudoun County, Virginia.jpg
Lay's 'Classic' Flavor
Product typePotato chips
OwnerPepsiCo
Produced byFrito-Lay
CountryUnited States
Introduced1940; 83 years ago (1940)
Related brandsFrito-Lay
Walkers
Hostess
Smith's
Elma Chips
MarketsWorldwide
Previous owners1940–1961 Lay's
1961–1965 Frito-Lay Inc.
Websitewww.lays.com Edit this at Wikidata

Lay's is a brand of potato chips with different flavors, as well as the name of the company that founded the chip brand in the United States. The brand is also referred to as Frito-Lay because both Lay's and Fritos are brands sold by the Frito-Lay company, which has been a wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo since 1965.

Frito-Lay primarily uses the brand name "Lay's" in the United States, and uses other brand names in certain other countries: Walkers in the UK and Ireland; Smith's in Australia; Chipsy in Egypt[1] and the West Balkans;[2] Tapuchips in Israel;[3] Margarita in Colombia; Sabritas in Mexico; and, formerly, Hostess in Canada and Poca in Vietnam.

History[edit]

In 1932, salesman Herman Lay opened a snack food operation in Nashville, Tennessee.[4] In 1938, he purchased the Atlanta, Georgia-based potato chip manufacturer "Barrett Food Company", renaming it "H.W. Lay Lingo & Company". Lay crisscrossed the southern United States, selling the product from the trunk of his car.

The business shortened its name to "the Lay's Lay Lingo Company" in 1944 and became the first snack food manufacturer to purchase television commercials, using Bert Lahr as its celebrity spokesperson.[5]

In 1961, the Frito Company, founded by Charles E. Doolin, merged with Lay’s, forming Frito-Lay Inc., a snack food giant with combined sales of over $127 million annually, which was then the highest sales revenue earned by any manufacturer. Shortly thereafter, Lay's introduced what became its best-known slogan: "betcha can't eat just one". Sales of the chips became international, with marketing assisted by a number of celebrity endorsers. Annual revenues for Frito-Lay exceeded $180 million by 1965, when the company had more than 8,000 employees and 46 manufacturing plants.[6]

In 1965, Frito-Lay merged with the Pepsi-Cola Company to form PepsiCo, Inc. In 1991, the company introduced a new formulation of their chip that was crisper and kept fresher longer. Shortly thereafter, the company introduced the "Wavy Lay's" products to grocery shelves, with a national rollout in 1994.[7] In the mid- to late 1990s, Lay's introduced a lower-calorie baked variety, and a fat-free variety (Lay's WOW chips) that contained the fat substitute olestra.

In the 2000s, the company introduced “kettle-cooked” varieties, as well as a more highly processed variety (Lay's Stax) that was intended to compete with Pringles,[8] and several differently flavored varieties.

In 2012, Frito-Lay products comprised 59% of the United States savory snack-food market.[9]

International[edit]

The Hostess Potato Chips product lineup in Canada containing Lay's flavored chips inside a Hostess bag


