Corruption Perceptions Index

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A world map of the 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International which measures "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians". High numbers (blue) indicate less perception of corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate higher perception of corruption.

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[1] The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."[2]

The CPI currently ranks 178 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)."[3]

Methods[edit]

Transparency International commissioned Johann Graf Lambsdorff of the University of Passau to produce the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI).[4] The 2012 CPI draws on 13 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[5] The institutions are the African Development Bank, the Bertelsmann Foundation, the Economist Intelligence Unit, Freedom House, Global Insight, International Institute for Management Development, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy, Political Risk Services, the World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the World Justice Project.[6]

Countries must be assessed by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[7] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[2] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[7]

The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[8]

Validity[edit]

A study published in 2003 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: Black Market activity and overabundance of regulation. All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap). The Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest.[9] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Reports[edit]

2015[edit]

2015[10] 2014[11] 2013[12] 2012[13]
Rank Country
or
Territory
Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score
1  Denmark 91 Decrease 1 92 Increase 1 91 Increase 1 90
2  Finland 90 Increase 1 89 Steady 0 89 Decrease 1 90
3  Sweden 89 Increase 2 87 Decrease 2 89 Increase 1 88
4  New Zealand 88 Decrease 3 91 Steady 0 91 Increase 1 90
5  Netherlands 87 Increase 4 83 Steady 0 83 Decrease 1 84
5  Norway 87 Increase 1 86 Steady 0 86 Increase 1 85
7   Switzerland 86 Steady 0 86 Increase 1 85 Decrease 1 86
8  Singapore 85 Increase 1 84 Decrease 2 86 Decrease 1 87
9  Canada 83 Increase 2 81 Steady 0 81 Decrease 3 84
10  Germany 81 Increase 2 79 Increase 1 78 Decrease 1 79
10  Luxembourg 81 Decrease 1 82 Increase 2 80 Steady 0 80
10  United Kingdom 81 Increase 3 78 Increase 2 76 Increase 2 74
13  Australia 79 Decrease 1 80 Decrease 1 81 Decrease 4 85
13  Iceland 79 Steady 0 79 Increase 1 78 Decrease 4 82
15  Belgium 77 Increase 1 76 Increase 1 75 Steady 0 75
16  Austria 76 Increase 4 72 Increase 3 69 Steady 0 69
