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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s|
|Years:||1842 1843 1844 – 1845 – 1846 1847 1848|
|1845 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2598|
|British Regnal year||8 Vict. 1 – 9 Vict. 1|
— to —乙巳年十二月初三日
|- Vikram Samvat||1901–1902|
|- Shaka Samvat||1767–1768|
|- Kali Yuga||4946–4947|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||845–846|
|Japanese calendar||Kōka 2
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||67 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2388|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1845|
- January 23 – The United State Congress establishes a uniform date for federal elections, which will henceforth be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
- January 29 – "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe is published for the first time (New York Evening Mirror).
- February 1 – Anson Jones, President of the Republic of Texas, signs the charter officially creating Baylor University. Baylor is the oldest university in the State of Texas operating under its original name.
- February 6 – Potato blight breaks out in Ireland: beginning of the Great Famine.
- February 7 – In the British Museum, a drunken visitor smashes the Portland Vase, which takes months to repair.
- February 28 – The United States Congress approves the annexation of Texas.
- March 1 – President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the United States to annex the Republic of Texas.
- March 3 – Florida is admitted as the 27th U.S. state.
- March 4
- March 11 – Flagstaff War: Chiefs Kawiti and Hone Heke lead 700 Māoris in the burning of the British colonial settlement of Kororareka (now known as Russell, New Zealand).
- March 13 – The Violin Concerto by Felix Mendelssohn premieres in Leipzig, with Ferdinand David as soloist.
- March 17 – The rubber band is invented in England.
- March 30 – Due to different transition dates to the Gregorian calendar, Finland (then part of the Russian Empire) is the only place in the world to have Easter day on this particular Sunday.
- April 10 – A great fire destroys much of the American city of Pittsburgh.
- April 20 – Ramón Castilla becomes president of Peru.
- May – Frederick Douglass's Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave written by himself is published by the Boston Anti-Slavery Society.
- May 2 – A suspension bridge collapses in Great Yarmouth, England, leaving around 80 dead, mostly children.
- May 19 – HMS Erebus and HMS Terror with 134 men, comprising Sir John Franklin's expedition to find the Northwest Passage, sail from Greenhithe on the Thames. They will last be seen in August entering Baffin Bay.
- May 30 – Fatel Razack(1856)Fath Al Razack , Victory of Allah the Provider, Arabic: قتح الرزاق) was the first ship to bring indentured labourers from India to Trinidad.  When the British decided they were going to bring Indians to Trinidad in 1845, most of the traditional British ship owners did not wish to be involved. The ship was originally named Cecrops, but upon delivery it was renamed to Fath Al Razack. The ship left Calcutta on February 16, 1845 and landed in the Gulf of Paria on May 30, 1845 with 227 immigrants.
- July 4 Delegates meet in Austin to create a state constitution.
- July 7 – Jules Perrot presents Pas de Quatre to an enthusiastic London audience.
- July 20 – Charles Sturt enters the Simpson Desert in central Australia.
- July 26–August 10 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s iron steamship Great Britain makes the Transatlantic Crossing from Liverpool to New York, the first screw propelled vessel to make the passage.
- August 9 – The Aberdeen Act is signed as part of the abolition of the African slave trade.
- August 10 – The French Consul in Zanzibar (M. Broquant) receives the final letter sent by Eugène Maizan during his expedition into tropical Africa.
- August 28 – The journal Scientific American begins publication.
- September 18 – Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata formally declared.
- September 25 – The Phi Alpha Literary Society is founded.
- October 9 – The eminent and controversial Anglican, John Henry Newman, is received into the Roman Catholic Church.
- October 10 – In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (later renamed the United States Naval Academy) opens with fifty midshipmen and seven professors.
- October 13 – A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution, that if accepted by the United States Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.
- October 21 – The New York Herald becomes the first newspaper to mention the game of baseball.
- October 22 – The New York Morning News becomes the first newspaper to include a box-score of a baseball game.
- November 20 – Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata: Battle of Vuelta de Obligado: The Argentine Confederation is narrowly defeated by an Anglo-French fleet on the waters of the Paraná River but Argentina attracts political support in South America.
- December 2 – Manifest Destiny: U.S. President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the Monroe Doctrine should be strictly enforced and that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.
- December 5 – The Templars of Honor and Temperance is founded in the United States.
- December 6 – Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity is founded.
- December 22–December 23 – Battle of Ferozeshah: British forces defeat Sikhs in Punjab.
- December 27 – Anesthesia is used for childbirth for the first time (Dr. Crawford Long in Jefferson, Georgia).
- December 27 – American journalist John L. O'Sullivan claims in a newspaper article that the United States have a "Manifest Destiny" to expand their borders. It is the second time he uses the term and will have a huge influence on the American imperialistic movement of the century.
