Williamsburg Bridge

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Williamsburg Bridge
Above Williamsburg Bridge crop.jpg
Seen in May 2007
Coordinates40°42′47″N 73°58′12″W / 40.713°N 73.97°W / 40.713; -73.97Coordinates: 40°42′47″N 73°58′12″W / 40.713°N 73.97°W / 40.713; -73.97
Carries8 lanes of roadway,
2 tracks of the "J" train "M" train "Z" train​ trains of the New York City Subway,
pedestrians, and bicycles
CrossesEast River
LocaleManhattan and Brooklyn, in New York City
Maintained byNew York City Department of Transportation
ID number2240039[1]
Characteristics
DesignSuspension bridge and truss causeways
Total length7,308 feet (2,227 m)
Width118 feet (36 m)
Longest span1,600 feet (490 m)
Clearance above10 feet 6 inches (3.2 m) (inner roadways only)
Clearance below135 feet (41 m) at mean high water
History
ArchitectHenry Hornbostel
DesignerLeffert L. Buck
OpenedDecember 19, 1903; 114 years ago (December 19, 1903)
Statistics
Daily traffic105,465 (2016)[2]
TollFree
Wpdms ISS002E6333 williamsburg bridge.jpg
The bridge connects the Lower East Side neighborhood in Manhattan with the Williamsburg neighborhood in Brooklyn.

The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278). It once carried New York State Route 27A and was planned to carry Interstate 78, though the planned I-78 designation was aborted by the cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway and Bushwick Expressway.

The bridge is one of four toll-free crossings between Manhattan and Long Island. The others are the Queensboro, Manhattan, and Brooklyn Bridges.

History[edit]

Construction[edit]

Historical film clip of a procession during the opening of the Williamsburg Bridge in 1903

Construction on the "East River Bridge", the second across the East River, began in 1896. The new bridge was to be built north of the Grand Street Ferry, terminating at Delancey and Clinton Streets on the Manhattan side and at South Fifth Street and Driggs Avenue on the Brooklyn side.[3][4] Leffert L. Buck was the chief engineer, Henry Hornbostel was the architect, and Holton D. Robinson was the assistant engineer.[5]

Engineers first constructed caissons on either side to support the future bridge.[3] The caisson on the Manhattan side was completed in May 1897,[6] upon which time the caisson on the Brooklyn side was launched.[7] The caissons were manufactured in a shipyard in Williamsburg.[8] In January 1898, Mayor Robert Anderson Van Wyck removed the members of the East River Bridge Commission due to "charges of extravagance".[9] A commission of six people appointed by the state was proposed, but the bill was rejected.[10]

As part of the Williamsburg Bridge's construction, the section of Delancey Street between the bridge's western end and the Bowery was widened. The portion of Spring Street between the Bowery and Lafayette Street was also expanded. This was the third plan for the bridge's western approaches that was publicly announced. Public opposition had caused the cancellation of previous proposals, which included a wide street extending from the end of the bridge to either Cooper Square or the intersection of Houston Street and Second Avenue.[11] To accommodate the bridge's approaches, 600 houses were demolished in total, including 330 on the Manhattan side and 270 on the Brooklyn side. More than 10,000 people were evicted from these houses during construction.[4]

The bridge's supporting wires were ready to be installed by February 1901.[12] The first temporary wires between the East River Bridge's two towers was strung on April 9, 1901. They were to be replaced later with permanent, thicker main cables on both sides of the bridge's deck.[13] The main cables were each 18.75 inches (47.6 cm) thick and made up of 7,696 smaller cables twisted together.[14] These cables had been fully strung by April 16, and work on the bridge's pedestrian deck begun soon afterward.[15] The pedestrian path on the East River Bridge was completed in June 1901.[16] Afterward, construction progressed at a fast pace, owing to the ease of manufacturing the steel.[4] Ornamental lights were also placed on the bridge.[17] The East River Bridge was renamed the "Williamsburg Bridge", after its Brooklyn terminus, in 1902.[18]

The bridge was damaged by fire while under construction in 1902.[19]

There were several deaths during construction. They included a worker who fell from the Manhattan approach in May 1900;[20] the main steelwork engineer, who fell from the Brooklyn approach in September 1900;[21] and a foreman who drowned in March 1902.[22] Additionally, a fire occurred on the Brooklyn side's tower in November 1902, which nearly severed the bridge's cables.[19]

The bridge opened on December 19, 1903, at a cost of $24,200,000 ($624 million in 2016).[23] At the time it was constructed, the Williamsburg Bridge set the record for the longest suspension bridge span in the world. The record stood until 1924, when the Bear Mountain Bridge was completed.

