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Breakfast is the first meal taken after rising from a night's sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work. Among English speakers, "breakfast" can be used to refer to this meal or to refer to a meal composed of traditional breakfast foods (such as eggs, oatmeal and sausage) served at any time of day. The word literally refers to breaking the fasting period of the prior night.
Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often include a carbohydrate such as grains or cereals, fruit and/or vegetables, a protein food such as eggs, meat or fish, and a beverage such as tea, coffee, milk or fruit juice. Coffee, milk, tea, juice, breakfast cereals, pancakes, sausages, French toast, bacon, sweet breads, fresh fruit, vegetables, eggs, mushrooms, baked beans, muffins, crumpets and toast with butter or margarine and/or jam or marmalade are common examples of breakfast foods, though a large range of preparations and ingredients are associated with breakfast globally.
- 1 Effect on health
- 2 Africa
- 3 Asia
- 4 Middle East
- 5 Europe
- 5.1 Belgium
- 5.2 Croatia
- 5.3 Denmark
- 5.4 Finland
- 5.5 France
- 5.6 Germany and Austria
- 5.7 Greece
- 5.8 Hungary
- 5.9 Italy
- 5.10 Latvia
- 5.11 Malta
- 5.12 Netherlands
- 5.13 Norway
- 5.14 Poland
- 5.15 Portugal
- 5.16 Russia
- 5.17 Serbia
- 5.18 Southeastern Europe
- 5.19 Spain
- 5.20 Sweden
- 5.21 Switzerland
- 5.22 Turkey
- 5.23 United Kingdom
- 6 North America
- 7 Oceania
- 8 South America
- 9 Gallery
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Effect on health
Nutritional experts have referred to breakfast as the most important meal of the day, citing studies that find that people who skip breakfast are disproportionately likely to have problems with concentration, metabolism, weight, and cardiac health. The nutritionist Monica Reinagel has argued the metabolic benefits have been exaggerated, noting the improvement in cognition has been found among children, but is much less significant among adults. Reinagel also explains that the link between skipping breakfast and increased weight is likely behavioral—compensating with snacks and/or eating more later—and therefore not inevitable.
Breakfast in Africa varies greatly from region to region.
For breakfast, many Moroccans eat bread with olive oil, tea, and different kinds of Moroccan crepes.
Nigeria has over 250 different ethnic groups, with a corresponding variety of cuisines. For the Hausa of northern Nigeria, a typical breakfast consists of kosai (cakes made from ground beans which are then fried) or funkaso (wheat flour soaked for a day then fried and served with sugar). Both of these cakes can be served with porridge and sugar known as koko. For the south western Yoruba people (Ilé Yorùbá) one of the most common breakfasts is Ògì— a porridge made from corn, usually served with evaporated milk. Ògì is eaten with Acarajé (akara) or Moi moi. Both are made from ground bean paste; akara is fried in oil, and moi moi is wrapped in leaves or foil and then steamed. Ògì can also be steamed in leaves to harden it and eaten with akara or moi moi for breakfast. English tea or malta is served as a breakfast drink. Another popular option in southwest Nigeria is Gari, which is eaten like a cereal. Gari, known in Brazil as farofa, is made from the root of cassava. For breakfast, it is soaked in water and sweetened with sugar.
Breakfast typically consists of café Touba,[a] spiced coffee with abundant sugar sometimes consumed with dried milk, or kinkeliba tea, accompanied by baguette with various spreads: Chocoleca, a Nutella equivalent made from peanuts; butter; or processed mild cheese. Small beignets and fresh fruit, including mangoes and bananas, are often part of a simple breakfast.
Breakfast (quraac) is an important meal for Somalis, who often start the day with some style of tea (shaah). The main dish is typically a pancake-like bread (canjeero or canjeelo) similar to Ethiopian injera, but smaller and thinner. It might also be eaten with a stew (maraq) or soup. Canjeero is eaten in different ways. It may be broken into small pieces with ghee (subag) and sugar. For children, it is mixed with tea and sesame oil (macsaaro) until mushy. There may be a side-dish of liver (beef), goat meat (hilib ari), diced beef cooked in a bed of soup (suqaar), or jerky (oodkac or muqmad), which consists of small dried pieces of beef, goat or camel meat, boiled in ghee. Polenta (mishaari) or porridge (boorash) with butter and sugar is eaten in the Mogadishu area. Further in the south of the country, such as in the Merca region, special bread known as rooti abuukey with tea is preferred. Special bread referred to as rooti is consumed in the north. Nationally, a sweeter and oilier version of canjeero referred to as malawax is a staple of most home-cooked meals.
