List of Ubisoft subsidiaries

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Ubisoft is a French video game publisher headquartered in Montreuil, founded in March 1986 by the Guillemot brothers. Since its establishment, Ubisoft has become one of the largest video game publishers, and it has the largest in-house development team, with more than 14,000 employees working in over 40 studios.[1]

While Ubisoft set up many in-house studios itself, such as Ubisoft Montreal, Ubisoft Toronto, Ubisoft Montpellier and Ubisoft Paris, the company also acquired several studios, such as Massive Entertainment, Red Storm Entertainment, Reflections Interactive and FreeStyleGames. Ubisoft's studios often cooperate with each other in their projects, sharing different development duties. 2014's Assassin's Creed Unity saw ten studios worldwide work together.[2]

North America[edit]

Ubisoft Montreal[edit]

Ubisoft Montreal building

Ubisoft Montreal was Ubisoft's largest in-house development studio, as well as the largest development studio worldwide with more than 3,200 employees.[1] Founded in 1997 in Montreal, Quebec, the studio started with only 50 employees. 25 of these came from Ubisoft's headquarters in France, while the rest were new recruits. Yannis Mallet is the company's studio head. While the company originally focused their work on licensed family-friendly titles, the team achieved breakthrough success through the release of two new titles: Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time and Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell.[3]

Following this success, they shifted their focus onto developing AAA titles. The company developed Far Cry 2 and the subsequent Far Cry sequels, become involved in the Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six series since Vegas and had become the lead developer of Ubisoft's most successful franchise, Assassin's Creed, since the franchise's inception. The studio was also involved in creating new intellectual properties, such as For Honor and Watch Dogs.[1]

Red Storm Entertainment[edit]

Red Storm Entertainment was founded by novelist Tom Clancy, managing director Steve Reid, and 17 staff members in Cary, North Carolina, in 1996. The company self-published its first tactical shooter, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six, in 1998. Ubisoft acquired the studio in 2000. After the acquisition, Red Storm continued to work on tactical shooters and developed Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon in 2001, as well as its sequel, Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon 2, in 2004. Red Storm continues to collaborate with other Ubisoft studios on future Ghost Recon titles and was involved in the development of several Far Cry games. Red Storm became one of the first Ubisoft studios to develop virtual reality projects, starting with the release of Werewolves Within in 2016 and Star Trek: Bridge Crew in 2017.[1]

Ubisoft Quebec[edit]

Ubisoft Quebec was founded by Ubisoft in 2005 in Quebec City, Quebec. The studio was set out to provide assistance to Ubisoft's main studios, and it also participated in the development of downloadable content for the Assassin's Creed series, such as Tyranny of King Washington for Assassin's Creed III, and Freedom Cry for Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag.[4] On 3 November 2010, Ubisoft announced that it had acquired Longtail Studios Quebec, a studio of New York City-based Longtail Studios, itself founded in 2003 by Ubisoft co-founder Gérard Guillemot.[5][6] As a result, 48 of the studio's staff were moved to Ubisoft's existing Ubisoft Quebec operations. The division's director, Andreas Mollman, resigned, and 5–6 employees were laid off.[7][8] The Quebec studio worked on Marvel Avengers: Battle for Earth, a Kinect title released in 2012,[9] and became the lead developer for Assassin's Creed Syndicate in 2015, replacing the Montreal studio. It would be the first time the Quebec studio changed its role from a support studio to a lead developer of a AAA game. The studio has 500 employees.[1]

Hybride Technologies[edit]

Hybride Technologies in Piedmont, Quebec, is a technology company founded in 1991. Its main role is to create visual effects for films and TV shows, and had contributed to films such as Jurassic World and Star Wars: The Force Awakens. The company was acquired by Ubisoft in 2008.[1] The company has a second office co-located with Ubisoft Montreal in Montreal, Quebec, which was opened in February 2016.[10]

Ubisoft San Francisco[edit]

Ubisoft San Francisco was founded in 2009 within Ubisoft's North American headquarters in San Francisco, California. The studio is the lead developer for the Rocksmith series. The studio recruited many new employees in the mid-2010s, and collaborated with Matt Stone and Trey Parker to develop South Park: The Fractured But Whole, a role-playing game set in the South Park universe.[1]

Ubisoft Toronto[edit]

