London is the starting point for a number of motorway routes. The M25 is an orbital motorway which enables vehicles to avoid travelling through central London and is one of the busiest motorways in Europe.
The London General Omnibus Company (LGOC), was the principal bus operator in London between 1855 and 1933. It was founded to amalgamate hundreds of independent horse-drawn omnibus companies operating in the capital and was originally an Anglo-French enterprise also known as Compagnie Generale des Omnibus de Londres. Within a year, the LGOC controlled 600 of London's 810 omnibuses. In 1902, the LGOC began operating motor buses and by 1908 had gained a virtual monopoly in London. The last horse-drawn bus ran in 1911.
Greathead developed and patented a number of improvements to the Barlow shield and the improved design carried their joint names. Greathead also developed the use of a segmented cast iron lining for the circular tunnel, erected in sections from which the shield was jacked forward. Greathead was then involved in the planning and construction of a number of railways in Britain and Ireland, until, in 1884, he was appointed engineer for the City and South London Railway, the world's first underground electric railway when it opened in 1890. Greathead subsequently worked on the Waterloo and City Railway, the Liverpool Overhead Railway and the early planning of the Central London Railway.