Glutinous rice or kao hnyin is steamed and wrapped in banana leaf often served with peas as kao hnyin baung with a sprinkle of crushed and salted toasted sesame.  Equally popular is the purple variety of rice known as nga cheik which is cooked the same way and called nga cheik paung. Si damin is sticky rice cooked with turmeric and onions in peanut oil and served with crushed and salted toasted sesame and crisp fried onions. Assorted fritters such as baya jaw (urad dal)is often served as a compliment.
Mohinga, perhaps the most popular of all, now available as an "all-day breakfast" in many towns and cities, is rice vermicelli in fish broth kept on the boil with chickpea flour and/or crushed toasted rice, lemon grass, sliced banana stem, onions, garlic, ginger, pepper and fish paste and served with crispy fried onions, crushed dried chilli, coriander, fish sauce and lime. Add fritters such as split chickpea (pè jan jaw), urad dal (baya jaw) or gourd (bu jaw), boiled egg and fried fish cake (nga hpè jaw).
Another dish, popular because of its healthier composite and economic friendliness, is the Rakhine Mont-de, a variant of Mohinga, but lighter. It consists of thin rice noodles eaten with clear soup, made from boiled ngapi and lemon grass. Toasted fish flakes, from snakefish and green and red chili paste are also added, with seasoning. Rakhine Mont-de is also called ar-pu-shar-pu (literally "hot throat" or "hot tongue") because of its heavy use of spicy ingredients. A salad version also exists.
As China is made up of many distinct provinces each with their own unique cuisine, breakfast in China can vary significantly from province to province. In general, basic choices include sweet or salty pancakes, soup, deep fried bread sticks or doughnuts (youtiao), buns (mantou), porridge (congee), and fried or soup-based noodles. These options are often accompanied by tea or sweetened soy bean milk. However, condiments for porridge and the soup base tend to vary between provinces and regions. The types of teas that are served and spices that are used can also differ significantly between the provinces.
Due to its near two centuries history as a British colony and proximity to China's Canton region, both English and traditional Cantonese style breakfasts are of somewhat equal popularity in Hong Kong, as well as the hybrid form of breakfast commonly offered in Cha chaan teng. Cha Chaan Teng breakfasts often include Hong Kong style milk tea, pan fried egg, bread, Cantonese noodles and/or Hong Kong style macaroni in soup.
Traditional Cantonese breakfast may include dim sum, which include a variety of different ingredients and are prepared in numerous different forms from delicately wrapped baby shrimp steamed dumplings to sweet water chestnut cake. Each dish is designed to be sampled and diners can go through a large selection of dim sum quickly accompanied by a generous amount of good tea. Iron Buddha tea is the most common accompaniment, but other teas such as pu'er and oolong are also common. Fried and rice-based noodles and cakes are also popular. In modern times, dim sum is commonly prepared and served in Yum Cha restaurants rather than home because of the skill and efforts involved in the preparation.
Breakfast in modern Japanese households comes in two major variations: Japanese style and Western style. Japanese style breakfasts are eaten widely in Japan, but are confined to weekends and non-working days. Modern Japanese households with younger couples prefer Western-style breakfasts because they are generally less time-consuming.
The normative Japanese breakfast consists of steamed white rice, a bowl of miso soup, and Japanese styled pickles (like takuan or umeboshi). A raw egg and nori are often served; the raw egg is beaten in a small bowl and poured on the hot rice to make golden colored tamago kake gohan, whilst the nori (sheets of dried seaweed) is used to wrap rice. Grilled fish and Japanese green tea is often served as well.
Western styled breakfasts in Japanese households are similar to those in the US. Japanese children often eat cornflakes and drink milk, hot chocolate or fruit juice. Japanese adults (especially younger ones) tend to have toast with butter or jam, eggs, and slices of vegetables. They often drink coffee or orange juice.
Traditionally, Korean breakfasts consist mainly of rice and soup dishes. These can include Korean rice cakes, small amounts of fish or beef, and some form of broth, stew or porridge. Like all Korean meals, breakfast is usually served with banchan, or side dishes consisting of kimchi, steamed eggs and tofu. 
In contemporary South Korean culture, western breakfasts have become popular, with milk, fruit juice, toast, waffles, fruit and cereal enjoying large amounts of success in urban areas such as Seoul and Busan. In rural areas, however, the traditional Korean breakfast is still widely practiced.