16  United States 76 Increase 2 74 Increase 1 73 Steady 0 73
18  Hong Kong 75 Increase 1 74 Decrease 1 75 Decrease 2 77
18  Ireland 75 Increase 1 74 Increase 2 72 Increase 3 69
18  Japan 75 Decrease 1 76 Increase 2 74 Steady 0 74
21  Uruguay 74 Increase 1 73 Steady 0 73 Increase 1 72
22  Qatar 71 Increase 2 69 Increase 1 68 Steady 0 68
23  Chile 70 Decrease 3 73 Increase 2 71 Decrease 1 72
23  Estonia 70 Increase 1 69 Increase 1 68 Increase 4 64
23  France 70 Increase 1 69 Decrease 2 71 Steady 0 71
23  United Arab Emirates 70 Steady 0 70 Increase 1 69 Increase 1 68
27  Bhutan 65 Steady 0 65 Increase 2 63 Steady 0 63
28  Botswana 63 Steady 0 63 Decrease 1 64 Decrease 1 65
28  Portugal 63 Steady 0 63 Increase 1 62 Decrease 1 63
30  Poland 62 Increase 1 61 Increase 1 60 Increase 2 58
30  Taiwan 62 Increase 1 61 Steady 0 61 Steady 0 61
32  Cyprus 61 Decrease 2 63 Steady 0 63 Decrease 3 66
32  Israel 61 Increase 1 60 Decrease 1 61 Increase 1 60
32  Lithuania 61 Increase 3 58 Increase 1 57 Increase 3 54
35  Slovenia 60 Increase 2 58 Increase 1 57 Decrease 4 61
36  Spain 58 Decrease 2 60 Increase 1 59 Decrease 6 65
37  Czech Republic 56 Increase 5 51 Increase 3 48 Decrease 1 49
37  South Korea 56 Increase 1 55 Steady 0 55 Decrease 1 56
37  Malta 56 Increase 1 55 Decrease 1 56 Decrease 1 57
40  Cape Verde 55 Decrease 2 57 Decrease 1 58 Decrease 2 60
40  Costa Rica 55 Increase 1 54 Increase 1 53 Decrease 1 54
40  Latvia 55 Steady 0 55 Increase 2 53 Increase 4 49
40  Seychelles 55 Steady 0 55 Increase 1 54 Increase 2 52
44  Rwanda 54 Increase 5 49 Decrease 4 53 Steady 0 53
45  Jordan 53 Increase 4 49 Increase 4 45 Decrease 3 48
45  Mauritius 53 Decrease 1 54 Increase 2 52 Decrease 5 57
45  Thailand 53 Increase 4 49 Increase 1 48 Steady 0 48
48  Georgia 52 Steady 0 52 Increase 3 49 Decrease 3 52
48  Saudi Arabia 52 Increase 3 49 Increase 3 46 Increase 2 44
50  Bahrain 51 Increase 2 49 Increase 1 48 Decrease 3 51
50  Croatia 51 Increase 3 48 Steady 0 48 Increase 2 46
50  Hungary 51 Decrease 3 54 Steady 0 54 Decrease 1 55
50  Slovakia 51 Increase 1 50 Increase 3 47 Increase 1 46
54  Malaysia 50 Decrease 2 52 Increase 2 50 Increase 1 49
55  Kuwait 49 Increase 5 44 Increase 1 43 Decrease 1 44
56  Cuba 47 Increase 1 46 Steady 0 46 Decrease 2 48
56  Indonesia 47 Decrease 1 48 Increase 2 46 Increase 1 45
58  Greece 46 Increase 3 43 Increase 3 40 Increase 4 36
58  Romania 46 Increase 3 43 Steady 0 43 Decrease 1 44
60  Oman 45 Steady 0 45 Decrease 2 47 Steady 0 47
61  Italy 44 Increase 1 43 Steady 0 43 Increase 1 42
61  Lesotho 44 Decrease 5 49 Steady 0 49 Increase 4 45
61  Montenegro 44 Increase 2 42 Decrease 2 44 Increase 3 41
61  Senegal 44 Increase 1 43 Increase 2 41 Increase 5 36
61  South Africa 44 Steady 0 44 Increase 2 42 Decrease 1 43
66  São Tomé and Príncipe 42 Steady 0 42 Steady 0 42 Steady 0 42
66  Macedonia 42 Decrease 3 45 Increase 1 44 Increase 1 43
