Corruption Perceptions Index

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Corruption Perceptions Index, 2017

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[1] The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".[2]

The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)". Denmark is the least corrupt country in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most corrupt country in the world is Somalia, ranking at 9 out of 100 since 2017[3]

Methods[edit]

Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[4]

The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[5] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[2] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[6] The institutions are:

Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[6] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[8]

Validity[edit]

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and overabundance of regulation.

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[9] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Economic implications[edit]

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[10] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[11] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Rankings[edit]

2012–2016[edit]

Legend:

Scores Perceived as less corrupt Perceived as more corrupt
100–090 089–080 079–070 069–060 059–050 049–040 039-030 029–020 019–010 009–000
2016 Corruption Perceptions Index table[12][13]
Rank Country
or
Territory
2016[14] 2015[15] 2014[16] 2013[17] 2012[18]
Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score
1  Denmark
90
Decrease −1
91
Decrease −1
92
Increase +1
91
Increase +1
90
1  New Zealand
90
Decrease −1
91
Steady 0
91
Steady 0
91
Increase +1
90
3  Finland
89
Decrease −1
90
Increase +1
89
Steady 0
89
Decrease −1
90
4  Sweden
88
Decrease −1
89
Increase +2
87
Decrease −2
89
Increase +1
88
5   Switzerland
86
Steady 0
86
Steady 0
86
Increase +1
85
Decrease −1
86
6  Norway
85
Decrease −2
87
Increase +1
86
Steady 0
86
Increase +1
85
7  Singapore
84
Decrease −1
85
Increase +1
84
Decrease −2
86
Decrease −1
87
8  Netherlands
83
Decrease −4
87
Increase +4
83
Steady 0
83
Decrease −1
84
9  Canada
82
Decrease −1
83
Increase +2
81
Steady 0
81
Decrease −3
84
10  Germany
81
Steady 0
81
Increase +2
79
Increase +1
78
Decrease −1
79
10  Luxembourg
81
Steady 0
81
Decrease −1
82
Increase +2
80
Steady 0
80
10  United Kingdom
81
Steady 0
81
Increase +3
78
Increase +2
76
Increase +2
74
13  Australia
79
Steady 0
79
Decrease −1
80
Decrease −1
81
Decrease −4
85
14  Iceland
78
Decrease −1
79
Steady 0
79
Increase +1
78
Decrease −4
82
15  Belgium
77
Steady 0
77
Increase +1
76
Increase +1
75
Steady 0
75
15  Hong Kong
77
Increase +2
75
Increase +1
74
Decrease −1
75
Decrease −2
77
17  Austria
75
Decrease −1
76
Increase +4
72
Increase +3
69
Steady 0
69
18  United States
74
Decrease −2
76
Increase +2
74
Increase +1
73
Steady 0
73
19  Ireland
73
Decrease −2
75
Increase +1
74
Increase +2
72
Increase +3
69
20  Japan
72
Decrease −3
75
Decrease −1
76
Increase +2
74
Steady 0
74
21  Uruguay
71
Decrease −3
74
Increase +1
73
Steady 0
73
Increase +1
72
22  Estonia
70
Steady 0
70
Increase +1
69
Increase +1
68
Increase +4
64
23  France
69
Decrease −1
70
Increase +1
69
Decrease −2
71
Steady 0
71
24  Bahamas
66
Steady 0 Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
24  Chile
66
Decrease −4
70
Decrease −3
73
Increase +2
71
Decrease −1
72
24  United Arab Emirates
66
Decrease −4
70
Steady 0
70
Increase +1
69
Increase +1
68
27  Bhutan
65
Steady 0
65
Steady 0
65
Increase +2
63
Steady 0
63
28  Israel
64
Increase +3
61
Increase +1
60
Decrease −1
61
Increase +1
60
29  Poland
62
Steady 0
62
Increase +1
61
Increase +1
60
Increase +2
58
29  Portugal
62
Decrease −1
63
Steady 0
63
Increase +1
62
Decrease −1
63
31  Barbados