There is no standard Indian breakfast menu as almost each state in India has different specialties. However, one can broadly classify breakfast varieties in India into 2 types; North Indian and South Indian. The eastern and western parts of India also have individual breakfast items unique to their culture or state. 
A typical south Indian breakfast consists of idli, vada and/or dosa coupled with chutney and sambar. Many variations of these dishes exist such as Rava idli, Thayir Vadai(Yoghurt vada), Sambar vada and Masala Dosa. Other popular south Indian breakfast items are Pongal, Bisibelebath(Sambar Rice), Upma, and Poori. The state of Kerala has some special breakfast items such as appam, puttu, idiyappamand palappam.
A typical north Indian breakfast may either be a type of Paratha or Roti served with a vegetable curry, curd and pickles. There are several varieties of parathas available depending on the type of stuffing such as Aloo (potato) Paratha, Paneer (cottage cheese) Paratha, Mooli (radish) Paratha etc. Other popular breakfast items in the north are Poori Bhaji, Poha and Bhindi Bhujia 
Although Nepal has multiple cuisines associated with its hundred or so ethnic groups, the Pahari majority typically eats dal-bhat-tarkari (lentils over boiled rice with curried vegetables) twice daily, late morning and early evening. There is often an early snack consisting of tea with milk and sugar with biscuits, popcorn or toasted soybeans to bridge the hours between rising and the main morning meal.
A typical Pakistani breakfast, locally called nāshtā (ناشتہ), consists of eggs (boiled/scrambled/fried/omelette), a slice of loaf bread or roti, parathas, sheermal with tea or lassi, qeema (minced meat), fresh seasonal fruits (mangoes, apples, melons, bananas etc.), milk, honey, butter, jam, shami kebab, and/or nuts. Sometimes breakfast includes baked goods like bakarkhani and rusks. During holidays and weekends, halwa poori and chick peas are sometimes eaten. In Punjab, sarson ka saag (mustard leaves) and maakai ki roti (cornbread) is a local favorite. Punjabi people also enjoy khatchauri, a savory pastry filled with cheese. Pakistan is quite atypical in the sense that meat dishes are eaten as breakfast especially on holidays. A traditional Sunday breakfast might be Siri-Payay (the head and feet of lamb or cow) or Nihari (a dish which is cooked overnight to get the meat extremely tender. The name "Nihari" comes from the Persian word "Nihar" meaning "Day" or "Day break".).Many people used to take "Bong" (Shank curry) in their Sunday brunch. This breakfast is typically accompanied by a sweet or sour yogurt drink called "Lassi" which is made by adding milk and water to yogurt.
Cafés often serve croissants for breakfast. Breakfast is often a quick meal, consisting of bread and dairy products, with tea and sometimes jam. The most used is labneh and cream (kishta, made of cow's milk; or qaimar, made of domestic buffalo milk). Labneh is served with olives, dried mint, and drizzled with olive oil. Pastries such as manaqeesh, sfiha, fatayer, and kahi are sometimes eaten for breakfast. Flat bread with olive oil and za'tar is also popular. Most Lebanese families also consume hummus and falafel with pita bread. Traditionally, breakfast used to be a much heavier meal, especially for the working class, and included dishes such as lentil soup (shorbat 'adas), or heavy sweets such as knafa. Ful, which is fava beans cooked with chickpeas (garbanzo beans), garlic, lemon, and olive oil is a popular working class breakfast as well.
Traditional Israeli breakfast contains bread with a variety of dairy products (yogurt, cottage cheese etc.), as well as tomatoes, cucumbers and olives; in hotels and restaurants, a more extended version is offered, including various forms of eggs and cold fish dishes, such as pickled herring and tuna salad. Coffee with milk is the most popular morning beverage.
As a general rule, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer, more southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a greater variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern and central European countries.
Specific items will vary from country to country, depending on local breakfast tastes and habits. In Switzerland, for example, cold cuts (luncheon meats), cheese, yogurt, prepared fruit, butter, croissants, breads, and rolls are served. Sometimes foods belonging to the British breakfast (eggs, sausages, tomatoes (fresh, grilled or canned), bacon) can occasionally be found as part of the buffet. French breakfast is usually a light meal composed of just white bread, butter and jam. Much to the contrary, German breakfast is a full meal with dark bread, various kinds of cheese and meat, and often fried or boiled eggs, thus tending towards the English breakfast. Continental breakfast is an institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions. It is a light meal meant to satisfy one until lunch.
