Twenty20

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A Twenty20 match between England and Sri Lanka at the Hampshire Rose Bowl on 15 June 2006

Twenty20 cricket or Twenty-20 (often abbreviated to T20), is a shortened format of cricket. At the professional level, it was originally introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) in 2003 for the inter-county competition.[1] In a Twenty20 game the two teams have a single innings each, which is restricted to a maximum of 20 overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council (ICC) as being at the highest international or domestic level. A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 90 minutes and an official 10 minute break between the innings. This is much shorter than previous forms of the game, and is closer to the timespan of other popular team sports. It was introduced to create a fast-paced game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television.

The game has succeeded in spreading around the cricket world. On most international tours there is at least one Twenty20 match and all Test-playing nations have a domestic cup competition. West Indies are the reigning world champions, winning the 2016 competition.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Former England batsman Andrew Strauss batting for Middlesex against Surrey

When the Benson & Hedges Cup ended in 2002, the ECB needed another one day competition to fill its place. Cricketing authorities were looking to boost the game's popularity with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship. It was intended to deliver fast-paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game. Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the ECB, proposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11–7 in favour of adopting the new format.[2]

The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in the Twenty20 Cup.[3] The first season of Twenty20 in England was a relative success, with the Surrey Lions defeating the Warwickshire Bears by 9 wickets in the final to claim the title.[4] The first Twenty20 match held at Lord's, on 15 July 2004 between Middlesex and Surrey, attracted a crowd of 27,509, the highest attendance for any county cricket game at the ground – other than a one-day final – since 1953.[5]

Spread worldwide[edit]

Thirteen teams from different parts of the country participated in Pakistan's inaugural competition in 2004, with Faisalabad Wolves the first winners. On 12 January 2005 Australia's first Twenty20 game was played at the WACA Ground between the Western Warriors and the Victorian Bushrangers. It drew a sell-out crowd of 20,000, which was the first one in nearly 25 years.[6]

Starting on 11 July 2006 19 West Indies regional teams competed in what was named the Stanford 20/20 tournament. The event was financially backed by billionaire Allen Stanford, who gave at least US$28,000,000 funding money. It was intended that the tournament would be an annual event. Guyana won the inaugural event, defeating Trinidad and Tobago by 5 wickets, securing US$1,000,000 in prize money.[7][8]

On 5 January 2007 Queensland Bulls played the New South Wales Blues at The Gabba, Brisbane. An unexpected 16,000 fans turned up on the day to buy tickets, causing Gabba staff to throw open gates and grant many fans free entry. Attendance reached 27,653.[9] For the February 2008 Twenty20 match between Australia and India, 85,824[10] people attended the match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, involving the Twenty20 World Champions against the ODI World Champions.

The Stanford Super Series was held in October 2008 between three teams. The respective winners of the English and Caribbean Twenty20 competitions, Middlesex and Trinidad and Tobago, and a Stanford Superstars team formed from West Indies domestic players. Trinidad and Tobago won the competition, securing US$280,000 prize money.[11][12] On 1 November, the Stanford Superstars played England in what was expected to be the first of five fixtures in as many years with the winner claiming US$20,000,000 in each match. The Stanford Superstars won the first match,[13] however no further fixtures were held as Allen Stanford was charged with fraud in 2009.[14]

T20 leagues[edit]

Crowd during a match of the 2015 IPL season in Hyderabad, India.

Several T20 leagues started after the popularity of the 2007 ICC World Twenty20.[15] The Board of Control for Cricket in India started the Indian Premier League in 2008, which utilizes the North American sports franchise system with eight teams in major Indian markets, and is currently in its twelfth season of competition. In September 2017, the broadcasting and digital rights for the next five years (2018-2022) of the IPL were sold to Star India for US$2.55 billion,[16] making it one of the world's most lucrative sports league per match. The IPL has seen a spike in its brand valuation to US$5.3 billion after the 10th edition, according to global valuation and corporate finance advisor Duff & Phelps.[17]

The Big Bash League, Bangladesh Premier League, Pakistan Super League, and Caribbean Premier League started thereafter, following similar formulae, and remained popular with the fans.[18][19] The Women's Big Bash League was started in 2015 by Cricket Australia, while the Kia Super League was started in England and Wales in 2016.