20th century[edit]

Originally, the Williamsburg Bridge was used mainly by trolley lines and railways (see § Rail tracks).[24] In January 1932, it was agreed to convert the pair of trolley tracks on the south side of the bridge to an 18-foot-wide (5.5 m) roadway.[25] These trolley tracks were closed because they were deemed "unsafe".[26] Three more concrete roadways were added in 1941 as part of a Works Progress Administration project.[27]

Rehabilitation[edit]

Decades of deferred maintenance caused the Williamsburg Bridge to deteriorate significantly. This was worsened by a design flaw during construction: instead of galvanizing the main cables to prevent their corrosion, workers placed a mixture of "slushing oil" as a cost-saving measure. By 1912, some of the smaller cables in the bridge's anchorages had already snapped.[14][28] In 1922, a galvanized sheath was placed around each of the main cables. However, damage still occurred, and in 1934, water in the main cables caused the wires to rust. In 1944 and again in 1963, workers pored oil treatments onto the cables in attempts to prevent the corrosion.[28] Workers later added several support towers on either side of the suspension span to supplement the main towers.[14] In 1969, inspectors found varying degrees of corrosion under the bridge's outer roadways.[29] A 1978 study of the Williamsburg Bridge, as well as of five other bridges in New York City, found that there were varying degrees of corrosion on the main cables' individual strands.[14][29] Cracks were also found in the bridge structure itself. Out of the six bridges examined in 1978, the Williamsburg Bridge was the only crossing that was found to have corroded suspension cables.[28]

A subsequent study concluded that the bridge needed either new cables or a replacement. It was decided to replace the cables because that was cheaper than a wholesale replacement.[14] However, engineers also considered the option of replacing the bridge if the cable replacement project became too expensive.[30] The cable replacement was also complex, since the process had to occur while the bridge was still in operation.[28]

The bridge continued to decay: in May 1987, two support bars fell from the outer roadway.[31] By January 1988, it was determined that the four main suspension cables were only two-thirds as strong as they were supposed to be. Without any maintenance, the main cables would only be able to hold up the span until 1995. The New York State Department of Transportation applied for funding to rebuild the bridge, which was projected to cost $250 million and take ten years. Every third rope in the suspension had already been replaced in 1985.[14] However, more than 200 cables in the suspension had snapped, and pieces of concrete were falling from the bridge. The bridge's structural integrity was rated as 1.6 out of a scale of 1 to 7.

Inspectors were appointed to monitor the bridge's status and make temporary bridge closures based on the amount of stress placed on the bridge.[32] The bridge was closed to motor vehicle traffic and subway trains on April 11, 1988, after a painter noticed a large hole in a girder; upon further review, inspectors also discovered severe corrosion in a floor beam.[33] An inspection in May 1988 found 290 "flag conditions" where the steelwork of the bridge could malfunction, potentially causing the bridge to collapse. Most of these "flags" were limited to the approaches, but one flag condition was found in the elevated subway structure within the suspension span.[34] The Williamsburg Bridge was partially reopened at the end of May, in time for the Memorial Day holiday.[35] Mayor Ed Koch decided that it would be cheaper to rebuild the bridge rather than replace it.[36] To alleviate the loads on the bridge, it was reopened in three phases: first to cars, then to subways, and finally to trucks.[37]

The bridge was rebuilt through much of the 1990s and 2000s. The cast iron stairway on the Manhattan side, and the steep ramp from Driggs Avenue on the Williamsburg side, were replaced to allow handicapped access per the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. A decrepit walkway on the Williamsburg Bridge was closed in June 1991, and it reopened as a bike path in March 1992.[38] Since the new bike path opened, the bridge has become the most heavily bicycled span in North America.[39] Cable replacement started in April 1992.[40] The subway tracks along the bridge were closed in April 1999 to allow the reconstruction of the subway structure.[41] The tracks reopened in September of that year.[42] Also in 1999, Gandhi Engineering designed and rebuilt the other pedestrian pathway along the Williamsburg Bridge.[43] The rebuilt walkways carried both pedestrian and bike traffic because the pathways were only 12 feet (3.7 m) wide, and were too narrow to carry segregated traffic.[44] The final two vehicular lanes on the renovated span were reopened in 2002.[45]