A typical Continental breakfast consists of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) or hot chocolate with a variety of sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate filling. It is often served with juice. The continental breakfast may also include sliced cold meats, such as salami or ham, and yogurt or cereal. Some countries of Europe, such as The Netherlands and those in Scandinavia, add a bit of fruit and cheese to the bread menu, occasionally even a boiled egg or a little salami.
A typical Belgian breakfast is similar to that of its northern neighbor, the Netherlands. Belgium's most famous food, waffles, are traditionally sold in tourist areas of large cities, but are more of a snack than a breakfast item. Breakfast in Belgium consists of breads (toasted or untoasted) with assorted marmalades, jams or and nut spreads such as Nutella or just with a bar of chocolate. Other common toppings include sliced meats and cheeses. Pastries and croissants may be served on Sundays, but are usually not eaten on weekdays. Belgians often enjoy coffee, tea, hot chocolate, water, or fresh juice with breakfast.
In Croatia the base is a continental breakfast with a variety of pastries with or without fillings (marmalade, chocolate, cheese, ham, nuts, poppy) and fermented milk products (yogurt, soured milk, soured cream). Cold cuts, such as prosciutto, ham, salami, kulen, bacon, and various cheeses, are also favored. Fried eggs or omelet and Vienna sausage with mayonnaise, mustard or ajvar are very often consumed. In continental parts sir i vrhnje (cottage cheese with soured cream and some spices) is traditional. Coffee is much preferred over tea (mostly herbal tea).
A typical breakfast in Denmark consists of breakfast cereals such as oatmeal, corn flakes, youghurt being popular options. Bread or bread rolls (rundstykker) with different kind of cheeses and jams, usually made from berries or citrus fruits, and other toppings, accompanied by coffee, skimmed milk or tea. Weekends or festive occasions may call for Danish pastries (wienerbrød), chocolate, or a bitters, such as Gammel Dansk.
Breakfast usually consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is often buttered (with margarine), with toppings such as hard cheese or cold cuts. Finns usually do not have sweets on their breads such as jam, or chocolate. Sour milk products such as yogurt or viili are also common breakfast foods, usually served in a bowl with cereals such as corn flakes, muesli, and sometimes with sugar, fruit or jam. A third breakfast food is porridge (puuro), often made of rolled oats, and eaten with a pat of butter (voisilmä, lit. "butter eye") and/or with milk, or fruit or jam, especially the sort made of raspberries or strawberries (sometimes lingonberries). Drinks are milk, juice, tea, or coffee.
In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of cups of coffee, often café au lait, or hot chocolate, usually served in big bowls, sometimes accompanied by a glass of orange or grapefruit juice. The main food consists of sweet products such as tartines (slices of baguette or other breads spread with butter, jam or chocolate paste), sometimes dunked in the hot drink. Brioches and other pastries such as croissants, chocolatine (pains au chocolat) and pains aux raisins are also traditional, but more of a weekend special treat. Other products such as breakfast cereals, fruit compote, fromage blanc, and yogurt are becoming increasingly common as part of the meal. A traditional French breakfast does not include any savory product, but breakfast buffets in hotels often include ham, cheese and eggs.
Germany and Austria
The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls, butter, jam, ham, sausages, soft-boiled eggs and coffee. Cereals have become popular, and regional variation is significant. Cheeses, cold cuts, meat spreads, yogurt, granola and fruit (fresh or stewed) may appear, as well as eggs cooked to order (usually at smaller hotels or bed-and-breakfasts). A second breakfast is traditional in parts of Germany, notably Bavaria where it is called Brotzeit (literally "bread time").
Home breakfasts in Greece include bread with butter, honey or marmalade with coffee or milk. Breakfast cereals are also eaten. Children also eat nutella type cream on bread. No breakfast at all is common. Various kinds of savoury pastry (Tyropita, spanakopita, and bougatsa) are also eaten for breakfast, also by those eating out, usually accompanied with Greek coffee or Frappé coffee. Traditional Greek breakfast (hot milk, fresh bread, butter and honey, or yogurt) was also available in special "milk shops" (in Greek Galaktopoleia – Γαλακτοπωλεία γαλακτοπωλείο). Milk shops were phased out between 1970 and 1990 – there are very few left, one is in Athens and some in small towns.