Twenty20 Internationals[edit]

The first Twenty20 International match was held on 5 August 2004 between England and New Zealand women's teams with New Zealand winning by nine runs[20].

On 17 February 2005 Australia defeated New Zealand in the first men's international Twenty20 match, played at Eden Park in Auckland. The game was played in a light-hearted manner – both sides turned out in kit similar to that worn in the 1980s, the New Zealand team's a direct copy of that worn by the Beige Brigade. Some of the players also sported moustaches/beards and hairstyles popular in the 1980s taking part in a competition amongst themselves for best retro look, at the request of the Beige Brigade. Australia won the game comprehensively, and as the result became obvious towards the end of the NZ innings, the players and umpires took things less seriously – Glenn McGrath jokingly replayed the Trevor Chappell underarm incident from a 1981 ODI between the two sides, and Billy Bowden showed him a mock red card (red cards are not normally used in cricket) in response.

The first Twenty20 international in England was played between England and Australia at the Rose Bowl in Hampshire on 13 June 2005, which England won by a margin of 100 runs, a record victory which lasted until 2007.[21]

On 9 January 2006 Australia and South Africa met in the first international Twenty20 game in Australia. In a first, each player's nickname appeared on the back of his uniform, rather than his surname. The international match drew a crowd of 38,894 people at The Gabba.

On 16 February 2006 New Zealand defeated West Indies in a tie-breaking bowl-out 3–0; 126 runs were scored apiece in the game proper. The game was the last international match played by Chris Cairns.

Every two years an ICC World Twenty20 tournament is to take place, except in the event of an ICC Cricket World Cup being scheduled in the same year, in which case it will be held the year before. The first tournament was in 2007 in South Africa where India defeated Pakistan in the final. Two Associate teams had played in the first tournament, selected through the 2007 ICC World Cricket League Division One, a 50-over competition. In December 2007 it was decided to hold a qualifying tournament with a 20-over format to better prepare the teams. With six participants, two would qualify for the 2009 World Twenty20 and would each receive $250,000 in prize money.[22] The second tournament was won by Pakistan who beat Sri Lanka by 8 wickets in England on 21 June 2009. The 2010 ICC World Twenty20 tournament was held in the West Indies in May 2010, where England defeated Australia by 7 wickets. The 2012 ICC World Twenty20 was won by the West Indies, by defeating Sri Lanka at the finals. It was the first time in cricket history when a T20 World Cup tournament took place in an Asian country. The 2014 ICC World Twenty20 was won by Sri Lanka, by defeating India at the finals, where the tournament was held in Bangladesh. The 2016 ICC World Twenty20 was won by West-Indies.

Impact on the game[edit]

Twenty20 matches can have some exciting displays such as when the batsmen run out to the pitch

Twenty20 cricket is claimed to have resulted in a more athletic and explosive form of cricket. Indian fitness coach Ramji Srinivasan declared in an interview with the Indian fitness website Takath.com, that Twenty20 had "raised the bar" in terms of fitness levels for all players, demanding higher levels of strength, speed, agility and reaction time from all players regardless of role in the team.[23] Matthew Hayden credited retirement from international cricket with aiding his performance in general and fitness in particular in the Indian Premier League.[24][25]

In June 2009, speaking at the annual Cowdrey Lecture at Lord's, former Australian wicketkeeper Adam Gilchrist pushed for Twenty20 to be made an Olympic sport. "It would," he said, "be difficult to see a better, quicker or cheaper way of spreading the game throughout the world."[26]