61
Steady 0 Steady 0
74
Decrease −1
75
Decrease −1
76
31  Qatar
61
Decrease −10
71
Increase +2
69
Increase +1
68
Steady 0
68
31  Slovenia
61
Increase +1
60
Increase +2
58
Increase +1
57
Decrease −4
61
31  Taiwan
61
Decrease −1
62
Increase +1
61
Steady 0
61
Steady 0
61
35  Botswana
60
Decrease −3
63
Steady 0
63
Decrease −1
64
Decrease −1
65
35  Saint Lucia
60
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
71
Steady 0
71
35  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
60
Steady 0 Steady 0
67
Increase +5
62
Steady 0
62
38  Cape Verde
59
Increase +4
55
Decrease −2
57
Decrease −1
58
Decrease −2
60
38  Dominica
59
Steady 0 Steady 0
58
Steady 0
58
Steady 0
58
38  Lithuania
59
Decrease −2
61
Increase +3
58
Increase +1
57
Increase +3
54
41  Brunei
58
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
60
Increase +5
55
41  Costa Rica
58
Increase +3
55
Increase +1
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease −1
54
41  Spain
58
Steady 0
58
Decrease −2
60
Increase +1
59
Decrease −6
65
44  Georgia
57
Increase +5
52
Steady 0
52
Increase +3
49
Decrease −3
52
44  Latvia
57
Increase +2
55
Steady 0
55
Increase +2
53
Increase +4
49
46  Grenada
56
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
47  Cyprus
55
Decrease −6
61
Decrease −2
63
Steady 0
63
Decrease −3
66
47  Czech Republic
55
Decrease −1
56
Increase +5
51
Increase +3
48
Decrease −1
49
47  Malta
55
Decrease −1
56
Increase +1
55
Decrease −1
56
Decrease −1
57
50  Mauritius
54
Increase +1
53
Decrease −1
54
Increase +2
52
Decrease −5
57
50  Rwanda
54
Steady 0
54
Increase +5
49
Decrease −4
53
Steady 0
53
52  South Korea
53
Decrease −3
56
Increase +1
55
Steady 0
55
Decrease −1
56
53  Namibia
52
Decrease −1
53
Increase +4
49
Increase +1
48
Steady 0
48
54  Slovakia
51
Steady 0
51
Increase +1
50
Increase +3
47
Increase +1
46
55  Croatia
49
Decrease −2
51
Increase +3
48
Steady 0
48
Increase +2
46
55  Malaysia
49
Decrease −1
50
Decrease −2
52
Increase +2
50
Increase +1
49
57  Hungary
48
Decrease −3
51
Decrease −3
54
Steady 0
54
Decrease −1
55
57  Jordan
48
Decrease −5
53
Increase +4
49
Increase +4
45
Decrease −3
48
57  Romania
48
Increase +2
46
Increase +3
43
Steady 0
43
Decrease −1
44
60  Cuba
47
Steady 0
47
Increase +1
46
Steady 0
46
Decrease −2
48
60  Italy
47
Increase +3
44
Increase +1
43
Steady 0
43
Increase +1
42
62  São Tomé and Príncipe
46
Increase +4
42
Steady 0
42
Steady 0
42
Steady 0
42
62  Saudi Arabia
46
Decrease −6
52
Increase +3
49
Increase +3
46
Increase +2
44
64  Montenegro
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +2
42
Decrease −2
44
Increase +3
41
64  Oman
45
Steady 0
45
Steady 0
45
Decrease −2
47
Steady 0
47
64  Senegal
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +1
43
Increase +2
41
Increase +5
36
64  South Africa
45
Increase +1
44
Steady 0
44
Increase +2
42
Decrease −1
43
64  Suriname
45
Increase +9
36
Steady 0
36
Steady 0
36
Decrease −1
37
69  Greece
44
Decrease −2
46
Increase +3
43
Increase +3
40
Increase +4
36
70  Bahrain
43
Decrease −8
51
Increase +2
49
Increase +1
48
Decrease −3
51
70  Ghana
43
Decrease −4
47
Decrease −1
48
Increase +2
46
Increase +1
45
72  Burkina Faso
42
Increase +4
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
72  Serbia
42
Increase +2
40
Decrease −1
41
Decrease −1
42
Increase +3
39
72  Solomon Islands
42
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
75  Bulgaria
41
Steady 0
41
Decrease −2
43
Increase +2
41
Steady 0
41
75  Kuwait
41
Decrease −8
49
Increase +5
44
Increase +1
43
Decrease −1
44
75  Tunisia
41
Increase +3
38
Decrease −2
40
Decrease −1
41
Steady 0
41
75  Turkey
41
Decrease −1
42
Decrease −3
45
Decrease −5
50
Increase +1
49
79  Belarus
40
Increase +8
32
Increase +1
31
Increase +2
29
Decrease −2
31
79  Brazil
40
Increase +2
38
Decrease −5
43
Increase +1
42
Decrease −1
43
79  China
40
Increase +3