66  Bangladesh 42 Increase 3 39 Increase 5 34 Increase 1 33
66  Fiji 42 Decrease 5 47 Increase 1 46 Increase 2 44
69  Turkey 41 Decrease 2 43 Increase 2 41 Steady 0 41
69  Jamaica 41 Increase 3 38 Steady 0 38 Steady 0 38
71  Serbia 40 Decrease 1 41 Decrease 1 42 Increase 3 39
72  El Salvador 39 Steady 0 39 Increase 1 38 Steady 0 38
72  Mongolia 39 Steady 0 39 Increase 1 38 Increase 2 36
72  Panama 39 Increase 2 37 Increase 2 35 Decrease 3 38
72  Iran 39 Increase 1 38 Steady 0 38 Decrease 1 39
76  Trinidad and Tobago 38 Steady 0 38 Increase 2 36 - 36
76  Bosnia and Herzegovina 38 Decrease 1 39 Decrease 3 42 Steady 0 42
76  Brazil 38 Decrease 5 43 Increase 1 42 Decrease 1 43
76  India 38 Steady 0 38 Increase 2 36 Steady 0 36
76  Burkina Faso 38 Steady 0 38 Steady 0 38 Steady 0 38
76  Bulgaria 38 Steady 0 38 Increase 2 36 Steady 0 36
76  Laos 38 Steady 0 38 Increase 3 35 Decrease 2 37
76  Tunisia 38 Decrease 2 40 Decrease 1 41 Steady 0 41
76    Nepal 38 Steady 0 38 Steady 0 38 Increase 1 37
83  Benin 37 Decrease 2 39 Increase 3 36 Steady 0 36
83  China 37 Increase 1 36 Decrease 4 40 Increase 1 39
83  Colombia 37 Steady 0 37 Increase 1 36 Steady 0 36
83  Argentina 37 Steady 0 37 Decrease 1 38 Decrease 3 41
83  Sri Lanka 37 Decrease 1 38 Increase 1 37 Decrease 3 40
88  Philippines 36 Increase 3 33 Increase 2 31 Decrease 2 33
88  Timor-Leste 36 Steady 0 36 Steady 0 36 Increase 2 34
88  Egypt 36 Decrease 1 37 Increase 5 32 Steady 0 32
88  Mexico 36 Increase 2 34 Increase 2 32 Steady 0 32
88  Kosovo 36 Decrease 3 39 Increase 2 37 Steady 0 37
88  Peru 36 Decrease 2 38 Steady 0 38 Steady 0 38
88  Suriname 36 Steady 0 36 Steady 0 36 Decrease 1 37
95  Armenia 35 Decrease 2 37 Increase 1 36 Increase 2 34
95  Algeria 35 Increase 3 32 Increase 4 28 Decrease 6 34
95  Cambodia 35 Steady 0 35 Increase 1 34 Steady 0 34
95  Albania 35 Decrease 3 38 Increase 2 36 Increase 2 34
99  Bolivia 34 Decrease 1 35 Increase 1 34 Steady 0 34
99  Djibouti 34 Steady 0 34 Decrease 2 36 Steady 0 36
99  Gabon 34 Decrease 3 37 Increase 3 34 Decrease 1 35
99  Niger 34 Decrease 1 35 Increase 1 34 Increase 1 33
103  Dominican Republic 33 Increase 1 32 Increase 3 29 Decrease 3 32
103  Ethiopia 33 Steady 0 33 Steady 0 33 Steady 0 33
103  Morocco 33 Steady 0 33 Steady 0 33 Decrease 1 34
103  Moldova 33 Decrease 2 35 Steady 0 35 Decrease 1 36
107  Uzbekistan 32 Decrease 2 34 Steady 0 34 Decrease 1 35
107  Belarus 32 Increase 1 31 Increase 2 29 Decrease 2 31
107  Ivory Coast 32 Steady 0 32 Increase 5 27 Decrease 2 29
107  Ecuador 32 Decrease 1 33 Decrease 2 35 Increase 3 32
107  Togo 32 Increase 3 29 Steady 0 29 Decrease 1 30
112  Honduras 31 Increase 2 29 Increase 3 26 Decrease 2 28
112  Vietnam 31 Decrease 2 33 Decrease 4 37 Steady 0 37
112  Mauritania 31 Increase 1 30 Steady 0 30 Decrease 1 31
112  Mozambique 31 Steady 0 31 Increase 1 30 Decrease 1 31
112  Malawi 31 Steady 0 31 Steady 0 31 Steady 0 31