Former Australian captain Ricky Ponting, on the other hand, has criticized Twenty20 as being detrimental to Test cricket and for hampering batsmen's scoring skills and concentration.[27] Former Australian captain Greg Chappell made similar complaints, fearing that young players would play too much T20 and not develop their batting skills fully, while former England player Alex Tudor feared the same for bowling skills.[28][29]

Former West Indies captains Clive Lloyd, Michael Holding and Garfield Sobers criticised Twenty20 for its role in discouraging players from representing their test cricket national side, with many West Indies players like Chris Gayle, Sunil Narine and Dwayne Bravo preferring instead to play in a Twenty20 franchise elsewhere in the world and make far more money.[30][31][32][33][34]

Under-17s and Under-19s are playing T20 games in national championships, and at the detriment of two-day games. Good state players these days are averaging 35; if you were averaging 35 when I was playing your dad would go and buy you a basketball or a footy and tell you to play that.

Ricky Ponting, [35]

Match format and rules[edit]

Format[edit]

Twenty20 match format is a form of limited overs cricket in that it involves two teams, each with a single innings, the key feature being that each team bats for a maximum of 20 overs. In terms of visual format, the batting team members do not arrive from and depart to traditional dressing rooms, but come and go from a bench (typically a row of chairs) visible in the playing arena, analogous to association football's technical area or a baseball dugout.[36]

Middlesex playing against Surrey at Lord's, in front of a 28,000-strong crowd

General rules[edit]

The Laws of cricket apply to Twenty20, with major exceptions:[37]

  • Each bowler may bowl a maximum of only one-fifth of the total overs per innings. For a full, uninterrupted match, this is 4 overs.
  • If a bowler delivers a no-ball by overstepping the crease, it costs 1 run and his next delivery is designated a "free-hit". In this circumstance the batsman can only be dismissed through a run out, hitting the ball twice or obstructing the field.
  • The following fielding restrictions apply:
    • No more than five fielders can be on the leg side at any time.
    • During the first six overs, a maximum of two fielders can be outside the 30-yard circle (this is known as the powerplay).
    • After the first six overs, a maximum of five fielders can be outside the fielding circle.
  • If the fielding team does not start to bowl their 20th over within 75 minutes, the batting side is credited an extra six runs for every whole over bowled after the 75-minute mark; the umpire may add more time to this if he believes the batting team is wasting time.

Tie deciders[edit]

Currently, if the match ends with the scores tied and there must be a winner, the tie is broken with a one over per side Eliminator[38] or Super Over:[39][40] Each team nominates three batsmen and one bowler to play a one-over per side "mini-match". The team which bats second in the match bats first in the Super Over.[41][42] In turn, each side bats one over bowled by the one nominated opposition bowler, with their innings over if they lose two wickets before the over is completed. The side with the higher score from their Super Over wins. If the super over also ends up in a tie, the team that has scored the most boundaries (4s+6s) in the 20 overs wins.

In the Australian domestic competition the Big Bash League the Super Over is played slightly differently, with no 2-wicket limit, and if the super over is also tied then a "countback" is used, with scores after the fifth ball for each team being used to determine the result. If it is still tied, then the countback goes to 4 balls and so on.[43] The latest Super Over to decide a match was between the Sydney Sixers winning against the Brisbane Heat on 25 January 2017, in the Big Bash League at the Brisbane Cricket Ground, with the Sixers winning 0/22 to 0/15 in the Super Over after tying on 164.[44]

Tied Twenty20 matches were previously decided by a bowl-out.[45]

International[edit]

Women's and men's Twenty20 Internationals have been played since 2004 and 2005 respectively. To date, 25 nations have played the format, including all test playing nations. This considers only matches between teams with Twenty20 International status, which is limited by the International Cricket Council to a small number of top teams.