Country Description
Argentina PepsiCo commercialized potato chips under the name Frenchitas until 2001. They are now marketed under the Lay's label.[citation needed]
Australia PepsiCo acquired The Smith's Snackfood Company in 1998 and marketed Frito-Lay products under that label, using the name Thins. After Thin's was sold to Snack Brands Australia (Owned by Arnotts), Smith's produced a line of potato chips under the Lay's brand for a brief period of time. The Lay's line was eventually rebranded in 2004 as Smith's Crisps, while the traditional Smith's line was renamed Smith's Crinkles. This is still sold in Australia as a direct competitor to Smith's Crisps. Since 2009, Lay's have been available in Australia exclusively at Costco, where they are available in a single flavor and size (500g plain). They continue to be manufactured in Australia by Smith's.[citation needed]
Benelux Lay's used to be called Smiths in the Belgium and the Netherlands until the name was changed in 2001.[10]
Brazil The first attempt to sell the brand in the country was in 1999, but it was discontinued after a short time. In 2004 another brand of chips began to be sold under the name Sensações (lit. Sensations) being targeted to the older audience with more exquisite flavors..[11] It returned in 2013 and has remained on sale since then.[12][13] In 2021, the Sensações brand was renamed as Lay's Sensações.[14]
Canada As Lay's were produced by another company at that time, the chips were known as Hostess. In 1996, Hostess was rebranded to Lay's with a television commercial featuring Mark Messier and Eric Lindros aired in 1997 that relaunched the brand.[citation needed]
Colombia The chips are sold under the name Margarita. They are still commercialized under the label Lay's, however.[citation needed]
Egypt Lay's was once sold under its own label until it was merged with the local label Chipsy, which has since become the local unit of Lay's under much the same arrangement as Walkers.[citation needed]
India Cricketers Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Gautam Gambhir[15] and actors Saif Ali Khan[16] and Ranbir Kapoor[17] have endorsed Lay's.It has been introduced in 1995 as Ruffles Lay's and it retained the name until 1999.
Indonesia Lay's products are distributed by Indofood.[18] In September 2021, the brand of Lay's in Indonesia was renamed to Chitato Lite because the license agreement between Indofood Fritolay Makmur and PepsiCo has ended.[19]
Vietnam The chips were sold under the name of Poca until it's rebranded to Lay's in 2019, while the other snack types are still remain under the Poca labels [20]
Iran Lay's products are distributed as Sensation by MazMaz.[citation needed]
Israel Lay's label is distributed with the name Tapuchips (תפוצ'יפס) by Strauss-Elite.[21]
Italy Lay's are distributed in by Ferrero SpA since 2014.[citation needed]
Mexico PepsiCo acquired Sabritas S. de R.L. in 1966. Lay's along with other products such as Cheetos, Fritos, Doritos and Ruffles are marketed under the Sabritas brand. The logo for the Mexican company sports the red ribbon, but it has a stylized smiling face instead of the sun. It controls around 80% of the market.[citation needed]
Pakistan In Pakistan, Lay's has been endorsed by renowned star of the country Ali Zafar.[22]
Romania Lay's is the best sold and the most bought chips brand in the country, being followed by Chio Chips. Lay's bought its own terrain to grow potatoes for chips on in early 2008, making chips out of their own potatoes.[citation needed]
Serbia Lay's are distributed as Chipsy, domestic company acquired by PepsiCo in 2008.[23]
South Africa Lay's are distributed by the Simba Chip company.[24]
United Arab Emirates Lay's are sold as different labels.[citation needed]

Flavors[edit]