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease −4
40
Increase +1
39
79  India
40
Increase +2
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +2
36
Steady 0
36
83  Albania
39
Increase +3
36
Increase +3
33
Increase +2
31
Decrease −2
33
83  Bosnia and Herzegovina
39
Increase +1
38
Decrease −1
39
Decrease −3
42
Steady 0
42
83  Jamaica
39
Decrease −2
41
Increase +3
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
83  Lesotho
39
Decrease −5
44
Decrease −5
49
Steady 0
49
Increase +4
45
87  Mongolia
38
Decrease −1
39
Steady 0
39
Increase +1
38
Increase +2
36
87  Panama
38
Decrease −1
39
Increase +2
37
Increase +2
35
Decrease −3
38
87  Zambia
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +1
37
90  Colombia
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Increase +1
36
Steady 0
36
90  Indonesia
37
Increase +1
36
Increase +2
34
Increase +2
32
Steady 0
32
90  Liberia
37
Steady 0
37
Steady 0
37
Decrease −1
38
Decrease −3
41
90  Macedonia
37
Decrease −5
42
Decrease −3
45
Increase +1
44
Increase +1
43
90  Morocco
37
Increase +1
36
Decrease −3
39
Increase +2
37
Steady 0
37
95  Argentina
36
Increase +4
32
Decrease −2
34
Steady 0
34
Decrease −1
35
95  Benin
36
Decrease −1
37
Decrease −2
39
Increase +3
36
Steady 0
36
95  El Salvador
36
Decrease −3
39
Steady 0
39
Increase +1
38
Steady 0
38
95  Kosovo
36
Increase +3
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
Decrease −1
34
95  Maldives
36
Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0
95  Sri Lanka
36
Decrease −1
37
Decrease −1
38
Increase +1
37
Decrease −3
40
101  Gabon
35
Increase +1
34
Decrease −3
37
Increase +3
34
Decrease −1
35
101  Niger
35
Increase +1
34
Decrease −1
35
Increase +1
34
Increase +1
33
101  Peru
35
Decrease −1
36
Decrease −2
38
Steady 0
38
Steady 0
38
101  Philippines
35
Steady 0
35
Decrease −3
38
Increase +2
36
Increase +2
34
101  Thailand
35
Decrease −3
38
Steady 0
38
Increase +3
35
Decrease −2
37
101  Timor-Leste
35
Increase +7
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −2
30
Decrease −3
33
101  Trinidad and Tobago
35
Decrease −4
39
Increase +1
38
Steady 0
38
Decrease −1
39
108  Algeria
34
Decrease −2
36
Steady 0
36
Steady 0
36
Increase +2
34
108  Egypt
34
Decrease −2
36
Decrease −1
37
Increase +5
32
Steady 0
32
108  Ethiopia
34
Increase +1
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
Steady 0
33
108  Guyana
34
Increase +5
29
Decrease −1
30
Increase +3
27
Decrease −1
28
108  Ivory Coast
34
Increase +2
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +5
27
Decrease −2
29
113  Armenia
33
Decrease −2
35
Decrease −2
37
Increase +1
36
Increase +2
34
113  Bolivia
33
Decrease −1
34
Decrease −1
35
Increase +1
34
Steady 0
34
113  Vietnam
33
Increase +2
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
Steady 0
31
116  Mali
32
Decrease −3
35
Increase +3
32
Increase +4
28
Decrease −6
34
116  Pakistan
32
Increase +2
30
Increase +1
29
Increase +1
28
Increase +1
27
116  Tanzania
32
Increase +2
30
Decrease −1
31
Decrease −2
33
Decrease −2
35
116  Togo
32
Steady 0
32
Increase +3
29
Steady 0
29
Decrease −1
30
120  Dominican Republic
31
Decrease −2
33
Increase +1
32
Increase +3
29
Decrease −3
32
120  Ecuador
31
Decrease −1
32
Decrease −1
33
Decrease −2
35
Increase +3
32
120  Malawi
31
Steady 0
31
Decrease −2
33
Decrease −4
37
Steady 0
37
123  Azerbaijan
30
Increase +1
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +1
28
Increase +1
27
123  Djibouti
30
Decrease −4
34
Steady 0
34
Decrease −2
36
Steady 0
36
123  Honduras
30
Decrease −1
31
Increase +2
29
Increase +3
26
Decrease −2
28
123  Laos
30
Increase +5
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −1
26
Increase +5
21
123  Mexico
30
Decrease −5
35
Steady 0
35
Increase +1
34
Steady 0
34
123  Moldova
30
Decrease −3
33
Decrease −2
35
Steady 0
35
Decrease −1
36
123  Paraguay
30
Increase +3