Nation Date of men's T20I debut Date of women's T20I debut
 Australia 17 February 2005 2 September 2005
 New Zealand 17 February 2005 5 August 2004
 England 13 June 2005 5 August 2004
 South Africa 21 October 2005 10 August 2007
 West Indies 16 February 2006 27 June 2008
 Sri Lanka 15 June 2006 12 June 2009
 Pakistan 28 August 2006 25 May 2009
 Bangladesh 28 November 2006 27 August 2012
 Zimbabwe 28 November 2006
 India 1 December 2006 5 August 2006
 Kenya 1 September 2007
 Scotland 12 September 2007 7 July 2018
 Netherlands 2 August 2008 27 June 2008
 Ireland 2 August 2008 27 June 2008
 Canada 2 August 2008
 Bermuda 3 August 2008
 Afghanistan 2 February 2010
   Nepal 16 March 2014
 Hong Kong 16 March 2014
 United Arab Emirates 17 March 2014 7 July 2018
 Papua New Guinea 15 July 2015 7 July 2018
 Oman 25 July 2015
 Malaysia 3 June 2018
 Thailand 3 June 2018
 Uganda 7 July 2018
 United States 15 March 2019

T20 International rankings[edit]

In November 2011, the ICC released the first Twenty20 International rankings for the men's game, based on the same system as the Test and ODI rankings. The rankings cover a 2 to 3-year period, with matches since the most recent 1 August weighted fully, matches in the preceding 12 months weighted two-thirds, and matches in the 12 months preceding that weighted one-third. To qualify for the rankings, teams must have played at least eight Twenty20 Internationals in the ranking period.[46][47]

ICC T20I Championship
Rank Team Matches Points Rating
1  Pakistan 26 7365 283
2  England 16 4253 266
3  South Africa 16 4196 262
4  India 31 8099 261
5  Australia 21 5471 261
6  New Zealand 17 4333 255
7  Afghanistan 16 3849 241
8  Sri Lanka 19 4297 226
9  West Indies 24 5378 224
10  Bangladesh 16 3525 220
11    Nepal 14 2818 201
12  Scotland 11 2185 199
13  United Arab Emirates 18 3453 192
14  Zimbabwe 13 2477 191
15  Ireland 21 3834 183
16  Papua New Guinea 22 3834 174
17  Netherlands 15 2607 174
18  Oman 5 774 155
19  Hong Kong 8 1213 152
20  Namibia 14 2038 146
21  Singapore 13 1707 131
22  Qatar 18 2262 126
23  Saudi Arabia 11 1331 121
24  Canada 10 1154 115
25  Jersey 16 1834 115
26  Italy 12 1326 111
27  Kuwait 13 1354 104
28  Denmark 14 1438 103
29  Kenya 12 1229 102
30  Bermuda 4 408 102
31  Germany 18 1527 85
32  United States 12 977 81
33  Botswana 17 1355 80
34  Ghana 10 773 77
35  Malaysia 21 1620 77
36  Uganda 14 1069 76
37  Austria 6 439 73
38  Norway 10 709 87
39  Nigeria 10 708 71
40  Guernsey 16 1127 70
41  Cayman Islands 5 305 61
42  Sweden 8 465 58
43  Tanzania 6 334 56
44  Luxembourg 6 328 55
45  Spain 12 602 50
46  Philippines 9 433 48
47  France 6 267 45
48  Belize 9 377 42
49  Peru 9 356 40
50  Bahrain 7 261 37
51  Mexico 12 426 36
52  Fiji 6 210 35
53  Panama 9 291 32
54  Belgium 9 290 32
55  Samoa 10 318 32
56  Japan 10 317 32
57  Costa Rica 8 252 32
58  Vanuatu 15 469 31
59  Argentina 12 370 31
60  Hungary 6 180 30
61  Mozambique 12 352 29
62  Thailand 14 369 26
63  Chile 10 249 25
64  Malawi 12 297 25
65  Israel 7 173 25
66  Finland 13 296 23
67  Bhutan 8 180 23
68  South Korea 10 217 22
69  Isle of Man 7 149 21
70  Malta 11 158 14
71  Bulgaria 5 68 14
72  Sierra Leone 5 61 12
73  Brazil 9 108 12
74  Maldives 11 114 10
75  Czech Republic 10 91 9
76  Saint Helena 12 109 9
77  Gibraltar 8 35 4
78  Myanmar 9 23 3
79  Indonesia 7 3 0
80  China 11 0 0
81  Gambia 6 0 0
82  Swaziland 6 0 0
83  Rwanda 6 0 0
84  Lesotho 6 0 0
Reference: ICC rankings for Tests, ODIs, Twenty20 & Women ICC page, 1 September 2019
"Matches" is the number of matches played in the 12-24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

