Moro insurgency in the Philippines
||It has been suggested that North Cotabato Conflict be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since May 2012.|
||It has been suggested that Civil conflict in the Philippines be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2014.|
|Moro insurgency in the Philippines|
|Part of the Cold War, the War on Terror, and the Civil conflict in the Philippines|
Above:Filipino and US Troops during the PMC Balikatan Exercise
Below:A member of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front training with a light machine gun.
| Moro National Liberation Front (Nur Misuari faction) (signed peace agreement in 1996, resumed armed struggle in 2001)
Moro National Liberation Front (Muslimin Sema faction) (continues to abide by the 1996 peace agreement)
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (until 2014)
| Abu Sayyaf
Rajah Sulaiman Movement
Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters MILF rogue factions
|Commanders and leaders|
| Ferdinand Marcos (1969–1986)
Corazon Aquino (1986–1992)
Fidel V. Ramos (1992–1998)
Joseph Estrada (1998–2001)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001–2010)
Benigno Aquino III (2010–present)
| Nur Misuari
| Khadaffy Janjalani †
Ameril Umbra Kato
|Casualties and losses|
|572 Filipino soldiers
17 American soldiers
|1,342 Rebels killed|
In 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines and jihadist rebel groups. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was established by University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari to condemn the killings of more than 60 Filipino Muslims and later became an aggressor against the government while the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a splinter group from the MNLF, was established to seek an Islamic state within the Philippines and is more radical and more aggressive. Conflict dates back to 1899 during the uprising of the Bangsamoro people to resist foreign rule from the United States. Hostilities ignited again starting in the 1960s when the government started to resist upcoming rebellions by killing more than 60 Filipino Muslims and continues up to present.
Casualty statistics vary for the conflict however the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012.
The Moros had a history of resistance against Spanish, American, and Japanese rule for over 300 years. The origin of the war between the Moros and Filipinos started during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. During the Spanish–Moro conflict, Spain repeatedly tried to conquer the Moro Sultanate of Sulu and Sultanate of Maguindanao.
Following the Spanish-American War in 1898, another conflict sparked in southern Philippines between the revolutionary Muslims in the Philippines and the United States Military that took place between 1899 and 1913. Filipinos opposed foreign rule from the United States that claimed the Philippines as their territory. On August 14, 1898, after defeating Spanish forces, the United States had established a military government in the Philippines under General Wesley Merritt as Military Governor. American forces took control from the Spanish government in Jolo on May 18, 1899, and at Zamboanga in December 1899. Brigadier General John C. Bates was sent to negotiate a treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul Kiram II. Kiram was disappointed knowing that the American forces would take over since he expected to regain sovereignty after the defeat of Spanish forces in the archipelago. Bates' main goal was to guarantee Moro neutrality in the Philippine-American War, and to establish order in the southern Philippines. After some negotiation, the Bates Treaty was signed which was based on an earlier Spanish treaty. The Bates Treaty did ensure the neutrality of the Muslims in the south but it was actually set up to buy time for the Americans until the war in the north ended.
On March 20, 1900, General Bates was replaced by Brigadier General William August Kobbé and the District of Mindanao-Jolo was upgraded to a full department. American forces in Mindanao were reinforced and hostilities with the Moro people lessened although there are reports of Americans and other civilians being attacked and slain by Moros.
Insurrection began in 1900 and lasted for a year. The American forces then move push inside the settles of Moro people. Kobbé was replaced by George Whitefield Davis as the commander of the Department of Mindanao-Jolo and put up better relationships with the Moro people.
It continued for more than three decades which resulted in massive lost of lives. Military governors were appointed by the United States to ensure peace and stability within the region. The conflict ended at the term of Major General John J. Pershing, the third and final military governor of Moro Province, although major resistance continued in Bud Dajo and Mount Bagsak in Jolo.
Repeated rebellions by the Moros against American rule continued to break out even after the main Moro Rebellion ended, right up to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. During the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, the Moros waged an insurgency against the Japanese on Mindanao and Sulu until the Japanese were defeated and driven out.
Under President Ferdinand Marcos, 68 Filipino Muslim military trainees were murdered in Corregidor allegedly by soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The trainees were believed to be a part of an upcoming rebellion. By then, University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari formed the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) to condemn the killings of the 68 Filipino Muslims and to seek the establishment of a Bangsamoro nation through force of arms.