In Hungary people usually have a large breakfast. Hungarian breakfast generally is an open sandwich with fresh bread or a toast, butter, cheese or different cream cheeses, túró cheese or körözött (Liptauer cheese spread), cold cuts such as ham, liver pâté (called májkrém or kenőmájas), bacon, salami, beef tongue, mortadella, disznósajt (head cheese), different Hungarian sausages or kolbász. Even eggs, (fried, scrambled or boiled), French toast called bundás kenyér and vegetables (like peppers, bell peppers, tomatoes, radish, scallion and cucumber) are part of the Hungarian breakfast. Sometimes breakfast is a cup of milk, tea or coffee with pastries, bread rolls or crescent-shaped bread (kifli), toast, pastries with different fillings (sweet and salty as well), butter, jam or honey and a bun or a strudel Hungarian cuisine, or cereal like muesli and perhaps fruit. Fruit juice in the morning is not that usual, hot drinks are more common. Hungarians sometimes have rice pudding called (tejberizs) or cream of wheat (tejbegríz), usually eaten with cocoa powder or cinnamon sugar. "Lecsó" made from tomatoes and green pepper can sometimes be a breakfast meal as well, mainly in the summer.
The traditional breakfast in Italy is simply Caffè e latte (hot coffee with milk) with bread or rolls, butter and jam — known as prima colazione or just colazione. Fette biscottate (a cookie-like hard bread often eaten with hazelnut chocolate spread or butter and jam) and biscotti (cookies) are commonly eaten. Hot coffee may be sometime replaced by hot tea, depending on personal taste. Children often drink hot chocolate, plain milk, hot milk with barley coffee, or hot milk with very little coffee. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop), it is composed of cappuccino e brioche (frothed hot milk with coffee, and a pastry). It is very common for Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a panino, or bread roll).
Typical Latvian breakfast usually consists of open sandwiches with toppings made of vegetables, fish, eggs or cheese. Same as in Finland it is often buttered with margarine. Curd mixed with vegetables and salt as well as other sour milk products are very popular as well. Very often light oat porridge is eaten too. In general light, sour and salty tasting food is common for morning meal. Latvians usually drink coffee for breakfast. The Latvian language word for breakfast is "brokastis".
On the island of Malta, breakfast integrates both British and continental elements. Usually the Maltese start their day with a bowl of cereal mixed with milk, sometimes with a cup of coffee or tea. Marmalade/jams or even chocolate spreads are also common on bread or toast. Today cereal bars are also becoming a common type of breakfast on the island. The traditional English breakfast of eggs, sausages and fried bacon was also popular among the Maltese, especially on Sundays, due to the strong British influence on the island but this has diminished almost completely, as locals have rediscovered a more Mediterranean and continental diet over the recent years. Hotels usually serve both a continental as well as a full English breakfast. Prayers are often said before breakfast in order to bless the meal.
For ontbijt the Dutch typically eat sliced bread with butter or margarine and three choices of toppings: dairy products (numerous variations of cheese), a variety of cured and sliced meats, or sweet or semi-sweet products such as jam, syrup (from sugar beets or fruit), honey, Kokosbrood (a coconut product that is served thinly sliced like sliced cheese) or peanut butter. Another type of sweet toppings are the chocolate toppings; the Dutch have chocolate toppings in all variations: hagelslag (chocolate sprinkles), chocoladevlokken (chocolate flakes) (both typically Dutch), and chocoladepasta (chocolate spread). Tea, dripolator coffee, milk, and juice are the most popular breakfast beverages. Breakfast may also include raisin bread and boiled eggs. On special occasions, such as Easter, Christmas, Mother's Day etc., breakfast is usually the same, but with a wider range of choices (i.e. premium cheeses, special ham from Italy, hot buns, croissants etc.).
A 2012 opinion poll concluded that the Dutch believe that breakfast should be a more important meal that it is and that more time should be spent on it; almost three quarters of those polled ate their sandwiches in less than fifteen minutes, and blame for an all-too quick breakfast was placed on "fast" breakfast products. A perfect "weekend breakfast" for the Dutch contained coffee or tea, fresh-baked bread rolls (and croissants), and a boiled egg. The poll also concluded that men are more likely than women to have breakfast with their partner.