- December 29 – Texas is admitted as the 28th U.S. state.
- December 30 – Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Cork, and Galway are incorporated in Ireland.
Date unknown 
- The Republic of Yucatán separates for a second time from Mexico.
- Ephraim Bee reveals that the Emperor of China has given him a special dispensation: that he has entrusted him with certain sacred and mysterious rituals through Caleb Cushing, the U.S. Commissioner to China, to "extend the work and influence of the Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampus Vitus" in the New World.
- In the United States Magazine and Democratic Review editor John L. O'Sullivan declares that foreign powers are trying to prevent American annexation of Texas in order to impede "the fullfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions".
- Elizabeth Barret Browning writes her Sonnets from the Portuguese (1845–1846).
- Heinrich Hoffmann publishes a book introducing his character Struwwelpeter, in Germany.
- Frederick Douglass publishes his autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.
- February 14 – Quintin Hogg, British philanthropist (d. 1903)
- February 15 – Elihu Root, American statesman and diplomat, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1937)
- February 25 – George Reid, fourth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1918)
- March 3 – Georg Cantor, German mathematician (d. 1918)
- March 4 – Henry Clay Taylor, American admiral (d. 1904)
- March 10 – Emperor Alexander III of Russia (d. 1894)
- March 20 – Victor Child Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey, 18th Governor of New South Wales (d. 1915)
- March 27 – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923)
- April 24 – Carl Spitteler, Swiss writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1924)
- May 9 – Gustaf de Laval, Swedish engineer and inventor (d. 1913)
- May 12 – Gabriel Fauré, French composer (d. 1924)
- May 14 – Charles J. Train, American admiral (d. 1906)
- May 16 – Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Russian microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1916)
- May 17 – Jacint Verdaguer, Catalan poet (d. 1902)
- May 25 – Eugène Grasset, Swiss-born artist (d. 1917)
- May 30 – King Amadeo I of Spain (d. 1890)
- June 7 – Leopold Auer, Hungarian violinist and composer (d. 1930)
- June 16 – Heinrich Dressel, German archaeologist (d. 1920)
- June 18 – Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, French physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1922)
- July 4 – Thomas John Barnardo, Irish philanthropist (d. 1905)
- July 18 – Tristan Corbière, French poet (d. 1875)
- July 19 – Horatio Nelson Young, American naval hero (d. 1913)
- August 10 – Abay Qunanbayuli, Kazakh poet (d. 1904)
- August 19 – Edmond James de Rothschild, French philanthropist (d. 1934)
- August 25 – King Ludwig II of Bavaria (d. 1886)
- September 9 – Warner B. Bayley, United States Navy rear admiral (d. 1928)
- October 13 – Charles Stockton, American admiral (d. 1924)
- October 21 – William McKendree Carleton, American poet (d. 1912)
- November 3 – Edward Douglass White, 9th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1921)
- November 4 – Vasudev Balwant Phadke, Indian revolutionary (d. 1883)
- November 9 – Elizabeth Reed, subject of The Allman Brothers Band song "In Memory of Elizabeth Reed"
- November 10 – John Sparrow David Thompson, Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1894)
- December 9 – Joel Chandler Harris, American writer (d. 1908)
- February 13 – Henrik Steffens, Norwegian philosopher (b. 1773)
- March – Nicolás Espinoza, Head of State of El Salvador (b. 1795)
- March 18 – Johnny Appleseed, American pioneer (b. 1774)
- March 19 – Seku Amadu, founder of the Fula Massina Empire (b. 1773)
- April 10 – Dr. Thomas Sewall, American anatomist (b. 1786)
- May 12 – János Batsányi, Hungarian poet (b. 1763)
- May 15 – Braulio Carrillo Colina, Costa Rican Head of State (b. 1800)
- June 4 – Lasse-Maja, notorious Swedish criminal (b. 1785)
- June 8 – Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States (b. 1767)
- July 12
- July 17 – Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1764)
- August 23 – Rafael Urdaneta, hero of the Latin American War of Independence (b. 1788)
- October 12 – Elizabeth Fry, British humanitarian (b. 1780)
- October 26 – Lady Nairne, Scottish songwriter (b. 1766)
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 267–268. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "The Great Yarmouth Suspension Bridge Disaster – May 2nd 1845". Broadland Memories. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. p. 549. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
- Fox, Stephen (2003). Transatlantic: Samuel Cunard, Isambard Brunel, and the Great Atlantic Steamships. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019595-3.
- "Great Britain". The Ships List. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Giraud, Victor (1890). Les lacs de l'Afrique Équatoriale : voyage d'exploration exécuté de 1883 à 1885 (in French). Paris: Librairie Hachette et Cie. p. 31.
- "E. Clampus Vitus". 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.