Lay's variants
Barbecue flavored
Spanish Tomato Tango
Cooked Jalapeno
Kettle Cooked Mesquite
Salt and Vinegar
Sour Cream and Onion
Kettle Cooked Original
Country Flavors
Canada Lay's: Roast Chicken, Bar-B-Q, Classic, Salt & Vinegar, Ketchup, All Dressed, Sour Cream & Onion, Dill Pickle, Cheddar Jalapeño, Sea Salt & Pepper, Smokey Bacon, Cream & Onion, Magic Masala, Chicken and Tomato, Cucumber. Lay's Wavy: Cheddar & Sour Cream, Original, Salt & Vinegar, Hickory BBQ. Lay's Poppables: Sea Salt, White Cheddar, Honey BBQ, Sour Cream & Chive, Sea Salt & Vinegar. Lay's Lighty Salted: Classic, Bar-B-Q, Original. Lay's Stax: Original, Salt & Vinegar, Cheddar, Bar-B-Q, Sour Cream & Onion.[25]
China Cool & Refreshing (Cucumber, Kiwi, Blueberry, Cherry Tomato, and Lime), Classic Flavors (American Classic, Italian Red Meat, Mexican Tomato Chicken, Texas Grilled BBQ, and French Chicken), Intense & Stimulating (Numb & Spicy Hot Pot, and Hot & Sour Fish Soup), and Stax (Authentic Original, Green Cucumber, Tomato, Sizzled Barbecue, Finger Licking Braised Pork, Black Pepper Rib Eye Steak, Sea Salt And Cheese, Sea Salt And Chocolate, Garden Tomato, Green Tea, and Lime).[26]
Egypt Since its acquisition of Chipsy (شيبسى [ˈʃibsi, ˈʃipsi, ˈʃebsi], shortened to [ʃebs]), Lay's chips (marketed as Chipsy) in Egypt inherited the Chipsy range of flavors as well as the pre-merger Lay's flavors. These flavors include salt and vinegar, cheese (most likely based on rumi cheese and the most popular flavor), seasoned cheese, tomato (a ketchup-based flavor), charcoal-grilled kebab, and chili & lime, peri peri flavor, Forno Fusion which included French Cheese, Tomato And Thyme, Cumin And Lemon, Black pepper And Salt, Playz which included Tomato And Pepper, Chicken And Herbs, Cheese And Chili, And Flamin' Hot And Flamin' Hot Lime. In 2010, a shrimp flavor was added after a national contest.[citation needed]
France About eight varieties of potato chips are marketed in a number of flavors for a total of approximately thirty products. Lay's flavors available in France include Barbecue, Cheeseburger, Bolognaise, Roasted Chicken, Cheese, Salt & Vinegar, Spicy and Nature.[citation needed]
Germany Lay's are sold in several varieties: Herbal Butter, Salt & Vinegar, Sour Cream & Black Pepper, Salted, Paprika, Sour Cream & Onion, Smoked Bacon, Sweet Paprika, Bugles (Nacho Cheese, Paprika, Original, Sour Cream & Black Pepper), Super Chips (Salt and Paprika), Light (Salted and Paprika), Iconic Restaurant Flavours (Pizza Hut Margherita, KFC Original Recipe, Subway Teriyaki)[27]
Greece, Cyprus Lay's are made and packed by Tasty Foods and Corina Snacks LTD, with Mediterranean flavors which include Feta cheese flavor, Tzatziki, Olive and Tomato, Oregano, Sea Salt & Black Pepper, Onion & Cheese, Prawn Cocktail, Salt, Salt & Vinegar, Barbeque and various more. There are hundreds of sub-variations in the Mediterranean line adjusted to each country's liking.[citation needed]
India Lay's was launched in India 1995.[28] In India Lay's has the following flavors- American style onion and sour cream, India's magic masala, Spanish tomato tango, classic salted, West indies' hot 'n' sweet Chilli, chille Limón, Lay's Crispz herb and onion.[29] In 2010 there was a competition in making new flavors and the flavor 'Mastana Mango' was selected.[30] In 2015 Lay's Maxx (Maxx Sizzling barbeque and Maxx Macho chilli) was launched.[31]
Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam The flavors are Salmon Teriyaki, Classic Salty, Nori Seaweed, Pizza, Grilled Chicken Paprika, and Fiesta BBQ. It is produced by Indonesian-based PT Indofood Fritolay Makmur, a joint venture between PT Indofood CBP Sukses Makmur with Seven-Up Nederland B.V.[32]
Mauritius Lay's flavours consist of barbeque, salt and vinegar, roasted chicken, paprika, onion and cheese.[citation needed]