27
Increase +3
24
Steady 0
24
Decrease −1
25
123  Sierra Leone
30
Increase +1
29
Decrease −2
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease −1
31
131  Iran
29
Increase +2
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease −3
28
131  Kazakhstan
29
Increase +1
28
Decrease −1
29
Increase +3
26
Decrease −2
28
131    Nepal
29
Increase +2
27
Decrease −2
29
Decrease −2
31
Increase +4
27
131  Russia
29
Steady 0
29
Increase +2
27
Decrease −1
28
Steady 0
28
131  Ukraine
29
Increase +2
27
Increase +1
26
Increase +1
25
Decrease −1
26
136  Guatemala
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −4
32
Increase +3
29
Decrease −4
33
136  Kyrgyzstan
28
Steady 0
28
Increase +1
27
Increase +3
24
Steady 0
24
136  Lebanon
28
Steady 0
28
Increase +1
27
Decrease −1
28
Decrease −2
30
136  Myanmar
28
Increase +6
22
Increase +1
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +6
15
136  Nigeria
28
Increase +2
26
Decrease −1
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease −2
27
136  Papua New Guinea
28
Increase +3
25
Steady 0
25
Steady 0
25
Steady 0
25
142  Guinea
27
Increase +2
25
Steady 0
25
Increase +1
24
Steady 0
24
142  Mauritania
27
Decrease −4
31
Increase +1
30
Steady 0
30
Decrease −1
31
142  Mozambique
27
Decrease −4
31
Steady 0
31
Increase +1
30
Decrease −1
31
145  Bangladesh
26
Increase +1
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −2
27
Increase +1
26
145  Cameroon
26
Decrease −1
27
Steady 0
27
Increase +2
25
Decrease −1
26
145  Gambia
26
Decrease −2
28
Decrease −1
29
Increase +1
28
Decrease −6
34
145  Kenya
26
Increase +1
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −2
27
Steady 0
27
145  Madagascar
26
Decrease −2
28
Steady 0
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −4
32
145  Nicaragua
26
Decrease −1
27
Decrease −1
28
Steady 0
28
Decrease −1
29
151  Tajikistan
25
Decrease −1
26
Increase +3
23
Increase +1
22
Steady 0
22
151  Uganda
25
Steady 0
25
Decrease −1
26
Steady 0
26
Decrease −3
29
153  Comoros
24
Decrease −2
26
Steady 0
26
Decrease −2
28
Steady 0
28
154  Turkmenistan
22
Increase +4
18
Increase +1
17
Steady 0
17
Steady 0
17
154  Zimbabwe
22
Increase +1
21
Steady 0
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +1
20
156  Cambodia
21
Steady 0
21
Steady 0
21
Increase +1
20
Decrease −2
22
156  Democratic Republic of the Congo
21
Decrease −1
22
Steady 0
22
Steady 0
22
Increase +1
21
156  Uzbekistan
21
Increase +2
19
Increase +1
18
Increase +1
17
Steady 0
17
159  Burundi
20
Decrease −1
21
Increase +1
20
Decrease −1
21
Increase +2
19
159  Central African Republic
20
Decrease −4
24
Steady 0
24
Decrease −1
25
Decrease −1
26
159  Chad
20
Decrease −2
22
Steady 0
22
Increase +3
19
Steady 0
19
159  Haiti
20
Increase +3
17
Decrease −2
19
Steady 0
19
Steady 0
19
159  Republic of the Congo
20
Decrease −3
23
Steady 0
23
Increase +1
22
Decrease −4
26
164  Angola
18
Increase +3
15
Decrease −4
19
Decrease −4
23
Increase +1
22
164  Eritrea
18
Steady 0
18
Steady 0
18
Decrease −2
20
Decrease −5
25
166  Iraq
17
Increase +1
16
Steady 0
16
Steady 0
16
Decrease −2
18
166  Venezuela
17
Steady 0
17
Decrease −2
19
Decrease −1
20
Increase +1
19
168  Guinea-Bissau
16
Decrease −1
17
Decrease −2
19
Steady 0
19
Decrease −6
25
169  Afghanistan
15
Increase +4
11
Decrease −1
12
Increase +4
08
Steady 0
08
170  Libya
14
Decrease −2
16
Decrease −2
18
Increase +3
15
Decrease −6
21
170  Sudan
14
Increase +2
12
Increase +1
11
Steady 0
11
Decrease −2
13
170  Yemen
14
Decrease −4
18
Decrease −1
19
Increase +1
18
Decrease −5
23
173  Syria
13
Decrease −5
18
Decrease −2
20
Increase +3
17
Decrease −9
26
174  South Sudan
11
Decrease −4
15
Steady 0
15
Increase +1
14
Steady 0
175  Somalia
10
Increase +2
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08
176  North Korea
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08
Steady 0
08

