Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919

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Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919
1919 eclipse positive.jpg
From the report of Sir Arthur Eddington on the expedition to the island of Principe (off the west coast of Africa).
SE1919May29T.png
Map
Type of eclipse
NatureTotal
Gamma-0.2955
Magnitude1.0719
Maximum eclipse
Duration411 sec (6 m 51 s)
Coordinates4°24′N 16°42′W / 4.4°N 16.7°W / 4.4; -16.7
Max. width of band244 km (152 mi)
Times (UTC)
Greatest eclipse13:08:55
References
Saros136 (32 of 71)
Catalog # (SE5000)9326

A total solar eclipse occurred on Thursday, May 29, 1919. With the duration of totality at maximum eclipse of 6 minutes 50.75 seconds, it was the longest solar eclipse since May 27, 1416. A longer total solar eclipse would later occur on June 8, 1937.[1]

Occurring only 0.8 days after perigee (Perigee on May 28, 1919), the Moon's apparent diameter was larger.

It was visible throughout most of South America and Africa as a partial eclipse. Totality occurred through a narrow path across southeastern Peru, northern Chile, central Bolivia and Brazil after sunrise, across the Atlantic Ocean and into south central Africa, covering southern Liberia, southern French West Africa (the part now belonging to Ivory Coast), southwestern tip of British Gold Coast (now Ghana), Príncipe Island in Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe, southern Spanish Guinea (now Equatorial Guinea), French Equatorial Africa (the parts now belonging to Gabon and R. Congo, including Libreville), Belgian Congo (now DR Congo), northeastern Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), northern tip of Nyasaland (now Malawi), German East Africa (now belonging to Tanzania) and northeastern Portuguese Mozambique (now Mozambique), ending near sunset in eastern Africa. There was another solar eclipse in 1919, an annular solar eclipse on November 22.

Total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, as emulated by Celestia.

Observations[edit]

Albert Einstein's prediction of the bending of light by the gravity of the Sun, one of the components of his general theory of relativity, can be tested during a solar eclipse, when stars with apparent position near the sun become visible. Following an unsuccessful attempt to validate this prediction during the Solar eclipse of June 8, 1918,[2] two expeditions were made to measure positions of stars during this eclipse (see Eddington experiment). The first was led by Sir Frank Watson Dyson and Sir Arthur Eddington to the island of Príncipe (off the west coast of Africa), the second by Andrew Claude de la Cherois Crommelin and Charles Rundle Davidson to Sobral in Brazil.[3][4] The stars that both expeditions observed were in the constellation Taurus.[5]

Related eclipses[edit]

Solar eclipses 1916–1920[edit]

This eclipse is a member of a semester series. An eclipse in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats approximately every 177 days and 4 hours (a semester) at alternating nodes of the Moon's orbit.[6]

Solar eclipse series sets from 1916–1920
Ascending node   Descending node
111 December 24, 1916
SE1916Dec24P.png
Partial
116 June 19, 1917
SE1917Jun19P.png
Partial
121 December 14, 1917
SE1917Dec14A.png
Annular
126 June 8, 1918
SE1918Jun08T.png
Total
131 December 3, 1918
SE1918Dec03A.png
Annular
136 May 29, 1919
SE1919May29T.png
Total
141 November 22, 1919
SE1919Nov22A.png
Annular
146 May 18, 1920
SE1920May18P.png
Partial
151 November 10, 1920
SE1920Nov10P.png
Partial

Saros 136[edit]

Solar Saros 136, repeating every 18 years, 11 days, contains 71 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on June 14, 1360, and reached a first annular eclipse on September 8, 1504. It was a hybrid event from November 22, 1612, through January 17, 1703, and total eclipses from January 27, 1721 through May 13, 2496. The series ends at member 71 as a partial eclipse on July 30, 2622, with the entire series lasting 1262 years. The longest eclipse occurred on June 20, 1955, with a maximum duration of totality at 7 minutes, 7.74 seconds. All eclipses in this series occurs at the Moon’s descending node.[7]

Series members 29–43 occur between 1865 and 2117
29 30 31
SE1865Apr25T.gif
Apr 25, 1865
SE1883May06T.png
May 6, 1883
SE1901May18T.png
May 18, 1901
32 33 34
SE1919May29T.png
May 29, 1919
SE1937Jun08T.png
Jun 8, 1937
SE1955Jun20T.png
Jun 20, 1955
35 36 37
SE1973Jun30T.png
Jun 30, 1973
SE1991Jul11T.png
Jul 11, 1991
SE2009Jul22T.png
Jul 22, 2009
38 39 40
SE2027Aug02T.png
Aug 2, 2027
SE2045Aug12T.png
Aug 12, 2045
SE2063Aug24T.png
Aug 24, 2063
41 42 43
SE2081Sep03T.png
Sep 3, 2081
SE2099Sep14T.png
Sep 14, 2099
SE2117Sep26T.png
Sep 26, 2117

Inex series[edit]

This eclipse is a part of the long period inex cycle, repeating at alternating nodes, every 358 synodic months (≈ 10,571.95 days, or 29 years minus 20 days). Their appearance and longitude are irregular due to a lack of synchronization with the anomalistic month (period of perigee). However, groupings of 3 inex cycles (≈ 87 years minus 2 months) comes close (≈ 1,151.02 anomalistic months), so eclipses are similar in these groupings.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Espenak, Fred. "Total Solar Eclipses with Durations Exceeding 07m 00s: -3999 to 6000". NASA Eclipse Web Site.
  2. ^ Ethan Siegel, "America's Previous Coast-To-Coast Eclipse Almost Proved Einstein Right", Forbes, Aug 4, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  3. ^ Longair, Malcolm (2015-04-13). "Bending space–time: a commentary on Dyson, Eddington and Davidson (1920) 'A determination of the deflection of light by the Sun9s gravitational field'". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. 373 (2039): 20140287. Bibcode:2015RSPTA.37340287L. doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0287. ISSN 1364-503X. PMC 4360090. PMID 25750149.
  4. ^ Kennefick, Daniel (2019). No Shadow of a Doubt. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-18386-2.
  5. ^ F. W. Dyson, A. S. Eddington, and C. Davidson (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Total Eclipse of May 29, 1919". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. CCXX-A 579 (571–581): 291–333. Bibcode:1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi:10.1098/rsta.1920.0009.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ van Gent, R.H. "Solar- and Lunar-Eclipse Predictions from Antiquity to the Present". A Catalogue of Eclipse Cycles. Utrecht University. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  7. ^ SEsaros136 at NASA.gov

References[edit]