21st century[edit]

A celebration was held on June 22, 2003, to mark the 100th anniversary of the bridge, and the area surrounding Continental Army Plaza was filled with musical performers, exhibits on the history of the bridge, and street vendors. Dignitaries marched across the bridge carrying the 45-star American flag used in a game of capture the flag played by workers after the placement of the final cable in June 1902. A truck-sized birthday cake was specially made for the event by Domino Sugar, which had a factory on the East River waterfront near the bridge.[46] The ornamental lights on the bridge were re-lighted in November of that year after being turned off for eight months due to a lack of funds.[47]

The bridge was designated as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 2009.[48]

In 2016, a local resident launched a campaign to rename the bridge for jazz musician Sonny Rollins, who practiced on the bridge almost every day from 1959 to 1961, while he was living on the Lower East Side of Manhattan.[49][50] His 1962 album The Bridge, produced on his return from retirement, was named after the bridge.[51]

Between April 2019 and June 2020, during the 14th Street Tunnel shutdown, traffic restrictions would be implemented on the Williamsburg Bridge during the daytime.[52] The restrictions would take place seven days a week between 5 a.m. and 10 p.m. The bridge would be restricted to buses, trucks, and vehicles with more than 3 passengers during these times.[53][54] The peak-hour high-occupancy vehicle restriction would allow the Williamsburg Bridge to accommodate three Select Bus Service bus rapid transit routes between Brooklyn and Manhattan.[55][56][57] It was projected that during the shutdown, 70 buses in each direction would travel across the Williamsburg Bridge every hour.[58] This was later revised upward to 80 buses per hour.[52]:38

Description[edit]

The Williamsburg Bridge has an unconventional structure among suspension bridges; though the main span hangs from cables in the usual manner, the side spans leading to the approaches are supported by trusswork, drawing no support from the cables above.[48] The main span of the bridge is 1,600 feet (490 m) long. The entire bridge is 7,308 feet (2,227 m) long, including approaches, and the deck is 118 feet (36 m) wide.[4][59] The height at the center of the bridge is 135 feet (41 m) and each tower is 310 feet (94 m),[60][61] with these measurements being taken from the river's surface at high-water mark.

The Brooklyn landing is between Grand Street and Broadway, which both had ferries prior to the bridge's construction. The five ferry routes operated from the landings went out of business by 1908.[62]

The bridge once carried New York State Route 27A. Had the Lower Manhattan Expressway been built, the Williamsburg Bridge would have been designated Interstate 78.

In reference to the area’s large Yiddish-speaking population, a sign on the westbound approach to the bridge reads, "Leaving Brooklyn: Oy Vey!" Another sign says "Leaving Brooklyn, Fuhgeddaboudit!"[63] The two signs were proposed by former Brooklyn borough president Marty Markowitz in the early 2000s.[64]

Full span, as seen from Wallabout Bay with Greenpoint and Long Island City in background

Art[edit]

The 1928 Edward Hopper painting From Williamsburg Bridge depicts a building as seen from the bridge's walkway. The building has since been demolished, and the walkway has been reconstructed.[65]

In 1996, artist Chris Doyle gilded the steps to the pedestrian walkway of the bridge. The project, known as "Commutable", was sponsored by the Public Art Fund, and transformed the decrepit and dangerous stairway into a monument to the thousands of everyday bicycle and walking commuters.[66][67]

Rail tracks[edit]

The Williamsburg and Manhattan bridges are the only suspension bridges in New York City that still carry both automobile and rail traffic. On the Williamsburg Bridge, there were once two sets of trolley tracks (four tracks in total), in addition to the two subway tracks currently on the bridge that connect the New York City Subway's BMT Nassau Street Line and BMT Jamaica Line.[68]

View of tracks on the bridge
The J train on the bridge's tracks, seen before sunrise

Two tracks on the south side carried streetcars from the Brooklyn side:[69]

Two north-side tracks carried Manhattan streetcars:

The rapid transit tracks in the center of the bridge were initially used by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) elevated railroad. Today, the New York City Subway's J, M, and Z​ trains, successors to the BRT/BMT lines, use these tracks at the following times:

  Time period
"J" train All times
"M" train All times except late nights
"Z" train Rush hours in peak direction

In 1995, a collision between a J train and an M train occurred on the bridge tracks, killing the J train's motorman.[73] The crash led to widespread changes in the subway's signaling system.[74][75]

Plazas[edit]