In 1969, the MNLF waged armed conflict against the Philippine government. During one of the fierce battles of the insurgency in 1974, Jolo was burned down and news of the tragedy galvanized other Muslims around the world to pay greater attention to the conflict. Two years later, the Philippine government and the MNLF signed the Tripoli Agreement, declaring ceasefire on both sides. Within the agreement provided that Mindanao would remain a part of the Philippines but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people. President Marcos went against the agreement and violence ensued.
In 1977, Shiekh Salamat Hashim established the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a splinter group of the MNLF seeking to establish an Islamic state. Conflicts between these rebel groups and the Armed Forces of the Philippines would continue until the end of the regime of President Marcos.
C. Aquino and Ramos (1986–1998)
Earlier in her term, President Corazon Aquino arranged a meeting with MNLF chairman Nur Misuari and several MNLF rebel groups in Sulu, which paved the way for a series of negotiations. In 1989, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was created under Republic Act No. 6734 or the ARMM Organic Act, pursuant to the 1987 Constitution.
In 1991, Abdurajak Janjalani, a former teacher who studied Islam in the Middle East, formed the Abu Sayyaf Group after reportedly meeting Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Janjalani recruited former members of the MNLF for the more radical and theocratic Abu Sayyaf.
The North Cotabato conflict (2000)
1000 MILF rebels under the command of Umbra Kato have seized control of thirty five villages in the North Cotabato province. 2000 Philippine troops with helicopters and artillery were sent in to the seized area on August 9 to liberate it from the rebels. The MILF had wanted North Cotabato to be included in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. The government and MILF had been negotiating for the inclusion of the province in the Muslim Autonomous Region but the Supreme Court had struck down the proposal after hearing concern from local Christian leaders in the region.
The rebel troops were ordered to leave the area by their commanders but the contingents under Kato refused to leave the villages they had occupied and instead dug in. The Philippine Army responded on August 9 by bombarding them. The next day, the government forces moved to retake the villages recapturing two of them from the rebels.
Estrada and Arroyo (1998–2010)
During his term President Joseph Ejercito Estrada he declared an "all-out war" against the MILF on March 21, 2000 although a series of negotiations for cessation of hostilities were held. Apparently, several conflicts in and around Mindanao erupted and clashes between the Philippine Military and the rebel groups resulted in massive loss of lives.
During his term, these rebel groups kidnapped three Italian priests, two were later released and one was shot dead; seized the municipal hall of Talayan, Maguindanao and Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte; the bombing of the ferry Our Lady of Mediatrix at Ozamiz; and the takeover of Narciso Ramos Highway. All these incidents resulted in massive loss of investments abroad, especially in the area of Mindanao.
As a result, the Armed Forces of the Philippines launched a successful campaign against these rebel groups and 43 minor camps, 13 major camps including the MILF headquarters, and Camp Abubakar fell. MILF suffered heavy losses and the head of MILF, Sheikh Salamat Hashim, fled the country and sought refuge in Malaysia. On October 5, 2000, 609 rebels surrendered in Cagayan de Oro, along with renegade town mayor Mulapandi Cosain Sarip. These was followed by another massive surrender of 855 rebels on December 29, 2000. President Joseph Ejercito Estrada then ordered that the Philippine flag be raised in Mindanao which symbolized victory. It was raised on July 9, 2000 near a Madh'hab and again the next day along with President Joseph Ejercito Estrada, which held a feast inside a classroom just meters away from a mosque.
As a result, several Islamic rebel groups retaliated, bombing several key locations within the National Capital Region on December 30, 2000. It resulted in 22 deaths and hundreds of people injured. Saifullah Yunos, one of the perpetrators was arrested in Cagayan de Oro as he was about to board a plane bound to Manila in May 2003. In 2004, two members of the Jemaah Islamiyah were arrested, namely Mamasao Naga and Abdul Pata as they were identified by Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi as responsible for the train bombing. al-Ghozi was also arrested, but was later killed in a firefight when he tried to escape the prison on October 13, 2003.
On May 27, 2001, the Abu Sayyaf seized twenty hostages from an upscale resort in Palawan. Four of the hostages managed to escape. The kidnapping group composed of 40 gunmen then seized the Dr. Jose Torres Memorial Hospital and St. Peter's Church compound in the town of Lamitan in Basilan and claimed to have taken captive 200 people although 20 people were confirmed to be taken captive inside the hospital, including the staff and the patients.