Ubisoft Toronto building

Ubisoft Toronto was founded by Ubisoft in May 2010 in Toronto, Ontario.[11] The studio opening can be credited to the success of the Montreal studio, which encouraged Ubisoft to continue its expansion in Canada.[12] The team at Toronto are mostly employees from the Montreal studio who had worked on Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Conviction.[13] The studio then took the lead role in developing Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell game, as the then studio head Jade Raymond thought that it is Ubisoft's most iconic franchise and can help the studio to expand and recruit. Their debut game, Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Blacklist, received critical acclaim upon release.[14] The studio continued to contribute to other Ubisoft's project, including Far Cry 4 and Assassin's Creed Unity, and announced a new intellectual property, a toys-to-life game called Starlink: Battle for Atlas at E3 2017.[15] Raymond departed the studio and formed EA Motive in 2015.[16] Clint Hocking, the director of Far Cry 2, worked in the Toronto studio.[17] The studio is working on Starlink: Battle for Atlas.[1]

Ubisoft Halifax[edit]

Ubisoft Halifax (formerly Longtail Studios Halifax) is based in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and best known for co-developing the Rocksmith series.[18] The company was founded in 2009 as a studio of New York City-based Longtail Studios, itself founded in 2003 by Ubisoft co-founder Gérard Guillemot.[5] In July 2009, Longtail Studios offered the 23 employees at its Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (PEI), studio the ability to relocate to their new Halifax studio.[19] The move was met by PEI's Minister of Innovation, Allan Campbell, offering Longtail Studios subsidies and tax breaks to retain the jobs in PEI.[20]

In August 2013, Longtail Studios Halifax joined the Entertainment Software Association of Canada.[5] At this time, the studio had 45 employees.[5] On 13 October 2015, Ubisoft acquired Longtail Studios Halifax, then covering over 30 employees, wherein the company was renamed Ubisoft Halifax.[21] Another 10 positions were immediately opened for hiring.[22] Through the acquisition, Ubisoft planned to expand its mobile game business in Canada.[23] As of 2018, Ubisoft Halifax has 50 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Saguenay[edit]

Ubisoft Saguenay, in Chicoutimi, Quebec, was announced in September 2017 and opened in February 2018 with 20 employees led by Jimmy Boulianne.[1] The studio will be used to support online and connectivity components for Ubisoft's games.[24]

Ubisoft Winnipeg[edit]

On 6 April 2018, Ubisoft announced it would invest CA$35 million in Canada's Manitoba province to create 100 jobs within five years, establishing a studio located in Winnipeg. Darryl Long will serve as the studio's managing director.[25] Ubisoft Winnipeg will work on Ubisoft's open world franchises.[1]

Blue Mammoth Games[edit]

Blue Mammoth Games, based in Atlanta, Georgia, was founded by Lincoln Hamilton and Matt Woomer in 2009.[26] Since January 2018, the company operates a second studio in Amsterdam, Netherlands.[27] Blue Mammoth was acquired by Ubisoft on 1 March 2018.[28] The company's only product is Brawlhalla.[1]

Europe[edit]

Ubisoft Paris[edit]

Ubisoft Paris was founded in 1992 in Montreuil, France, and was the first in-house studio for Ubisoft. Ubisoft Paris worked on several early Rayman games as well as its spin-off, Raving Rabbids. It became the core developer of the Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon series and the Just Dance series, one of the most successful rhythm games in the market. The studio is working on Just Dance 2019.[1]

Ubisoft Paris Mobile[edit]

Ubisoft Paris Mobile was created in 2013 and is co-located with Ubisoft Paris in Montreuil, France. The studio worked on the mobile game Assassin's Creed: Pirates.[1]

Ubisoft Bucharest[edit]

Ubisoft Bucharest in Bucharest, Romania, was founded in 1992 as Ubisoft's first in-house studio that was based outside France. Consisting of six members when it was founded, the company's main goal was to port Ubisoft's games to personal computers. It also supported other studios on the development of Assassin's Creed's multiplayer, Assassin's Creed Rogue, Just Dance, and Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Future Soldier.[1] A separate team in Craiova was established in September 2008 with 12 employees.[29] In December 2008, 126 employees were added to the two studios (of which 75 in Bucharest and 51 in Craiova), with the total staff count reaching around 770.[30]

Ubisoft Montpellier[edit]