2011[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 to 1):

# Country Score # Country Score
1  New Zealand 9.5 11  Luxembourg 8.5
2  Denmark 9.4 12  Hong Kong 8.4
 Finland 13  Iceland 8.3
4  Sweden 9.3 14  Germany 8.0
5  Singapore 9.2  Japan
6  Norway 9.0 16  Austria 7.8
7  Netherlands 8.9  Barbados
8  Australia 8.8  United Kingdom
  Switzerland 19  Belgium 7.5
10  Canada 8.7  Ireland
Source:[19]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
182  Somalia 1.0 172  Equatorial Guinea 1.9
 North Korea  Burundi
180  Myanmar 1.5 168  Libya 2.0
 Afghanistan Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
177  Uzbekistan 1.6  Chad
 Turkmenistan  Angola
 Sudan 164  Yemen 2.1
175  Iraq 1.8  Kyrgyzstan
 Haiti  Guinea
172  Venezuela 1.9  Cambodia
Source:[19]

2010[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 down to 1):

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 9.3 11  Iceland 8.5
 New Zealand  Luxembourg
 Singapore 13  Hong Kong 8.4
4  Finland 9.2 14  Ireland 8.0
 Sweden 15  Austria 7.9
6  Canada 8.9  Germany
7  Netherlands 8.8 17  Barbados 7.8
8  Australia 8.7  Japan
  Switzerland 19  Qatar 7.7
10  Norway 8.6 20  United Kingdom 7.6
Source:[20]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
178  Somalia 1.1 168  Angola 1.9
176  Myanmar 1.4 164  Venezuela 2.0
 Afghanistan  Kyrgyzstan
175  Iraq 1.5  Guinea
172  Uzbekistan 1.6 Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
 Turkmenistan 159  Tajikistan 2.1
 Sudan  Russia
171  Chad 1.7  Papua New Guinea
170  Burundi 1.8  Laos
168  Equatorial Guinea 1.9  Kenya
Source:[20]

Criticism and limitations[edit]

Because corruption is willfully hidden, it is impossible to measure directly; instead, proxies for corruption are used. Seligson states that corruption is a very "difficult phenomenon to measure", there have been many attempts to solve this problem but they've all come up with limitations.[21]

The Index has been criticized on the basis of its methodology.[22]

According to political scientist Dan Hough, three flaws in the Index include:[23]

  • Corruption is too complex to be captured by a single score. The nature of corruption in rural Kansas will, for instance, be different than in the city administration of New York, yet the Index measures them in the same way.
  • By measuring perceptions of corruption, as opposed to corruption itself, the Index may simply be reinforcing stereotypes and cliches.
  • The Index only measures public-sector corruption, leaving out private actors. This for instance means the Libor scandal or the VW emissions scandal are not counted.