There was a crossfire between the Army and the Abu Sayyaf rebels in Lamitan following the takeover of Dr. Jose Torres Memorial Hospital which resulted in the deaths of 12 soldiers, including the army captain. Up to 22 soldiers were reportedly to have been killed in an effort to rescue the hostages.
Five more captives escaped during the battle at Lamitan. Two of the captives were killed prior to the siege in Lamitan, including the beheading of one. The Abu Sayyaf then conducted series of raids, including one at a coconut plantation where the rebel groups hacked the heads of two men using bolo knives. The owners and a security guard was also held captive and the rebel groups burnt down two buildings, including a chapel a week after the battle in Lamitan. Another raid was conducted in August 2, 2001 on Barangay Balobo in Lamitan, Basilan. After three days, the Philippine Army rescued numerous hostages after they overtook the hideout of the militants where 11 bodies were found beheaded. Other hostages were either released or had escaped.
On June 13, 2001, the number of hostages was calculated at around 28 as three more people were found beheaded in Basilan, including that of Guillermo Sobero. They were beheaded since the Philippine Army would not halt the rescue operation.
The Burhams were still on the group of 14 still held captive according to three hostages who escaped on October 2001. On June 7, 2002, after a year of being held captive, a rescue mission was conducted and resulted in the deaths of Martin Burnham and a nurse named Ediborah Yap after being caught in the crossfire. Martin was killed by three gunshots in the chest while Gracia was wounded in her right leg. By this time Nur Misuari ordered his supporters to attack government targets to prevent the holding of elections on ARMM on November 2001, ushering his exit as the governor of the region. Misuari would be later arrested in 2007 in Malaysia and was deported back to the Philippines for trial.
On July 2004, Gracia Burnham testified at a trial of eight Abu Sayyaf members and identified six of the suspects as being her erstwhile captors, including Alhamzer Limbong, Abdul Azan Diamla, Abu Khari Moctar, Bas Ishmael, Alzen Jandul and Dazid Baize. Fourteen Abu Sayyaf members were sentenced to life imprisonment while four were acquitted. Alhamzer Limbong was later killed in a prison uprising.
These rebel groups, especially the Abu Sayyaf conducted several terror attacks, namely the bombings at Zamboanga in October 2002; the bombing of SuperFerry 14 on February 2004; the simultaneous bombings in Central Mindanao on October 2006; the beheadings of several Philippine Marines on July 2007; the Batasang Pambansa bombing on November 2007; and the 2009 bombings in Mindanao.
Since 2001, the Philippines and the United States have been on a campaign to battle this insurgency, known as War on Terror. To combat the insurgency, the United States and the Philippines conducted the Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, a part of the worldwide campaign against terrorism known as Operation Enduring Freedom.
Benigno Aquino III (2010–present)
In 2013, two main camps of the Abu Sayyaf group were overrun by forces of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in its latest offensive in Patikul. According to MNLF leader Nur Misuari, the MNLF offensive against the Abu Sayyaf is because of the MNLF opposition to the Abu Sayyafs human rights abuses which goes against Islam.
During the term of President Benigno Aquino III, a series of peace talks for the cessation of hostilities was held, including the meeting of MILF Chair Al Haj Murad Ibrahim in Tokyo, Japan which was lauded on both sides. Norway also joined the International Monitoring Team (IMT) on January 2011, overseeing the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF on Mindanao. Despite the peace talks, a series of conflicts erupted. on September 10, 2011, Jal Idris, a hardcore member of Abu Sayyaf, was arrested by government forces after a crossfire between the Philippine Army and the rebel group The Armed Forces of the Philippines also killed three Abu Sayyaf militants in a stand-off the following day after the arrest of Jal Idris.
Terrorism continued throughout his term, on January 2011, 4 merchants and a guide were killed by the Abu Sayyaf and later, a soldier would be killed in a clash against the rebels. These rebel groups attacked a village in Sulu, killing 7 Marines and taking 7 civilians captive. They later freed 2 of the hostages after a ransom was paid. Also, several areas in Mindanao were bombed on August 2011 and a Filipino businesswoman was abducted on September 2011 who was later freed after the three gunmen were gunned down by the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
On October 2011, the MILF was blamed for the killings 30 government troops, thereby violating the ceasefire agreement. It produced outrage and so the battle against terrorism in the country wages on.