Ubisoft Montpellier, formerly Ubi Pictures, was founded in 1994 as one of Ubisoft's graphics departments in Castelnau-le-Lez, France. The studio has released several successful games under Michel Ancel's direction, including Rayman and Beyond Good & Evil. The company also worked on several licensed titles, including The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn and Peter Jackson's King Kong, and collaborated with Eric Chahi on From Dust.[31] The studio also developed the UbiArt Framework engine, used in titles like Rayman Origins, Rayman Legends and Valiant Hearts: The Great War.[32] The company is working on Beyond Good and Evil 2 and Space Junkies.[1]

1492 Studio[edit]

1492 Studio was founded in Vailhauquès, France, in 2014 by Claire and Thibaud Zamora and acquired by Ubisoft in February 2018. The studio developed Is it Love?, a free-to-play episodic mobile game.[1]

Ubisoft Annecy[edit]

Ubisoft Annecy was established in 1996 in Annecy, France, and their first game was Rayman 2: The Great Escape for PlayStation 2. Annecy developed the multiplayer portion of many Ubisoft games, including the Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell series and the Assassin's Creed series. Their first title as a lead developer was Steep, an open world winter sports game released in late 2016.[1] The studio was previously known as Ubisoft Simulations.[33][34] The studio is also working on Tom Clancy's The Division 2 with Massive Entertainment.[1]

Ubisoft Milan[edit]

Ubisoft Milan was founded in 1998 in Milan, Italy. The studio's initial focus was to develop handheld titles, and it brought Rayman to Game Boy Color and Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Prophecy to Game Boy Advance. The Milan studio also served as a support studio for Ubisoft, assisting other studios on many games, such as Beyond Good & Evil, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Rogue Spear, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six 3: Athena Sword, Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory, Assassin's Creed III: Liberation, and Assassin's Creed Rogue, and is a core developer of the Just Dance series. The studio's focus then shifted to develop games that require motion control, including MotionSports and Raving Rabbids: Alive and Kicking with the Barcelona studio and the Paris studio, respectively.[1] The studio was the lead developer of the company's first Nintendo Switch exclusive game, Mario + Rabbids Kingdom Battle, together with Ubisoft Paris,[35] and is working on downloadable content for that game.[1]

Ubisoft Barcelona[edit]

Ubisoft Barcelona building

Ubisoft Barcelona was founded in 1998 and is based in Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain. The team's early focus laid on racing games, until their focus shifted to develop casual games such as Your Shape for Wii. The Barcelona studio also served as a support studio, working on titles such as Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege and Raving Rabbids. The studio also worked with Red Storm Entertainment on Star Trek: Bridge Crew.[1]

Ubisoft Barcelona Mobile[edit]

Ubisoft Barcelona Mobile, based in Barcelona, Spain, was formed as Microjocs Mobile in 2002,[36] and became part of Digital Chocolate in August 2007.[37] The studio was sold to Ubisoft in September 2013 and subsequently renamed Ubisoft Barcelona Mobile.[38][39] Productions by Ubisoft Barcelona Mobile include Galaxy Life and Might & Magic: Elemental Guardians.[1]

Blue Byte[edit]

Blue Byte was founded in Düsseldorf, Germany, in 1988.[1] The company found early success with strategy titles, such as The Settlers and Battle Isle. Blue Byte was acquired by Ubisoft in 2001,[40] and has continued to work with The Settlers franchise with new instalments. Blue Byte also helped with porting games like For Honor to personal computers. The studio has over 300 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Reflections[edit]

Ubisoft Reflections building

Ubisoft Reflections was founded in 1984 in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. The company has developed several successful franchises, including Destruction Derby and Driver before Ubisoft's acquisition in July 2006. After Reflections' acquisition, the company continued to work on new Driver titles, with the latest being 2011's Driver: San Francisco. The studio then turned to become a support team to work on other titles such as Tom Clancy's The Division, worked on vehicle physics for other Ubisoft games, and experimented with smaller projects such as Grow Home.[1] The studio is managed by Pauline Jacquey.[41] Ubisoft Reflections works closely with Ubisoft Leamington.[1]

Ubisoft Sofia[edit]

Ubisoft Sofia was founded in 2006 in Sofia, Bulgaria. It had developed titles for handheld consoles, ranging from Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Shadow Wars, a turn-based tactics game for the Nintendo 3DS, to casual games such as Imagine: Fashion Designer and Chessmaster: The Art of Learning for handheld platform. The studio led the development of Assassin's Creed III: Liberation for the PlayStation Vita and Assassin's Creed Rogue for home consoles. The studio has more than 160 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Belgrade[edit]