80% of Norwegians eat breakfast daily, mostly at home. The most common breakfast is open sandwiches, often whole wheat bread, with cheese like brunost and Norvegia, cold cuts, leverpostei, jam etc. Common drinks are water, coffee, milk and juice. Another common breakfast is breakfast cereals like corn flakes eaten with milk, kulturmelk or yogurt. Whole-grain porridges with regular milk or butter are popular. More ample breakfasts may include fish, cheese, eggs, bacon, breads, hot and cold cereals eaten in various combinations
The traditional Polish breakfast is a large spread with a variety of sides eaten with bread or toast. Sides include various cold cuts, meat spreads, the Polish sausage kielbasa, tomatoes, Swiss cheese, and sliced pickles. Twaróg, a Polish cheese, is the breakfast classic and comes in many forms. Twaróg can be eaten plain, with salt, sugar, or honey, or it can be mixed with chives into a cream cheese-like spread. Eggs are served often as the main breakfast item, mostly soft-boiled or scrambled. For a quick winter breakfast, hot oatmeal, to which cocoa is sometimes added, is often served. Jam spreads are popular for a quick breakfast, including plum, raspberry, and black or red currant spreads. Breakfast drinks include coffee, milk (some areas may serve fresh milk from the cow), hot cocoa, or tea. Traditionally, the Poles avoid heavy-cooked foods for breakfast. For the most part, one will not see fried meats or potatoes in a classic Polish breakfast. Emphasis is placed on a large variety of foods to satisfy everyone at the breakfast table.
A Portuguese pequeno-almoço comes in two varieties: one eaten running to work and another, more time-consuming one, more common on the weekends. When rushed in the morning, a cup of yogurt, milk, coffee or both and some bread with butter, cheese or jam suffices. Given the time, additions include orange juice, croissants, different kinds of pastry, and/or cereal.
Traditional Russian breakfast are concentrated on kashas, or porridges - the most important staple in Russian nutritional culture, with buckwheat and oat, as well as semolina, serving as the three most important bases of such dishes, usually cooked on water or milk, as well as consumed with or without milk. Breakfast foods also include pancakes or oladushki. Oladushki are made from flour and rise on yeast. Blini, or crepes, are also popular for breakfast and are also made with flour, but without the yeast. Sirniki, is a cheese form of pancake. Sirniki are made of tvorog (quark cheese), which can be eaten separately with honey for breakfast. Also, a popular dish is buterbrod, open sandwiches with cold cuts and cheeses.
In Serbia domestic breakfast may include: eggs in different forms (e.g. omelet with bacon, onion and feta cheese), canned fish or opened sandwiches with prosciutto or ham, feta cheese and salad (e.g. pickles). Different types of pies and pastry with various filings (e.g. Proja, Gibanica, Burek) are also served as the main dish. Yogurt and coffee are preferred breakfast drinks. In the past it was a custom to drink Sljivovica before breakfast and after that Slatko with water.
Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, parts of Croatia. Breakfast usually consists of various kinds of savory or sweet pastry, with cheese, meat or jam filling. The most typical breakfast consists of two slices of burek and a glass of yogurt. Breakfast also often consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is buttered (with margarine), with toppings such as prosciutto and yellow cheese.
In Central Spain the traditional breakfast is chocolate con churros — hot chocolate with Spanish-style fritters, which are extruded sticks of doughnut-like dough with a star-shaped profile covered in sugar. The chocolate drink is made very thick and sweet. In Madrid, churros are somewhat smaller and shaped like a charity ribbon. This meal is normally served in cafeterias. In the North, East and West it is more common to have a cup of coffee (usually with milk) and a toast with a choice of olive oil and salt, tomato and olive oil, butter, jam, pâté, jamón serrano (cured ham), and other options like sobrasada (a raw cured spiced sausage that is easy to spread), and in Andalucia, pringá. Freshly squeezed orange juice is widely available in most places as an alternative for coffee. The breakfast is not often larger than these two items, because usually in late morning there is a break known as almuerzo when there is a snack. Sometimes, toast is replaced with galletas (a type of cookies made with flour, sugar, oil and vanilla flavour), magdalenas (a Spanish version of the French madeleine made with oil instead of butter) or buns.
Breakfast in Sweden is generally a sandwich made of a large amount of different types of soft bread or crisp bread, cold cuts, caviar, cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese, eggs, scrambled or boiled, pâté (leverpastej) with pickled cucumber, tomatoes or cucumber, or a toast with marmalade or maybe honey, juices, coffee, hot chocolate or tea. Breakfast cereals or muesli with milk, yogurt or filmjölk, currants and fruits are popular or warm whole-grain porridge with milk and jam, (for example lingonberry jam). Bilberry-soup (blåbärssoppa) and rose hip soup are also possible breakfast alternatives.