Mexico The following Lay's (called Sabritas) are available nationally in Mexico: Original, Ruffles, Tostitos, Doritos, Cheetos, Pake-Taxo, Japoneses (peanuts), Cheetos Poffets, Rancheritos, Adobados, Frit-os, Churrumais, Caseras, Sabritones, Crujitos and Chicharrón Clásico.[citation needed]
Netherlands Lay's: Natural, Paprika, Bolognese, BBQ Ham, Patatje Joppie, Cheese & Onion, Pickles. Lay's MAX Double Crunch: Spare Ribs, Red Sweet Chilli. Lay's MAX: Smoky Paprika, Original, Patatje Joppie, Heinz Tomato Ketchup, Salt & Black Pepper, Pickles, Cheddar & Onion. Lay's MAX Strong: Hot Chicken Wings, Chili & Lime, Flamin' Hot. Lay's Iconic Local Flavors: Chips Mayo, Fries Satay Sauce. Lay's Iconic Restaurant Flavors: KFC Original Recipe Chicken, Subway Teriyaki, Pizza Hut Margherita. Lay's Super Chips Deep: American BBQ, Sweet Chilli. Lay's Oven Baked: Natural, Roasted Paprika, Mediterranean Herbs, Barbecue. Lay's Oven Baked Crispy Thins: Emmental Cheese, Olive Oil & Herbs. Lay's Oven Baked Crunchy Biscuits: Tomato & Spring Onion, Paprika & Mediterranean Herbs. Lay's Sensations: Thai Sweet Chilli, Red Sweet Paprika, Mexican Peppers & Cream. Lay's Strong: Chilli and Lime, Hot Chicken Wings, Jalapeño and Cheese. Lay's Hamka's: Original. Lay's Bugles: Nacho Cheese, Roasted Paprika, Sweet Chilli. Lay's Mixups: Paprika, Natural, Cheese. Lay's Wokkels: Paprika, Natural. Lay's Grills: Smoked. Lay's Mama Mia's: Cheese & Paprika. Lay's Pomtips: Original. Lay's Light: Original, Paprika. Lay's Sticks: Natural, Paprika.[33]
Pakistan Lay's: Classic, French Cheese, Masala, Paprika, Yogurt & Herb. Lay's Wavy: Flamin' Hot, Mexican Chili, Texas BBQ.[34]
Peru Ruffles are a variant of the Lay's called "Lay's Ondas" (Lay's Waves).
Philippines, Thailand Flavors featured are Classic, Sour Cream & Onion, Cheese & Onion, Mexican Bar-B-Q, Japanese Nori Seaweed, Basil, Squid, Spicy Chili Squid, Seafood and Mayonnaise, and Spicy Seafood. Temporary international flavors have also been introduced, such as French Mayonnaise, Balsamic Vinegar and Salt (England), Garlic Soft Shelled Crab (Hong Kong), Soy Sauce, Salmon Teriyaki (Japan), Lobster, Bacon & Cheese (America). Other traditional "Thai" flavors include Tom Yum, Thai Chili Paste, Thai Seafood Dip, Chili and Lime.[citation needed]
Poland Lay's: Salted, Green Onion, Fromage, Paprika, Spicy Paprika. Lay's Wavy: Salted, Green Onion, Paprika. Lay's Strong: Chilli & Lime, Cheese & Jalapeno, Hot Pepperoni. Lay's MAXX: Paprika, Cheese & Onion, Oriental Salsa. Lay's Oven Baked: Salted, Grilled Paprika, Yoghurt with Herbs, Grilled Vegetables, Chanterelles in a Cream Sauce. Lay's Oven Baked Multigrain Crackers: Paprika with Herbs, Vegetables with Green Onion, Tomato with Basil. Lay's Bugles: Nacho Cheese, Paprika Style. Lay's Stix: Ketchup.[35]
Romania Lay's: Salt, Cheese, Wild Mushrooms & Sour Cream, Barbecue, Sour Cream & Dill, Paprika, Chicken, Onion, Barbeque beef ribs. Lay's MAXX: Paprika, Salt, Chedder & Onion. Lay's Oven Baked: Yoghurt & Herbs, Salt, Paprika, Chanterelles Mushrooms, Aromatic Cheese. Lay's Wavy: Hot Piri-Piri, Salt, Cheese. [36]
Russia Both international and local flavors are available, including Bacon, Cheese, Onion, Paprika, as well as Crab, Mushroom & Sour Cream, and Salted Cucumber. In addition to regular potato chips, Lay’s MAX and Lay’s Strong series are offered.[citation needed]
Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries It is available in several flavors, including Salt, Salt & Vinegar, Chilli, Chilli-Lemon, Ketchup, French cheese, Pizza, and Flaming Hot. Lay's Max is available in flavors: Chili, Cheese and Italian Blend. Lay's Forno, which has less fat by 60%, is available in six flavors: Authentic Cheese, Black Pepper, Lemon & Black Pepper, Labneh & Mint, Italian Mix (a spicy tomato flavor) and Za’atar.[citation needed]
United States Lay's Barbecue-flavored potato chips, which appeared in 1958, was the only flavor available in the United States other than the conventional salted chip until the introduction of Sour Cream & Onion in the late 1970s.[citation needed]