117  Russia 30 Increase 1 29 Increase 1 28 Increase 1 27
117  Tanzania 30 Decrease 1 31 Decrease 2 33 Decrease 2 35
119  Azerbaijan 29 Steady 0 29 Increase 1 28 Increase 1 27
119  Guyana 29 Decrease 1 30 Increase 3 27 Decrease 1 28
119  Turkmenistan 29 Increase 2 27 Decrease 1 28 Steady 0 28
119  Paraguay 29 Decrease 2 31 Increase 1 30 Decrease 1 31
123  Gambia 28 Decrease 1 29 Increase 1 28 Decrease 6 34
123  Guatemala 28 Decrease 4 32 Increase 3 29 Decrease 4 33
123  Kazakhstan 28 Decrease 1 29 Increase 3 26 Decrease 2 28
123  Kyrgyzstan 28 Increase 1 27 Increase 3 24 Steady 0 24
123  Lebanon 28 Increase 1 27 Decrease 1 28 Decrease 2 30
123  Madagascar 28 Steady 0 28 Steady 0 28 Decrease 4 32
123  Ukraine 28 Steady 0 28 Decrease 2 30 Decrease 3 33
130  Cameroon 27 Steady 0 27 Increase 2 25 Decrease 1 26
130  Ghana 27 Steady 0 27 Increase 2 25 Decrease 3 28
130  Zambia 27 Decrease 2 29 Decrease 2 31 Increase 4 27
130  Nicaragua 27 Decrease 1 28 Steady 0 28 Decrease 1 29
130  Sierra Leone 27 Increase 3 24 Steady 0 24 Decrease 1 25
130  Mali 27 Increase 1 26 Increase 1 25 Decrease 1 26
136  Comoros 26 Steady 0 26 Decrease 2 28 Steady 0 28
136  Nigeria 26 Decrease 1 27 Increase 2 25 Decrease 2 27
136  Tajikistan 26 Increase 3 23 Increase 1 22 Steady 0 22
139  Myanmar 25 Steady 0 25 Decrease 2 27 Increase 1 26
139  Guinea 25 Steady 0 25 Increase 1 24 Steady 0 24
139  Kenya 25 Steady 0 25 Decrease 2 27 Steady 0 27
139  Papua New Guinea 25 Steady 0 25 Steady 0 25 Steady 0 25
139  Uganda 25 Decrease 1 26 Steady 0 26 Decrease 3 29
145  Central African Republic 24 Steady 0 24 Decrease 1 25 Decrease 1 26
147  Chad 22 Steady 0 22 Increase 3 19 Steady 0 19
147  Republic of the Congo 22 Steady 0 22 Steady 0 22 Increase 1 21
147  Democratic Republic of the Congo 22 Increase 1 21 Steady 0 21 Increase 6 15
150  Burundi 21 Increase 1 20 Decrease 1 21 Increase 2 19
150  Namibia 21 Steady 0 21 Increase 1 20 Decrease 2 22
150  Zimbabwe 21 Steady 0 21 Steady 0 21 Increase 1 20
153  Liberia 19 Increase 1 18 Increase 1 17 Steady 0 17
154  Eritrea 18 Steady 0 18 Decrease 2 20 Decrease 5 25
154  North Korea 8 Steady 0 8 Steady 0 8 Steady 0 8
154  Pakistan 18 Increase 1 17 Steady 0 17 Steady 0 17
154  Yemen 18 Decrease 1 19 Increase 1 18 Decrease 5 23
158  Haiti 17 Decrease 2 19 Steady 0 19 Steady 0 19
158  Guinea-Bissau 17 Decrease 2 19 Steady 0 19 Decrease 6 25
158  Venezuela 17 Decrease 2 19 Decrease 1 20 Increase 1 19
161  Iraq 16 Steady 0 16 Steady 0 16 Decrease 2 18
161  Libya 16 Decrease 2 18 Increase 3 15 Decrease 6 21
163  Angola 15 Decrease 4 19 Decrease 4 23 Increase 1 22
163  South Sudan 15 Steady 0 15 Increase 1 14 Steady 0
165  Sudan 12 Increase 1 11 Steady 0 11 Decrease 2 13
166  Afghanistan 11 Decrease 1 12 Increase 4 8 Steady 0 8
167  Somalia 8 Steady 0 8 Steady 0 8 Steady 0 8
168  Syria 4 Decrease 4 8 Steady 0 8 Steady 0 8