Swiss breakfasts are often similar to those eaten in neighboring countries. A notable breakfast food of Swiss origin, now found throughout Europe, is muesli (Birchermüesli in Swiss German), introduced in 1900 by Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital.
In Turkish cuisine, a typical breakfast consists of bread, cheese (beyaz peynir, kaşar etc.), butter, olives, eggs, tomatoes, cucumbers, jam, honey, and kaymak. Sucuk (spicy Turkish sausage), pastırma, börek, simit, poğaça and soups are eaten as a morning meal in Turkey. A common Turkish speciality for breakfast is called menemen, which is prepared with tomatoes, green peppers, onion, olive oil and eggs. Invariably, Turkish tea is served at breakfast. The Turkish word for breakfast, kahvaltı, means "before coffee" (kahve, 'coffee'; altı, 'under').
In the United Kingdom, the classic breakfast has been the "full English breakfast", which involves fried egg, scrambled egg or poached egg with bacon and sausages, usually with mushrooms, tomatoes, fried bread, black and/or white pudding, and toast. However in present times this is more often reserved for weekends, holidays, or eaten away from home in cafes, or previously in so-called 'greasy spoon' venues, due to the time required to prepare all the ingredients. The "full Scottish breakfast" tends to omit pork sausages and have beef sausages instead. At its most extensive it consists of eggs, square sausage, fried dumpling, potato scone, tomato, mushrooms, bacon beef links and fried bread. Another traditional British breakfast consists of porridge. Increasingly, porridge is made with milk and some sugary addition. Some traditional consumers of porridge make it with water, adding milk and a little salt while others have shifted to modern instant flavoured varieties of porridge. Toast with marmalade, jam (fruit conserves) or the savoury spread Marmite, or breakfast cereals with milk are now much more common daily breakfasts, with yoghurt and muesli also popular. Before the arrival of American-style breakfast cereals, dried bread soaked in hot milk or tea and porridge (boiled oats) was the common daily breakfast, while leftover vegetables (namely cabbage) and potatoes that hadn't been eaten the night before were often served re-fried; which became 'bubble-and-squeak'. Traditionally, breakfast would be served with a small amount of fruit, such as a slice of orange, believed to prevent the onset of scurvy. Also traditional, but now less popular breakfasts included fish in the form of kippers (smoked herring) with poached egg and toast, and kedgeree ( a Scoto-Indian smoked haddock, egg and rice dish originating in Colonial India). Most British breakfasts are consumed with tea, coffee or fruit juice.
Continental breakfast in the United Kingdom
A continental breakfast normally consists of slices of cheese and cold meat, cereal, fruit and drinks like coffee, tea or fruit juices. Although this is the traditional breakfast in parts of continental Europe, elsewhere these breakfasts are common only in the hospitality sector (particularly in economy and limited service hotels with no restaurant, as they require little preparation).
Breakfast in urban areas traditionally consisted of café con leche that was sweetened and included a pinch of salt. Toasted buttered Cuban bread, cut into lengths, was dunked in the coffee. In rural Cuba, farmers ate roasted pork, beans and white rice, café con leche and cuajada sweetened with caramel.
In Mexico breakfast is the lightest meal of the day, but three courses are commonplace. The first course may include fruit with or without yogurt, nuts, honey and/or a fresh juice. The main dish should include one or two eggs cooked either with hot sauce or vegetables, and a corn-tortilla based stew (e.g. chilaquiles). The side dishes may include beans, guacamole or seasoned salty bread. Third course consists of a sweet bread with milk, chocolate milk or coffee.
United States and Canada
Breakfast will often consist of either a cereal-based dish or an egg-based dish. Coffee is the most common breakfast beverage amongst adults, but is not popular with children. Tea is also widely consumed in Canada during breakfast. Orange juice and, to a lesser extent, pineapple or apple juice, are consumed by people of all ages. In the United States, 65% of coffee is drunk during breakfast hours.
The way in which breakfast eggs are prepared ranges from the simple, such as scrambled or fried, to the slightly more complex, such as eggs benedict. Breakfast omelettes are also very popular, especially the Western or Denver omelette, which contains ham, peppers, and onions. Steak is a popular accompaniment to eggs outside of the northeast, where it is relatively rare. Bacon, hash browns, toast, and sausage links are all very commonly served alongside eggs.