Continental Army Plaza

At the foot of the bridge in Williamsburg between South 5th Place and Havemeyer Street in Brooklyn are three public areas that, collectively, comprise the Williamsburg Bridge Plaza, also known as Washington Plaza or George Washington Monument Park. It contains Continental Army Plaza and LaGuardia Playground, both operated by the Parks Department, as well as the Williamsburg Bridge Plaza Bus Terminal, which serves numerous bus lines to Brooklyn and Queens.[76] The plaza is named after the large statue of George Washington in Continental Army Plaza erected in 1906.[77]

In popular culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/dot_bridgereport15.pdf
  2. ^ "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 9. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "The New East River Bridge" (PDF). The New York Times. 1897-07-25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  4. ^ a b c d "RAPID CONSTRUCTION OF NEW EAST RIVER BRIDGE; To be Finished About the Same Time as the Underground Road and to Relieve the Present Pressure on the Old Structure" (PDF). The New York Times. 1902-02-16. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  5. ^ "Williamsburg Bridge". NYV Roads. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  6. ^ "EAST RIVER BRIDGE WORK.; One of the Caissons Completed -- Its Launching Will Be Celebrated -- Why Progress Is Slow" (PDF). The New York Times. 1897-05-07. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  7. ^ "BRIDGE CAISSON LAUNCHED.; Hydraulic Jacks and Three Powerful Sea-Going Tugs Were Used" (PDF). The New York Times. 1897-05-16. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  8. ^ "BUILDING BRIDGE CAISSONS.; Their Construction Described -- How They Will Be Sunk -- Atmospheric Density in the Air Chambers" (PDF). The New York Times. 1897-03-28. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  9. ^ "EAST RIVER BRIDGE AFFAIRS.; Mayor Van Wyck's Charges of Extravagance Denied on Behalf of the Old Commissioners" (PDF). The New York Times. 1898. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  10. ^ "NO STATE BRIDGE COMMISSION.; Assemblyman Brennan's East River Bill Defeated in the Senate" (PDF). The New York Times. 1899-04-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  11. ^ "NEW BRIDGE APPROACHES; Plan to Widen Delancey and Spring Streets Approved" (PDF). The New York Times. 1901-04-09. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  12. ^ "WIRE STRAND FOR NEW EAST RIVER BRIDGE; It Will Probably Be Strung Across in About a Week. Then the First Foot Bridge Will Be Completed and the Work of Cable Construction Rushed" (PDF). The New York Times. 1901-02-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  13. ^ "WIRES LAID FOR THE NEW EAST RIVER BRIDGE; Strands for the Temporary Structure Carried Across the Water" (PDF). The New York Times. 1901-04-10. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Boorstin, Robert O. (1987-01-26). "A Critical Point for Bridge Repair Plan 921:56,813>". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  15. ^ "WIRE CABLES NOW IN PLACE.; Last of Foot Bridge Supports for East River Structure Raised" (PDF). The New York Times. 1901-04-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  16. ^ "CROSSED EAST RIVER BRIDGE.; Footpath Is Completed, and Representatives of the Contractors Walked Over It" (PDF). The New York Times. 1901-06-05. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  17. ^ "NEW IDEAS FOR BRIDGE LIGHTS; Electric Lamps to Span the East River Like Necklaces of Pearls" (PDF). The New York Times. 1902-10-05. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  18. ^ "ALDERMEN'S LIVELY WAR; New East River Bridges Named by the Board. Commissioner Woodbury Attacked and His Resolution for a Brooklyn Deputy Lost -- The Chairman Denounced" (PDF). The New York Times. March 19, 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  19. ^ a b "EAST RIVER BRIDGE TOWER IN FLAMES; Great Cables of Williamsburg Structure Endangered. PASSING CRAFT IN PERIL Rain of Fiery Bolts from Blazing Shanties Over 300 Feet in the Air. Fireman Struck by White Hot Iron Bolt -- Two Companies of Fire Fighters Cut Off Part Way Up Manhattan Tower -- Man Reported Missing" (PDF). The New York Times. 1902-11-11. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  20. ^ "TWO MEN FALL SEVENTY FEET.; One Killed, Other Terribly Injured at New East River Bridge Anchorage" (PDF). The New York Times. 1900-05-12. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  21. ^ "FELL 85 FEET TO DEATH; Chief Engineer C.E. Bedell Slips Off New Bridge Span. Ambulance Surgeon Refused to Take the Dying Man to Hospital Unless Paid $5" (PDF). The New York Times. 1900-09-29. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  22. ^ "WORKMAN DROPS 168 FEET FROM EAST RIVER BRIDGE.; George Shauer Is Drowned Before Boats Reach Him -- Foreman Says Police Patrol Boat Had No Guard" (PDF). The New York Times. 