2014[edit]

The 20 top political entities that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 92 11  Australia 80
2  New Zealand 91 12  Germany 79
3  Finland 89  Iceland
4  Sweden 87 14  United Kingdom 78
5  Norway 86 15  Belgium 76
  Switzerland  Japan
7  Singapore 84 17  United States 74
8  Netherlands 83  Hong Kong
9  Luxembourg 82  Ireland
10  Canada 81  Barbados
Source:[14]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
174  Somalia 8 161  Yemen 19
 North Korea  Venezuela
173  Sudan 11  Haiti
172  Afghanistan 12  Guinea-Bissau
171  South Sudan 15  Angola
170  Iraq 16 159  Syria 20
169  Pakistan 17  Burundi
166  Liberia 18 156  Zimbabwe 21
 Libya Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Eritrea  Namibia
Source:[14]

2013[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 91 11  Luxembourg 80
 New Zealand 12  Germany 78
3  Finland 89  Iceland
 Sweden 14  United Kingdom 76
5  Norway 86 15  Barbados 75
 Singapore  Belgium
7   Switzerland 85  Hong Kong
8  Netherlands 83 18  Japan 74
9  Australia 81 19  United States 73
 Canada  Uruguay
Source:[15]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
175  Somalia 8 167  Yemen 18
 North Korea 163  Haiti 19
 Afghanistan  Guinea-Bissau
174  Sudan 11  Equatorial Guinea
173  South Sudan 14  Chad
172  Libya 15 160  Venezuela 20
171  Iraq 16  Eritrea
168  India 17  Cambodia
 Turkmenistan 158  Zimbabwe 21
 Syria Myanmar Myanmar
Source:[15]

2012[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 90 11  Iceland 82
 Finland 12  Luxembourg 80
 New Zealand 13  Germany 79
4  Sweden 88 14  Hong Kong 77
5  Singapore 87 15  Barbados 76
6   Switzerland 86 16  Belgium 75
7  Australia 85 17  Japan 74
 Norway  United Kingdom
9  Canada 84 19  United States 73
 Netherlands 20  Chile 72
 Uruguay
Source:[16]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
174  Somalia 8 165  Chad 19
 North Korea  Burundi
 Afghanistan 163  Zimbabwe 20
173  Sudan 11  Equatorial Guinea
172 Myanmar Myanmar 15 160  Libya 21
170  India 17  Laos
 Turkmenistan Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
169  Iraq 18 157  Tajikistan 22
165  Venezuela 19  Cambodia
 Haiti  Angola
Source:[16]

2011[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
1  New Zealand 95 11  Luxembourg 85
2  Denmark 94 12  Hong Kong 84
 Finland 13  Iceland 83
4  Sweden 93 14  Germany 80
5  Singapore 92  Japan
6  Norway 90 16  Austria 78
7  Netherlands 89  Barbados
8  Australia 88  United Kingdom
  Switzerland 19  Belgium 75
10  Canada 87  Ireland
Source:[17]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
182  Somalia 10 172  Equatorial Guinea 19
 North Korea  Burundi
180 Myanmar Myanmar 15 168  Niger 20
 Afghanistan Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
177  India 16  Chad
 Turkmenistan  Angola
 Sudan 164  Yemen 21
175  Iraq 18  Kyrgyzstan
 Haiti  Guinea
172  Venezuela 19  Cambodia
Source:[17]

2010[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 93 11  Iceland 85
 New Zealand  Luxembourg
 Singapore 13  Hong Kong 84
4  Finland 92 14  Ireland 80
 Sweden 15  Austria 79
6  Canada 89  Germany
7  Netherlands 88 17  Barbados 78
8  Australia 87  Japan
  Switzerland 19  Qatar 77
10  Norway 86 20  United Kingdom 76
Source:[18]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
178  Somalia 11 168  Angola 19
176 Myanmar Myanmar 14 164  Venezuela 20
 Afghanistan  Kyrgyzstan
175  Iraq 15  Guinea
172  India 16 Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
 Turkmenistan 159  Tajikistan 21
 Sudan  Russia
171  Chad 17  Papua New Guinea
170  Burundi 18  Laos
168  Equatorial Guinea 19  Kenya
Source:[18]

Economic implications[edit]

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[19] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[20] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Criticism[edit]

Because corruption is willfully hidden, it is impossible to measure directly; instead, proxies for corruption are used. Seligson states that corruption is a very “difficult phenomenon to measure,” there have been many attempts to solve this problem but they’ve all come up with limitations.[21]

The Index has been criticized on the basis of its methodology.[22]

Political scientist Dan Hough pointed out three flaws in the Index:[23]

  • Corruption is too complex to be captured by a single score. The nature of corruption in rural Kansas will, for instance, be different than in the city administration of New York yet the Index measures them in the same way.
  • By measuring perceptions of corruption, as opposed to corruption itself, the Index may simply be reinforcing stereotypes and cliches.
  • The Index only measures public-sector corruption, leaving out private actors. This for instance means the Libor scandal or the VW emissions scandal are not counted.

