List of unofficial Presidents of the Philippines
The list of unofficial Presidents of the Philippines include people that Philippine historians and other figures have identified as having held the presidency of a government that intended to represent the Philippines but are not counted by the Government of the Philippines as an official President of the Philippines.
Andrés Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896 (the Cry of Balintawak), Bonifacio transformed it into a revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: Republica Tagala). (Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino which had colonial origins.)
Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sakay and Miguel Malvar y Carpio should also be included. Miguel Malvar y Carpio continued Emilio Aguinaldo's leadership of the First Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902. Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as Presidents by the Philippine government.
Emilio Aguinaldo is officially recognized as the first President of the Philippines, but this is based on his term of office during the Malolos Republic, later known as the First Philippine Republic. Prior to this Aguinaldo had held the presidency of several revolutionary governments which are not counted in the succession of Philippine republics.
|Took office||Left office||Party||Head of Government||Vice President||Era|
|August 24, 1896[L 1]||March 22, 1897[L 2]
May 10, 1897[L 3]
(The Tagalog Republic did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
(The Tagalog Republic did not provide for a Vice President.)
|Tagalog Republic (Bonifacio)|
|March 22, 1897[L 4]||November 1, 1897[L 5]||Katipunan - later abolished
(The Tejeros Convention did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
|Mariano Trías||Tejeros revolutionary government|
|B||November 2, 1897[L 6]||December 15, 1897[L 7]||Independent||himself
(The Republic of Biak-na-Bato did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
|Republic of Biak-na-Bato|
|B||December 15, 1897[L 8]||June 23, 1898||himself
(The dictatorial government did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
(The dictatorial government did not provide for a Vice President.)
|B||June 23, 1898[L 9]||January 23, 1899[L 10]||himself
(The revolutionary government did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
(The revolutionary government did not provide for a Vice President.)
|Pre-Malolos revolutionary government|
|April 1, 1901[L 11]||April 16, 1902[L 12]||Independent
(The 1899 Constitution did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
(The 1899 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President.)
|May 6, 1902[L 13]||July 14, 1906[L 14]||Independent
(The Tagalog Republic did not provide for a Prime Minister.)
|Francisco Carreón||Tagalog Republic (Sakay)|
- Term began when Bonifacio declared the establishment of the Tagalog Republic.
- Term ended after the Tejeros Convention.
- Executed for treason by Aguinaldo's government; Bonifacio did not recognize its validity and still acted as president.
- Term was established at the Tejeros Convention; Aguinaldo took his oath of office the day after (March 23), but did not fully assume the office until late April 1897.
- Term ended with the establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
- Term began after the establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
- Term ended when Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
- Term began when Aguinaldo declared a dictatorial government of the Philippines.
- Term began with the declaration of a revolutionary government replacing the dictatorship.
- Term ended with the inauguration of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.
- Term began when Malvar assumed the presidency after the capture of Aguinaldo.
- Term ended when Malvar surrendered in Batangas.
- Term began when Sakay declared the establishment of the Tagalog Republic (in the tradition of Bonifacio instead of Aguinaldo).
- Term ended when Sakay surrendered as part of an amnesty; he was executed a year later.
- List of Presidents of the Philippines
- Timeline of Philippine sovereignty
- President of the Philippines
- Republic of Biak-na-Bato
- Borromeo-Buehler & Borromeo 1998, pp. 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p.61, citing Guerrero & Encarnacion Villegas);
^ Borromeo-Buehler & Borromeo 1998, pp. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government";
^ Borromeo-Buehler & Borromeo 1998, pp. 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos).
- Halili & Halili 2004, pp. 138–139.
- Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007), Bonifacio for (first) president, GMA News.
- *Guerrero, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998), Reform and Revolution, Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People, 5, Asia Publishing Company Limited, ISBN 962-258-228-1.
- *Guerrero, Milagros; Encarnación, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramón (1996), "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution", Sulyap Kultura, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 1 (2): 3–12.
- Ambeth Ocampo (May 11, 2010). "Bonifacio, First President of the Philippines?". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- manilatimes.net, Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar
- Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995), Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?, Philippine History Group of Los Ángeles, retrieved 2007-04-08
- Guererro, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People. 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 962-258-228-1.
- Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad; Borromeo, Soledad Masangkay (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: a contrived controversy. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-278-4.
- Severino, Howie (2007-11-27). "Bonifacio for (first) president". gmanews.tv. GMA Network. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- "Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy". pangulo.ph. Archived from the original on 2004-12-05.
- Cruz, Maricel V. (2008-02-02). "Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar". www.manilatimes.net. Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) . History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing Inc. ISBN 971-10-2415-2.
- Flores, Paul (1995-08-12). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Retrieved 2007-04-08.
- Tan, Michael (2007-09-21). "September's heroes". www.inquirer.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-08-20.