Until 2018, the ICC did not maintain a separate Twenty20 ranking for the women's game, instead aggregating performance over all three forms of the game into one overall women's teams ranking.[48] However, in October, the ICC announced that the women's ranking would be split between ODIs and T20Is, and released both tables shortly thereafter.[49]

Domestic[edit]

Perth Scorchers taking on Hobart Hurricanes at the WACA during BBL 01 (2011)

This is a list of the current Twenty20 domestic competitions in several of the leading cricket countries.

Country Domestic Competition Number of Teams
Afghanistan Afghanistan Premier League 5
Australia Big Bash League 8
Bangladesh Bangladesh Premier League 8
Canada Global T20 Canada 6
England Vitality Blast 18
Hong Kong Hong Kong T20 Blitz 5
India Indian Premier League, Saurashtra Premier League, Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy 8, 5, 37
Ireland Inter-Provincial Trophy 4
Netherlands Dutch Twenty20 Cup 16
Nepal Everest Premier League, Dhangadhi Premier League, Pokhara Premier League 6, 6, 6
New Zealand Super Smash 6
Pakistan Pakistan Super League, National T20 Cup 6, 18
Scotland Regional Pro Series 3
South Africa Ram Slam T20 Challenge, Mzansi Super League 6, 6
Sri Lanka Lankan Premier League, Premier Twenty20 6,24
West Indies Caribbean Premier League 6
Zimbabwe Stanbic Bank 20 Series 4

Records[edit]

See also: List of Twenty20 International records

ICC T20I team rankings[edit]

References[edit]

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  23. ^ "An interview with Ramji Srinivasan". Takath.com. 19 June 2009.
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  26. ^ Quoted in Booth, Lawrence. "Myths; And stereotypes." The Spin, 30 June 2009.
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  32. ^ Gray, James (17 August 2017). "Why isn't Chris Gayle playing for West Indies against England? Test absence explained".
  33. ^ "Gayle, Bravo, Pollard – Why Windies' Stars Will Skip India Series".
  34. ^ White, Jim (1 June 2010). "Twenty20 will kill Test cricket within 20 years, says West Indian great Michael Holding" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  35. ^ "I told Dravid not to retire - Ponting". ESPN Cricinfo. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  36. ^ "Bringing back fences could help even up the contest between bat and ball, and ensure that all sixes are genuine".
  37. ^ "Twenty20 Rules". CricketWorld4U. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  38. ^ "One-over eliminator could replace bowl-out". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  39. ^ "Windies edge NZ in Twenty20 thriller". abc.net.au Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 December 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
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  41. ^ "Vettori opposes Super Over". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. 26 December 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  42. ^ The Explainer (13 January 2009). "One1". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  43. ^ "KFC T20 Big Bash League: Rules". KFC T20 Big Bash League. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  44. ^ "Recap: Big Bash second Semi Final: Sydney Sixers v Brisbane Heat". news.com.au. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  45. ^ "Super Over to replace bowl out". ESPN CricInfo. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  46. ^ ICC Team Rankings Archived 16 January 2012 at WebCite
  47. ^ Kendix, David. ICC rankings for Tests, ODIs, Twenty20 & Women. ESPN Cricinfo. ESPN Sports Media Ltd.
  48. ^ "ICC Women's Team Rankings launched". International Cricket Council. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  49. ^ "ICC Launches Global Women's T20I Team Rankings". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 30 April 2019.

External links[edit]