Media outlets frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean. The local Transparency International chapter in Bangladesh disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused the country's scores to increase; media reported it as an "improvement".[24]

In a 2013 article in Foreign Policy, Alex Cobham suggested that CPI should be dropped for the good of Transparency International. It argues that the CPI embeds a powerful and misleading elite bias in popular perceptions of corruption, potentially contributing to a vicious cycle and at the same time incentivizing inappropriate policy responses. Cobham writes, "the index corrupts perceptions to the extent that it's hard to see a justification for its continuing publication."[25]

In the United States, many lawyers advise international businesses to consult the CPI when attempting to measure the risk of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act violations in different nations. This practice has been criticized by the Minnesota Journal of International Law, which wrote that since the CPI may be subject to perceptual biases it therefore should not be considered by lawyers to be a measure of actual national corruption risk.[26]

Transparency International also publishes the Global Corruption Barometer, which ranks countries by corruption levels using direct surveys instead of perceived expert opinions, which has been under criticism for substantial bias from the powerful elite.[25]

Transparency International has warned that a country with a clean CPI score may still be linked to corruption internationally. For example, while Sweden had the 3rd best CPI score in 2015, one of its state-owned companies, TeliaSonera, was facing allegations of bribery in Uzbekistan.[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Transparency International (2011). "Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  2. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2
  3. ^ Transparency International (2012). "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012: In detail". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  4. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005)". Retrieved 22 November 2005. 
  5. ^ CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 1
  6. ^ Transparency International (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010: Sources of information (PDF) (Report). Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  7. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 7
  8. ^ Transparency International (2010). "Frequently asked questions (FAQs)". Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  9. ^ Wilhelm, Paul G. (2002). "International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 35 (3): 177–189. doi:10.1023/A:1013882225402. 
  10. ^ "CPI 2015 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  11. ^ "CPI 2014 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  12. ^ "CPI 2013 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  13. ^ "CPI 2012 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  14. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2014. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 3 December 2014.
  15. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2013. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  16. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 11 November 2014.
  17. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2011. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  18. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  19. ^ Shao, J.; Ivanov, P. C.; Podobnik, B.; Stanley, H. E. (2007). "Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors". The European Physical Journal B. 56 (2): 157. arXiv:0705.0161free to read. Bibcode:2007EPJB...56..157S. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2007-00098-2. 
  20. ^ Podobnik, B.; Shao, J.; Njavro, D.; Ivanov, P. C.; Stanley, H. E. (2008). "Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment". The European Physical Journal B. 63 (4): 547. arXiv:0710.1995free to read. Bibcode:2008EPJB...63..547P. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2008-00210-2. 
  21. ^ Seligson, Mitchell A. "The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Politics(2002): 408-433.
  22. ^ "Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index: Whose Perceptions Are They Anyway?" (PDF). 2005. 
  23. ^ Hough, Dan (2016-01-27). "Here's this year's (flawed) Corruption Perception Index. Those flaws are useful.". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  24. ^ Werve, Jonathan (2008-09-23). "TI's Index: Local Chapter Not Having It". Global Integrity. 
  25. ^ a b Cobham, Alex. "Corrupting Perceptions". Foreign Policy. 
  26. ^ Campbell, Stuart Vincent. "Perception is Not Reality: The FCPA, Brazil, and the Mismeasurement of Corruption" 22 Minnesota Journal of International Law 1, p. 247 (2013).
  27. ^ CPI index 2015. Accessed 2016-02-03.

External links[edit]