Media outlets frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean. The local Transparency International chapter in Bangladesh disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused the country's scores to increase; media reported it as an "improvement".[24]

In a 2013 article in Foreign Policy, Alex Cobham suggested that CPI should be dropped for the good of Transparency International. It argues that the CPI embeds a powerful and misleading elite bias in popular perceptions of corruption, potentially contributing to a vicious cycle and at the same time incentivizing inappropriate policy responses. Cobham writes, "the index corrupts perceptions to the extent that it's hard to see a justification for its continuing publication."[25]

However, recent econometric analyses that have exploited the existence of natural experiments on the level of corruption and compared the CPI with other subjective indicators have found that, while not perfect, the CPI does appear to consistently and validly measure the magnitude of corruption across the world.[26]

In the United States, many lawyers advise international businesses to consult the CPI when attempting to measure the risk of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act violations in different nations. This practice has been criticized by the Minnesota Journal of International Law, which wrote that since the CPI may be subject to perceptual biases it therefore should not be considered by lawyers to be a measure of actual national corruption risk.[27]

Transparency International also publishes the Global Corruption Barometer, which ranks countries by corruption levels using direct surveys instead of perceived expert opinions, which has been under criticism for substantial bias from the powerful elite.[25]

Transparency International has warned that a country with a clean CPI score may still be linked to corruption internationally. For example, while Sweden had the 3rd best CPI score in 2015, one of its state-owned companies, TeliaSonera, was facing allegations of bribery in Uzbekistan.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Transparency International (2011). "Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. Transparency International. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  2. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2
  3. ^ Transparency International (2017). "Corruption Perceptions Index 2017". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  4. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005)". Retrieved 22 November 2005. 
  5. ^ CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 1
  6. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 7
  7. ^ Transparency International (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010: Sources of information (PDF) (Report). Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Transparency International (2010). "Frequently asked questions (FAQs)". Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Transparency International. Archived from the original on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  9. ^ Wilhelm, Paul G. (2002). "International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 35 (3): 177–189. doi:10.1023/A:1013882225402. 
  10. ^ Shao, J.; Ivanov, P. C.; Podobnik, B.; Stanley, H. E. (2007). "Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors". The European Physical Journal B. 56 (2): 157. arXiv:0705.0161Freely accessible. Bibcode:2007EPJB...56..157S. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2007-00098-2. 
  11. ^ Podobnik, B.; Shao, J.; Njavro, D.; Ivanov, P. C.; Stanley, H. E. (2008). "Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment". The European Physical Journal B. 63 (4): 547. arXiv:0710.1995Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008EPJB...63..547P. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2008-00210-2. 
  12. ^ "2016 official table". 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "Official announcement". Transparency International. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  14. ^ "2016 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  15. ^ "2015 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 28 January 2016. 
  16. ^ "2014 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  17. ^ "2013 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  18. ^ "2012 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  19. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2011. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  20. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  21. ^ Seligson, Mitchell A. "The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Politics(2002): 408-433.
  22. ^ "Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index: Whose Perceptions Are They Anyway?" (PDF). 2005. 
  23. ^ Hough, Dan (2016-01-27). "Here's this year's (flawed) Corruption Perception Index. Those flaws are useful". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  24. ^ Werve, Jonathan (2008-09-23). "TI's Index: Local Chapter Not Having It". Global Integrity. Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. 
  25. ^ a b Cobham, Alex. "Corrupting Perceptions". Foreign Policy. 
  26. ^ Hamilton, Alexander (2017). "Can We Measure the Power of the Grabbing Hand? A Comparative Analysis of Different Indicators of Corruption" (PDF). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series. 
  27. ^ Campbell, Stuart Vincent. "Perception is Not Reality: The FCPA, Brazil, and the Mismeasurement of Corruption" 22 Minnesota Journal of International Law 1, p. 247 (2013).
  28. ^ CPI index 2015. Accessed 2016-02-03.

External links[edit]