The website of the Moro National Liberation Front of Nur Misuari declared its support for China against the Philippines in the South China Sea dispute, calling both China and the Moro people as victims of Philippine colonialism, and noting China's history of friendly relations with the Moros. The MNLF website also denounced America's assistance to the Philippines in their colonization of the Moro people in addition to denouncing the Philippines claims to the islands disputed with China, and denouncing America for siding with the Philippines in the dispute, noting that in 1988 China "punished" Vietnam for attempting to set up a military presence on the disputed islands, and noting that the Moros and China maintained peaceul relations, while on the other hand the Moros had to resist other colonial powers, having to fight the Spanish, fight the Americans, and fight the Japanese, in addition to fighting the Philippines.
The Zamboanga City crisis erupted on September 9, 2013 when this MNLF faction attempted to raise the flag of the self-proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik at Zamboanga City Hall, which had earlier declared its independence on August 12, 2013 in Talipao, Sulu. This armed incursion was met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and the Philippine National Police (PNP), which sought to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from the city. The standoff degenerated into urban warfare, and had brought parts of the city under a standstill for days. On September 28, the government declared the end of military operations in Zamboanga City after successfully defeating the MNLF.
On January 24, 2014, Philippine government chief negotiator Miriam Coronel Ferer and MILF chief negotiator Mohagher Iqbal signed a peace agreement in Kuala Lumpur. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous entity called "Bangsamoro" under a law to be approved by the Philippine Congress. The government aims to set up the region by 2016. The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF. MILF forces would turn over their firearms to a third party to be selected by the MILF and the Philippine government. A regional police force would be established, and the Philippine military would reduce the presence of troops and help disband private armies in the area.
- History of Philippines
- Peace process with the Bangsamoro in the Philippines
- Terrorism in the Philippines
- Communist insurgency in the Philippines
- Extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances in the Philippines
- MILF says MNLF joins fray on side of BIFM – InterAksyon.com
- New al-Qaeda-inspired group eyed in Mindanao blasts—terror expert | Inquirer News
- Beverley Milton-Edwards (September 11, 2013). Islamic Fundamentalism. Routledge. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-1-136-02944-8.
- Lino Miani (2011). The Sulu Arms Market: National Responses to a Regional Problem. Institute of Southeast Asian. pp. 71 & 74. ISBN 978-981-4311-11-3.
- Douglas A. Macgregor (2003). Transformation Under Fire: Revolutionizing how America Fights. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-275-98192-1.
- Defense.gov News Article: Trainers, Advisors Help Philippines Fight Terrorism
- Philippines to be a key recipient of Australia's New Regional Counter-Terrorism Package – Australian Embassy (archived from the original on September 1, 2007)
- "Nur Misuari to be repatriated to stand trial". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. December 20, 2001. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- Soliman M. Santos (2003). Malaysia's Role in the Peace Negotiations Between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Southeast Asian Conflict Studies Network. ISBN 978-983-2514-38-1.
- "Malaysia asks PHL for help in tracking militants with Abu Sayyaf ties". GMA-News. July 6, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- Malcolm Cook (March 17, 2014). "Peace’s Best Chance in Muslim Mindanao" (PDF). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 7. ISSN 2335-6677. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Anak Agung Banyu Perwita (2007). Indonesia and the Muslim World: Islam and Secularism in the Foreign Policy of Soeharto and Beyond. NIAS Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-87-91114-92-2.
- Peng Er Lam (June 2, 2009). Japan's Peace-Building Diplomacy in Asia: Seeking a More Active Political Role. Routledge. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-134-12506-7.
- Ivan Molloy. "Revolution in the Philippines – The Question of an Alliance Between Islam and Communism". University of California. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Paul J. Smith (September 21, 2004). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7656-3626-3.
- William Larousse (January 1, 2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 151 & 162. ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8.
- Michelle Ann Miller (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-981-4379-97-7.
- Zachary Abuza (2003). Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-58826-237-0.
- Jacob Bercovitch; Karl R. DeRouen (2011). Unraveling Internal Conflicts in East Asia and the Pacific: Incidence, Consequences, and Resolutions. Lexington Books. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-0-7391-4851-8.
- Marcelo G. Kohen (March 21, 2006). Secession: International Law Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 339–. ISBN 978-0-521-84928-9.
- Joseph S. Bermudez (October 1, 1990). Terrorism, the North Korean connection. Crane Russak. ISBN 978-0-8448-1609-8.
- Martin N. Murphy (May 13, 2013). Contemporary Piracy and Maritime Terrorism: The Threat to International Security. Routledge. pp. 65–. ISBN 1-134-97545-7.