1902-03-25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  23. ^ "NEW BRIDGE IN A GLORY OF FIRE; Wind-Up of Opening Ceremonies a Brilliant Scene. BIG FLEET IN PARADE Daylight Dedication Ceremonies and Night Spectacle Witnessed by Immense Crowds -- Enthusiasm on Both Sides of the River" (PDF). The New York Times. 1903-12-20. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  24. ^ "BEST TELLS HOW CARS WILL CROSS BRIDGE; Commissioner Says Traffic Will Be Handled "Reasonably." 3-CENT FARE ON BRIDGE CARS Underground Trolleys to Have Two Tracks -- Brooklyn System to Get Another Pair" (PDF). The New York Times. 1904-06-04. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  25. ^ "AUTO ROAD PLANNED OR EAST RIVER SPAN; City Moves to Convert Two Abandoned Trolley Lines Into Traffic Lanes. MANY AWAIT OLD CARS But B.M.T. Runs Extra Trolleys Across Williamsburg Bridge to Care for Rush" (PDF). The New York Times. January 22, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  26. ^ "BANS TROLLEY LINES ON EAST RIVER SPAN; Transit Board Orders Service Across Williamsburg Bridge Discontinued Today. TRACKS ARE HELD UNSAFE B.M.T. Is Ordered to Provide Ex- tra Trains for 5,000 Using the Two Abandoned Routs Daily" (PDF). The New York Times. 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  27. ^ "NEW BRIDGE LANES OPENED; Williamsburg Span Traffic Using Three Extra Roadways" (PDF). The New York Times. 1941-07-11. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  28. ^ a b c d Levine, Richard (1987-08-19). "A Bridge Dilemma: Patch It or Scrap It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  29. ^ a b Johnson, Kirk (1988-06-10). "A History of Corrosion at Points 15B-17B". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  30. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (1983-10-16). "Replacing of Williamsburg Bridge Is Studied". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  31. ^ French, Howard W. (1987-05-10). "Two Steel Support Bars Fall from Williamsburg Bridge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  32. ^ "The Harder They Fall: Someone left the Williamsburgh Bridge out in the rain," New York Daily News Magazine, (April 10, 1988) p.12
  33. ^ Lyall, Sarah (April 13, 1988). "The Williamsburg Bridge Is Shut For 2 Weeks as Cracks Are Found". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  34. ^ Johnson, Kirk (1988-05-10). "Corrosion on the Williamsburg Is Mainly on Approach Roads". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  35. ^ Johnson, Kirk (1988-05-27). "Williamsburg Is Reopened For Cars Only". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  36. ^ Johnson, Kirk (1988-06-09). "Koch Plans To Rebuild Rusted Bridge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  37. ^ Johnson, Kirk (1988-05-14). "Williamsburg Bridge To Open in 3 Phases Starting in 3 Weeks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  38. ^ Fisher, Ian (1992-03-09). "WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE JOURNAL; For Brooklyn Neighborhood, at Long Last, the Way Is Clear". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  39. ^ "Williamsburg Bridge, New York, NY". Bikes Belong. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  40. ^ "Rehabilitation of Williamsburg Bridge Cables Begins". The New York Times. 1992-04-08. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  41. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (1999-04-27). "Straphangers Prepare to Make Do With One Less Bridge to Cross". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  42. ^ Williams, Monte (1999-09-01). "Subway Service to Resume On the Williamsburg Bridge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  43. ^ "Project Detail (221)".
  44. ^ Bahrampour, Tara (2002-12-29). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE; Bicyclists and Pedestrians Choose a Path That's Right, but It May Turn Out Wrong". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  45. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer; Ramirez, Anthony (2002-06-11). "Metro Briefing | New York: Manhattan: Bridge Lanes To Reopen". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  46. ^ Mitchell, Ellen (June 19, 2003). "A 100-Year Span Gets Its Big Moment". Newsday.