Founded in November 2016,[42] Ubisoft Belgrade in Belgrade, Serbia, has worked on Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Wildlands' player-versus-player component, Steep: Road to the Olympics and The Crew 2. The studio develops post-launch content for Wildlands.[1]

Massive Entertainment[edit]

Massive Entertainment building

Massive Entertainment was founded in 1997 in Malmö, Sweden. Formerly a subsidiary of Vivendi Universal Games, Massive has placed most of its focus on developing real-time strategy games like Ground Control and World in Conflict. It was acquired by Ubisoft in March 2008.[43] Following the acquisition, Massive Entertainment worked on Uplay, Ubisoft's digital distribution platform, and developed Just Dance Now.[1] The company also developed the Snowdrop engine, and used it in Tom Clancy's The Division and its upcoming sequel, The Division 2, as well as an upcoming video game based on the Avatar film series.[1][44]

Ketchapp[edit]

Ketchapp was founded in 2014 in Paris, France, by brothers Michel and Antoine Morcos, specialising in publishing games for the mobile games market. The company was acquired by Ubisoft in 2016.[1]

Ubisoft Kiev[edit]

Ubisoft Kiev was founded in 2008 in Kiev, Ukraine. The studio's focus is to port Ubisoft games to personal computers (PCs), and the studio has also worked on titles such as Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Future Soldier and Watch Dogs 2. Ubisoft Kiev partnered with Massive Entertainment on Uplay and frequently worked with RedLynx on Trials games. In 2016, the studio launched a quality control department for PC ports. Recently, Ubisoft Kiev has worked closely with Ubisoft Quebec on Assassin's Creed Odyssey's PC version, and with RedLynx on Trials Rising.[1]

Nadeo[edit]

Nadeo was founded in 2000 in Paris, France, and gained success with the racing game franchise TrackMania. The team focused on allowing players to create user-generated content and developed a network called ManiaPlanet. All games developed by Nadeo since Ubisoft's acquisition in 2009 were racing games, except for ShootMania Storm, a first-person shooter. Nadeo's latest title is TrackMania Turbo.[1]

RedLynx[edit]

RedLynx was founded in 2000 in Helsinki, Finland, and focuses on creating racing games with the Trials series. While the studio was developing Trials Evolution, it was acquired by Ubisoft in November 2011.[1][45] Following Ubisoft's acquisition, the company continued to work on new Trials instalments with Trials Fusion in 2014, Trials of the Blood Dragon in 2016, and Trials Rising in 2018. The studio has 145 employees.[1]

Owlient[edit]

Owlient is a video game studio founded in 2005 in Paris, France. The company focuses on creating free-to-play titles, with their most successful game being Howrse. Owlient was acquired by Ubisoft in 2011.[1]

Future Games of London[edit]

Future Games of London was founded in 2009 in London, England. The studio released Hungry Shark before Ubisoft's acquisition in October 2013.[46] The studio continues to work on new entries in the Hungry Shark series.[1]

Ivory Tower[edit]

Ivory Tower was founded in September 2007 in Lyon, France, by former employees of Eden Games, who had worked on Test Drive Unlimited.[47] Following the release of their first game, The Crew, the company was acquired by Ubisoft in October 2015. Ivory Tower also developed a sequel to the game, The Crew 2, which was released in 2018.[1]

Ubisoft Leamington[edit]

Ubisoft Leamington, formerly FreeStyleGames, was founded in Leamington Spa, England, in 2002 by six industry veterans formerly of Codemasters and Rare. The studio worked on popular music games such as DJ Hero and Sing Party while it was owned by Activision. After the commercial failure of Guitar Hero Live, Activision sold the studio to Ubisoft, which directed the studio to work with Ubisoft Reflections.[48] The studio has 50 employees and works closely with Ubisoft Reflections.[1]

Ubisoft Bordeaux[edit]

Ubisoft Bordeaux was founded in September 2017 in Bordeaux, France.[1] It serves as a support studio and collaborates with the Annecy, Paris and Montpellier studios on their future titles. The studio is headed by Julien Mayeux.[49] The studio has more than 100 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Stockholm[edit]

Ubisoft Stockholm was founded in 2017 in Stockholm, Sweden. Led by Patrick Bach, the studio will collaborate with Massive Entertainment on the upcoming Avatar video game.[1][50]

Ubisoft Berlin[edit]

Ubisoft Berlin was opened in early 2018 in Berlin, Germany, with a focus on co-development. The company will develop on games in the Far Cry franchise.[1]

Ubisoft Odesa[edit]