In the United States, Lay's offers a number of flavor combinations, in addition to the classic chips. Flavored products in the traditional fried varieties include Classic, Sour Cream & Onion, Barbecue, Salt & Vinegar, Chipotle Ranch, Cheddar & Sour Cream, Hidden Valley Ranch, Salt & Pepper, Flamin' Hot, Limón, and a thicker "Deli style" chip. The WOW! brand was rebranded in 2004 as Lay's Light after the olestra formula was altered and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed removal of warnings about various health consequences of the fat substitute. Other potato chip flavors offered by Lay's are Garden Tomato and Basil, Honey Barbecue, Sweet Southern Heat Barbecue, Tapatio Limon, Simply Sea Salt Thick Cut, Fiery Habanero, and Dill Pickle Brand.[citation needed]

Lay's has occasionally solicited new flavor ideas through its "Do Us a Flavor" promotions. The 2013 contest produced three new flavors: sriracha, chicken and waffles, and cheesy garlic bread. Cheesy garlic bread was chosen as the winner and was added to the lineup, however the other flavors remain on sale in some regions. The 2016 "Do Us a Flavor" was rebranded "Passport to Flavor" for the 2016 Summer Olympics. The four finalists were Chinese Szechuan Chicken, Greek Tzatziki, Brazilian Picanha, and Indian Tikka Masala.[37]

The 2017 contest produced four flavors: Crispy Taco, Bacon Wrapped Jalapeño Popper, Everything Bagel with Cream Cheese, and Fried Green Tomato.[citation needed]

Vietnam Lay's: Natural Classic, Brazil BBQ Pork Rib, Cheddar Cheese, Nori Seaweed, Texas Tenderloin Steak, Sour Cream & Onion, Thai Spicy Squid. Lay's Stax (Imported from Thailand): Original, Hot Chili Squid, Sour Cream & Onion, Spicy Lobster, BBQ.[38]

Nutritional information[edit]

As with most snack foods, the Lay's brands contain very few vitamins and minerals in any variety. At ten percent of the daily requirement per serving, vitamin C is the highest. Salt content is particularly high, with a serving containing as much as 380 mg of sodium.

A one-ounce (28 gram) serving of Lay's regular potato chips has 160 Calories, and contains ten grams of fat, with one gram of saturated fat. Kettle-cooked brands have seven to eight grams of fat and one gram of saturated fat, and are 140 Calories. Lay's Natural has nine grams of fat, two grams of saturated fat and 150 Calories. Stax chips typically contain ten grams of fat, 2.5 grams saturated fat and are 160 calories per serving. Wavy Lay's are identical to the regular brand, except for a half-gram less of saturated fat in some combinations. Now the various brands do not contain any trans fats.

A 50 gram serving of Lay's BarBQ chips contains 270 calories, and 17 grams of fat. It also contains 270 mg of sodium, and 15% of the daily recommended dose of Vitamin C.

The baked variety, introduced in the mid 1990s, feature 1.5 grams of fat per one ounce serving, and have no saturated fat. Each serving has 110 to 120 Calories. Lay's Light servings are 75 Calories per ounce and have no fat.

Lay's Classic Potato chips were cooked in hydrogenated oil until 2003.[39] Currently, the chips are made with sunflower, corn and/or canola oil.

Controversy[edit]