  47. ^ Feuer, Alan (2003-11-01). "Bridges' 'Necklace Lights' to Return". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  48. ^ a b "Williamsburg Bridge". ASCE Metropolitan Section. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  49. ^ Petrusich, Amanda (April 5, 2017). "A Quest to Rename the Williamsburg Bridge for Sonny Rollins". newyorker.com. The New Yorker. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  50. ^ "A Quest to Rename the Williamsburg Bridge". wnyc.org. The Brian Lehrer Show. October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  51. ^ a b Rollins, Sonny (April 23, 2015). "Sax and Sky". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  52. ^ a b New York City Transit Authority (July 2018). "MTA New York City Transit Canarsie Tunnel Project Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Section 4(f) Review: Final Report" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  53. ^ Rivoli, Dan (2018-06-25). "14th St. to become a 'busway' for most of day during L train shutdown". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  54. ^ New York City Transit Authority (July 2018). "MTA New York City Transit Canarsie Tunnel Project Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Section 4(f) Review: Appendices" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  55. ^ "L train shutdown to close portion of 14th Street to cars during rush hour: MTA". New York's PIX11 / WPIX-TV. December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  56. ^ Walker, Ameena (December 13, 2017). "Long-awaited L train shutdown plan finally released". Curbed NY. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  57. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (December 13, 2017). "Rerouting Thousands: City Plans for L Train Closure". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
  58. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (April 3, 2018). "With L Train Shutdown a Year Off, Lower Manhattan Braces for Upheaval". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  59. ^ "Williamsburg Bridge: Historic Overview" NYC Roads
  60. ^ "Infrastructure: Williamsburg Bridge" New York City Department of Transportation website
  61. ^ "Williamsburg Bridge". SkyscraperPage.
  62. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (1990). Over and Back: The History of Ferryboats in New York Harbor. New York: Fordam University Press. pp. 175–179. ISBN 0-8232-1245-9.
  63. ^ Bahrampour, Tara (2004-02-29). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: BROOKLYN UP CLOSE; Last Exit to Brooklyn, Brought to You by Marty". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  64. ^ Enman, Scott (2016-05-26). "Here's where Brooklyn's unique 'Fuhgeddaboudit,' 'Oy Vey' signs come from". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  65. ^ a b "Edward Hopper". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  66. ^ a b Weber, Bruce (September 11, 1996) "Artist Transforms Bleak Bridge Walk Into Urban Dream" The New York Times
  67. ^ a b "Commutable" on the Public Art Fund website
  68. ^ Staff (December 19, 1903). "Construction of the Bridge". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  69. ^ Brennan, Joseph. "Williamsburg Bridge Railway Terminal". Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  70. ^ a b c d "Through Trolley Service on Bridge". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. February 15, 1931. p. 16. Retrieved January 19, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
  71. ^ a b "Rush On New Bridge: Sunday Crowds Necessitated Extra Cars. Most Patrons Traveled to Brownsville". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 7, 1904. p. 2. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  72. ^ a b "Through Service on Bridge to End" (PDF). The New York Times. November 22, 1923. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  73. ^ Rob Speyer; Lisa Rein; Al Baker; Laura A. Fahrenthold; Debra McGrath-kerr; John Marzulli; Laurie C. Merrill; Samson Mulugeta; Gene Mustain; Chris Oliver; Tom Robbins; Joel Siegel; Corky Siemaszko; Larry Sutton (June 6, 1995). "J train slams into the M train, killing the driver and injuring 54 in 1995". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  74. ^ Martinez, Jose (March 20, 2018). "MTA weighs ending intentional slowing of trains in effect since deadly 1995 crash". Spectrum News NY1 | New York City. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  75. ^ Edroso, Roy (March 13, 2018). "'The Trains Are Slower Because They Slowed the Trains Down'". Village Voice. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  76. ^ "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Williamsburg and Bedford Stuyvesant" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  77. ^ Waite, Thomas L. (February 20, 1989). "About-Face for 'Valley Forge' Statue? Maybe". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  78. ^ 'Fighting Death' at the American Film Institute Catalog Retrieved February 24, 2016]
  79. ^ Staff (July 12, 2001) "Daring Aerialist Seanna Sharpe Arrested After Scaling, Performing On Williamsburg Bridge" CBS New York

References[edit]

  • Barbas, Jamey A. (October 2000). "Saving the Williamsburg Bridge". Civil Engineering: 64–67.
  • Bruschi, Maria Gracia (March 1996). "Preserving Williamsburg's Cables". Civil Engineering: 36–39.
  • Mondello, Frank J. (January 1989). "Inspecting and Evaluating New York's East River Suspension Bridge Cables". Public Works.

External links[edit]