Ubisoft Odesa was founded in Odessa, Ukraine, in March 2018. As the second studio in Ukraine, it will work alongside Ubisoft Kiev on games such as the Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon series and Trials Rising.[51] The studio consists of 20 people.[1]

i3D.net[edit]

It was announced in November 2018 that Ubisoft would be acquiring Dutch server hosting company i3D.net. The acquisition is expected to close before the end of the 2018-19 fiscal year.[52]

Asia[edit]

Ubisoft Shanghai[edit]

Ubisoft Shanghai was founded in 1996 in Shanghai, and has become one of China's largest development studios. The studio has worked as the support team for many of Ubisoft's projects, such as the Far Cry franchise, working on wildlife animation and artificial intelligence.[1]

Ubisoft Singapore[edit]

Ubisoft Singapore was formed in 2008 as Ubisoft's first in-house studio in South-East Asia, located on the Fusionopolis complex in Singapore. Having served as a support studio, working on games such as Prince of Persia: The Forgotten Sands and Assassin's Creed II, the company worked on the naval combat of Assassin's Creed III before significantly expanding it with Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag and Assassin's Creed Rogue. The company is also responsible for making the AAA multiplayer online shooting game Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Phantoms, released in 2014 and closed in December 2016. After the closure of Ghost Recon Phantoms, the studio's creative director, Justin Farren, came to Ubisoft's E3 2017 press conference to announce their new IP named Skull & Bones, the development of which it would lead. The game is scheduled to be released in 2018.[53] Ubisoft Singapore has 300 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Pune[edit]

Ubisoft Pune in Pune, India, was originally part of Gameloft, a mobile game developer and publisher, until Ubisoft acquired it in 2008, at which point it had 35 members. The studio then worked on several Just Dance titles, mobile titles, ported to other console such as Nintendo Switch, and provided quality assurance tests for many Ubisoft games. The studio has over 750 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Osaka[edit]

Ubisoft Osaka, formerly known as Digital Kids, was founded in Osaka, Japan. It was acquired by Ubisoft in 2008, and has since created many handheld titles, including Petz. The studio collaborates with Ubisoft San Francisco.[1]

Ubisoft Chengdu[edit]

Ubisoft Chengdu was founded in 2008 in Chengdu, as Ubisoft's second studio in China. The studio also served as a support studio, working on games such as Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: The Game, and provided Chinese localisation services for games like Might & Magic: Duel of Champions. Ubisoft Chengdu led the development of Monkey King Escape, a mobile title, and casual games Scrabble (2013), Uno (2017) and Wheel of Fortune. The studio has over 200 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Abu Dhabi[edit]

Ubisoft Abu Dhabi was founded in 2011 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, with the goal of fostering the video game industry in the country. The studio focuses on working on mobile titles, such as the CSI series, and maintain Growtopia, a game Ubisoft acquired in 2017. The studio has over 50 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Philippines[edit]

Ubisoft Philippines was founded in 2016 as the first major game studio in the Philippines.[54] The studio is located on the campus of De La Salle University in Santa Rosa, Laguna, and develops new AAA games alongside Ubisoft Singapore.[1][55] The studio has 100 employees.[1]

Ubisoft Mumbai[edit]

Ubisoft Mumbai was established in Mumbai in June 2018, and is the second studio in India after Ubisoft Pune. It will work alongside Ubisoft Pune as well as collaborate with local universities.[51]

Former[edit]

Related Designs[edit]

Related Designs Software GmbH was located in Mainz, Germany. The company was established by Thomas Pottkämper, Burkhard Ratheise, Thomas Stein and Jens Vielhaben in 1995, then based in Pottkämper's parents' house in Mainz' Nackenheim district.[56] On 11 April 2007, Ubisoft acquired a 30% stake in Related Designs, alongside the rights to the Related Designs-developed Anno series.[57][58] In May 2008, they had 50 employees.[59] On 11 April 2013, Ubisoft acquired the remaining 70% and took total control over Related Designs.[60] From that point on, the company would develop projects in tandem with another German Ubisoft studio, Blue Byte.[61] Related Designs was merged into Blue Byte on 18 June 2014, becoming Blue Byte's first external studio.[62]

Sunflowers Interactive[edit]