In April 2019, PepsiCo's Indian subsidiary sued four farmers in Gujarat, India for copyright infringement, claiming they were growing a variety of potatoes trademarked by the company for exclusive use in its Lay's potato chips.[40][41] Two years later, the ruling was done in the farmers' favour under the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001.[42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chipsy Egypt". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
  2. ^ "Chipsy West Balkans". pepsico.rs/en/brands-you-love/local-brands. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  3. ^ Tapuchips - Elite. Strauss-group.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-29.
  4. ^ Thomas, Jr., Robert McG. (7 December 1982). "HERMAN W. LAY, 73, IS DEAD; SUCCESS TIED TO POTATO CHIPS". New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  5. ^ News Desk: My Father, the Potato Chip. The New Yorker (2011-05). Retrieved on 2012-03-29.
  6. ^ "Frito-Lay Company | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2022-04-20.
  7. ^ "Frito Takes to Gridiron, Calls 'Rollout' for Wavy Lays". Brandweek. New York: Adweek. 1994-01-03. p. 5. ProQuest 218067617.
  8. ^ snackgirl (2008-09-03). "Pringles vs Stax". Second Rate Snacks. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
  9. ^ How It All Began. Frito-Lay. Retrieved on 2012-03-29.
  10. ^ Michiels, Karel (2001-03-02). "De metamorfose van Smiths naar Lay's" [The Metamorphosis from Smiths to Lay's]. De Standaard (in Dutch).
  11. ^ "Elma Chips Sensações lança campanha" (in Portuguese). 14 May 2004. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  12. ^ "Biscoito Oreo, batata Lay's e Coca Light: marcas famosas voltam ao Brasil". Economia (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  13. ^ "Lay's explica por que demorou tanto para voltar ao Brasil". Exame (in Portuguese). 31 March 2014. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  14. ^ "Batata Sensações é relançada pela lay's com nova embalagem - EmbalagemMarca". 12 August 2021.
  15. ^ "MS Dhoni, Gautam Gambhir to feature in new lay's ad campaign". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  16. ^ "Frito-Lay signs Saif and Kaif as brand ambassadors". Zee News. 2003-02-03. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  17. ^ "PepsiCo ropes in Ranbir Kapoor to endorse Lay's potato chips". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  18. ^ "Lay's Sour Cream and Onion". www.indofood.com. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
  19. ^ "Cheetos, Doritos, and Lay's to remain in Indonesia following rebranding: reports". Coconuts.
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  21. ^ "תפוצ'יפס לרגישים לגלוטן I עלית". קבוצת שטראוס.
  22. ^ "Lay's Life Needs Flavor TVC 2018 Featuring Ali Zafar". trendinginsocial.com. 24 March 2018.
  23. ^ "Pepsi kupio proizvođača čipsa Marbo produkt". blic.rs (in Serbian). Beta. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  24. ^ "Lay's South Africa". www.simba.co.za/flavours?brand=Lay%27s. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  25. ^ "Lay's Canada". www.tastyrewards.com/en-ca/brands/lays/products. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  26. ^ "乐事官方网站-片片刻刻有乐事". www.lays.com.cn. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  27. ^ "Produkte". Lay's DE. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  28. ^ "Lay's Launches the Global Superhit: Lay's MAXX in India". PR Newswire. May 22, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  29. ^ "We Tasted All The Lay's Chips Flavors In India – Lay's Flavors that won us over are…". mishry. 15 February 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Lay's Mastana Mango voted as Flavour of the Nation!". pepsicoindia.co.in. August 10, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  31. ^ "Lay's Launches the Global Superhit: Lay's MAXX in India". PR-Newswire. 22 May 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) And recently[citation needed], the peppery cheddar flavour of Maxx has been launched.
  32. ^ "Indofood CBP Company Profile". Indofood CBP. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  33. ^ "Lay's Netherlands". www.lays.nl/nl/assortiment. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  34. ^ "Lay's Pakistan". www.pepsico.com.pk/Brands/Detail?brandId=38. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  35. ^ "Lay's Polska". www.lays.pl/produkty. Retrieved 2022-12-23.
  36. ^ "Lay's Romania". www.lays.ro/produse/clasic. Retrieved 2023-01-24.
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  38. ^ "Lay's ViệtNam". Lay's Việt Nam. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  39. ^ Tracy Sayler A Defining Moment for Sunflower Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Oil Mill Gazetteer • Volume 112, December 2006
  40. ^ Rishi Iyengar (25 April 2019). "PepsiCo is suing farmers in India for growing the potatoes it uses in Lays chips". CNN. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
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  42. ^ Jebaraj, Priscilla (3 December 2021). "PepsiCo loses rights to special Lays variety potato in India". The Hindu. Retrieved 2021-12-04.

External links[edit]