Grain-based dishes include waffles, pancakes, French toast, crepes in Canada, and cereal with milk. Porridge, such as Red River Cereal is quite popular in Canada, and may be consumed with maple syrup, nuts, dried fruit, or brown sugar.
In both Canada and the United States, the traditional full breakfast is popular, though is more commonly eaten on weekends and holidays. During the week, a smaller breakfast is commonly eaten, often immediately before or while commuting to work or school.
In Canada, and somewhat less commonly the United States, maple syrup may be served with most breakfast dishes including oatmeal, French toast, waffles, pancakes, and even ham.
Prior to the Second World War and the widespread adoption of household refrigerators, the traditional Australian breakfast consisted of grilled steaks and fried eggs, mainly because of the ready availability of beefsteak during that period. While very few Australians today would recall this breakfast format, the steak-and-eggs breakfast has survived as the customary pre-landing breakfast of the United States Marine Corps, due to the Marines having copied it from Australian soldiers when the two countries campaigned together during the Pacific War.
The majority of urban Australians eat commercially prepared cereal with pasteurised milk or yogurt and/or toast with preserves such as marmalade or vegemite for breakfast. Two of the most common cereals are cornflakes and a type of biscuit made from wheat, called Weet-bix. Fruit is also common at breakfast, either on the cereal or eaten separately. While not unusual, a cooked breakfast is more likely to be eaten in the weekends or on special occasions either at home or at a cafe. A cooked breakfast can include sausage, bacon, breakfast steaks, mushrooms, tomato, hash browns and pancakes, similar to both the British and American cooked breakfast. Breakfast habits differ more between age groups or families than between cities.
In ethnically Fijian villages, breakfast often centers around tea served with milk and sugar, and food made out of flour: tovoi or babakau (a type of fried dough), pancakes, bread or biscuits with butter. Sometimes a starch such as cassava, taro in coconut milk, or rice is served instead. Leftover fish or meat from the previous night's meal may be served as well. Tea made from lemon leaves (called draunimoli) and fruits such as pineapple, banana, papaya, plantain, and watermelon are also sometimes served. In urban households, tea and cereals are often consumed. Breakfast foods eaten by Fiji Indians often include a vegetable curry with roti and sometimes differ from the above. Fijians living in Rotuma sometimes eat nuqa fish in tarotaro (fermented coconut yoghurt), with fresh tropical fruits.
Breakfast in New Zealand is very similar to the Australian breakfast. The range of processed breakfast cereals is vast and children are more likely to eat those that contain added sugar. New Zealanders, particularly in winter, are likely to eat a hot oat cereal called "porridge". Porridge is typically served with milk,sugar, fruit and/or yogurt. Sliced bread which has been toasted and topped with preserves or spreads is a common alternative breakfast. Eating breakfast at a restaurant was unheard of until the 1990s, however cafes which serve breakfast until midday or all day are now common. The Big Breakfast is the main item at cafes, which is similar to the British cooked breakfast, except that it seldom includes black pudding. Other common menu items are: eggs done how you like, eggs benedict, beans on toast, pancakes, cereal and yogurt, and smoothies. Breakfast nearly always includes coffee, tea or both, with children drinking milk either on their cereal, in a glass or hot milo. Recent concern has been raised about the cost of milk and some families being unable to afford it.
New Zealand chains of the fast food franchise McDonald's offer a "kiwi big breakfast" which includes two sausages, hash brown, scrambled eggs, toasted muffin and choice of a small Filter coffee, Hot chocolate or tea. Some NGOs and charities, such as the New Zealand Red Cross, provide breakfast to underclass primary school children. Survey results released in 2013 claim that nearly half of all New Zealanders skip breakfast at least once a week with almost a third of those skipping breakfast, up to three times a week.
The typical Brazilian breakfast consists of coffee, milk, yogurt or hot chocolate and bread filled with butter. Pão de queijo, ham, cheeses, biscuits, corn flakes, jam and orange juice are also very common. Many Brazilians eat fruits such as papayas, apples or pineapples. The Café Colonial is very popular in the southern and southeastern states with strong European immigration.
Most Venezuelans traditionally start their day with an arepa, which is a soft corn flatbread served hot and filled with cheese, ham, meat, beans or sometimes a combination. In the cities, that is usually taken with coffee, however during weekends, breakfast usually includes "perico" (scrambled eggs with onions, tomato, and sometimes peppers), also black beans (called "caraotas negras"), roasted white cheese, and juice.
idli and sambar - a south Indian breakfast
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