Sunflowers Interactive Entertainment Software GmbH was founded in 1993 by Adi Boiko and Wilhelm Hamrozi, and was based in Heusenstamm, Germany.[63] The company was best known for creating and publishing the Anno series of real-time strategy games.[64] In December 2001, Sunflowers Interactive struck a four-year exclusivity deal with Bulgarian developer Black Sea Studios, which resulted in Knights of Honor (2004).[65] In March 2002, the company dismantled their entire internal development studio, shifting their focus onto third-party publishing.[66] To do so, they acquired a 30% stake in Berlin-based studio Spieleentwicklungskombinat [de].[66] Sunflowers Interactive furthermore signed a contract with Aspyr in August 2006, which gained them wider distribution of their games in North America.[67] Ubisoft announced on 11 April 2007 that they had acquired Sunflowers Interactive and the Anno series, of which the company would be merged into Ubisoft's own distribution arm.[57] Co-founder Boiko stated that he was satisfied with the acquisition, knowing that Ubisoft and Related Designs would be creating "something amazing".[68] However, both Boiko and Hamrozi stated that they did not want to work for Ubisoft, and planned to establish a new venture instead.[69][70]

Ubisoft Sao Paulo[edit]

Ubisoft Sao Paulo was located in São Paulo, Brazil. The studio's foundation was announced on 24 June 2008 with a planned opening with 20 employees set for late July 2008, seeking to employ about 200 total staff after a four-year lifespan.[71][72][73][74][75] Early on, studio head Bertrand Chaverot stated that Ubisoft was considering to open additional studios in Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis.[76] On 20 January 2009, it was announced that Ubisoft had acquired Porto Alegre-based Southlogic Studios, which was merged into Ubisoft Sao Paulo.[77][78][79] On 29 September 2010, Ubisoft reported that, due to a declining market interest in Nintendo DS games, the operations in Brazil would be re-evaluated, and that Ubisoft Sao Paulo's development facilities would be ramped down by the end of the year.[80][81]

Ubisoft Casablanca[edit]

Ubisoft Casablanca was opened in April 1998 in Casablanca, Morocco.[82][83] The studio's first production was the Nintendo 64 version of Donald Duck: Goin' Quackers.[82] Ubisoft Casablanca assisted the development of various games for portable platforms.[83] In June 2007, Ubisoft stated that they were to expand the studio by 150 people using government incentives.[84] Between 2008 and 2010, the studio also operated a campus that sought to train 300 game development graduates.[82] Ubisoft Casablanca was shuttered on 13 June 2016, following a shift in the marketplace, and the studio's position not being compatible with Ubisoft's plans going forward.[83] The studio previously employed 48 staff members and was the oldest video game studio in North Africa.[82] Companies set up by former Ubisoft Casablanca employees include developers TheWallGames founded by Yassine Arif, Rym Games by Imad Kharijah and Othman El Bahraoui, and Palm Grove Software by Khalil Arafan, as well as the collective Moroccan Game Developers founded in 2011 by Arif and Osama Hussain to promote video game development in Morocco.[82]

Ubisoft Zurich[edit]

Ubisoft Zurich began hiring for an unannounced free-to-play game in August 2011.[85] The company was set up by Yann Le Tensorer, who became its managing director, in Thalwil, a suburb of Zürich, Switzerland.[86] In an interview with Swiss magazine 20 Minuten, Le Tensorer explained that Ubisoft Zurich would be developing games with a focus on online gameplay.[87] He also stated that the company was planning to initially hire 20 people, and later expand the studio as the Swiss game development scene grew, as it was the case with Ubisoft Montreal.[87] However, in October 2013, Ubisoft announced that Ubisoft Zurich would be closed by the end of that month, citing the cancellation of the studio's only in-development game as reason for the closure.[88] 16 people were laid off in the process, all of whom were offered positions in other Ubisoft studios.[88]

Wolfpack Studios[edit]

Wolfpack Studios Inc. was founded in Round Rock, Texas, in 1999 by J. Todd Coleman, together with high school friend James Nance and college roommate Josef Hall, in 1999.[89][90] Ubisoft announced on 1 March 2004 that they had acquired Wolfpack Studios, which at the time had between 20 and 25 employees, for an undisclosed price.[91][92] All three founders left the company after the purchase, of which Coleman and Hall later joined KingsIsle Entertainment.[89] On 1 April 2006, Ubisoft announced that the company would be closed down on 15 May 2006.[93] Wolfpack Studios' only product was Shadowbane, which was released in March 2003.[93] Several former members of Wolfpack Studios established a successor, Stray Bullet Games, in the same offices on 1 June 2006.[93]

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