- Julie Alipala (October 2, 2010). "RP terror campaign cost lives of 11 US, 572 RP soldiers—military". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iraq, Fatalities". iCasualties. August 30, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- The Long Struggle to Silence the Guns of Rebellion: A Review of the Long and Winding Trail to the Elusive Peace Agreements by The CenSEI Report
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Philippines: Mindanao (entire conflict), viewed on 2013-05-03, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=127®ionSelect=11-Oceania#
- Halstead, Murat (1898), "XI. The Administration of General Merrit", The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico, pp. 110–112
- Hurley, Victor (1936). "Mindinao and Sulu in 1898". Swish of the Kris. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. Archived from the original on July 12, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- "Lone survivor recalls Jabidah Massacre". Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 18, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Fighting and talking: A Mindanao conflict timeline". GMA News and Public Affairs. October 27, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict". Human Development Network. September 18, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- "ARMM history and organization". GMA News and Public Affairs. August 11, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "WHAT WENT BEFORE: Third Italian priest killed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 18, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "Italian priest shot dead in Mindanao". The Philippine Star. October 18, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "The fall of MILF?s Camp Abubakar in Maguindanao 10 years ago". July 10, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Over 600 Muslim Rebels Surrender, Philippine Leader Says more to Follow". October 5, 2000. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Joel M. Sy Egco (May 26, 2003). "Rizal Day suspect caught". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- Benjamin Pulta; Miko Santos (December 30, 2003). "Gov’t seeks re-raffling of LRT bombing case". Sun.Star. Retrieved February 8, 2007.[dead link]
- "Philippines hostage search begins". BBC News. May 27, 2001. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Abu Sayyaf kidnappings, bombings and other attacks". GMA News. August 23, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
- "Philippines hostage crisis deepens". BBC News. June 2, 2001. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Abu Sayyaf bandits kill two hostages, escape military siege". CDNN. June 4, 2001. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Philippines offer averts beheading". BBC News. June 11, 2001. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Hostages rescued in the Philippines". BBC News. August 5, 2002. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Balobo Killings in Basilan Province, August 2, 2001". Human Rights Watch. July 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Philippines bodies identified". BBC News. June 13, 2001. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "US hostage confirmed dead". BBC News. October 12, 2001. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Hostages die in Philippine rescue bid". BBC News. June 7, 2002. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Philippines Brace for Retaliation". Associated Press. June 7, 2002. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "10 MILF rebels killed in Freedom Day clashes". Zambotimes. June 14, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "Philippines-Mindanao conflict – At a Glance". AlertNet. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- MNLF overruns 2 Abu Sayyaf camps | ABS-CBN News
- "Government Forces Arrest Suspected Abu Sayyaf Hardcore Man". Sun.Star. September 10, 2011.
- "Filipino Troops kill 3 Gunmen Allied to Abu Sayyaf". Associated Press. September 11, 2011.
- "Five killed by suspected Abu Sayyaf bandits in Basilan". Manila Bulletin. January 12, 2011. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "One Soldier killed in Basilan clash". Philippine Star. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "2 kidnapped traders freed in Philippines". The Mindanao Examiner. August 28, 2011.
- "Gunmen Abduct Filipino Businesswoman in Southern Philippines, Officials Say". startribune.com. September 4, 2011.
- "Philippine Troops Kill 3 Militants, Rescue Trader". Associated Press. newsrt.us. September 19, 2011.
- RRayhanR (October 8, 2012). "HISTORICAL AND "HUMAN WRONG" OF PHILIPPINE COLONIALISM: HOW NOT TO RESPECT HISTORIC-HUMAN RIGHTS OF BANGSAMORO AND CHINA?". mnlfnet.com. Moro National Liberation Front (Misuari faction). Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- RRayhanR (August 11, 2012). "IMPACT OF POSSIBLE CHINA-PHILIPPINES WAR WITHIN FILIPINO-MORO WAR IN MINDANAO". mnlfnet.com. Moro National Liberation Front (Misuari faction). Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- Reuters (September 10, 2014). "Philippines’ Aquino asks Congress to enact Muslim autonomy law". The Rakyat Post (Kuala Lumpur). Archived from the original on September 15, 2014.
- "Philippine peace breakthrough". Bangkok Post. January 25, 2014.
- The Long Struggle to Silence the Guns of Rebellion: A Review of the Long and Winding Trail to the Elusive Peace Agreements by The CenSEI Report