List of Governors of Indiana

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The Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis, which houses the office of the governor

The Governor of Indiana is the head of the executive branch of Indiana's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Indiana General Assembly, to convene that body, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason or impeachment.[1]

While a territory, Indiana had two President-appointed governors.[2] Since statehood in 1816, it has had 47 governors, serving 49 distinct terms; Isaac P. Gray and Henry F. Schricker are the only governors to have served non-consecutive terms. The longest-serving state governors are Otis R. Bowen and Evan Bayh at 8 years, 4 days; territorial governor William Henry Harrison served for over 12 years. The shortest-serving governor is Henry Smith Lane, who served two days before resigning to become a U.S. Senator.[3] The current governor is Mike Pence, who took office on January 14, 2013, and was elected in 2012 to serve until January 9, 2017.

Governors[edit]

William Henry Harrison, first governor of the Indiana Territory and ninth President of the United States
Jonathan Jennings, first governor of Indiana and nine term Congressman from Indiana
James B. Ray, fourth governor of Indiana, and only Senate President pro tempore to become governor
Oliver P. Morton, 14th governor of Indiana and governor during the American Civil War
Thomas A. Hendricks, 16th governor of Indiana and 21st Vice President of the United States
Thomas R. Marshall, 27th governor of Indiana and 28th Vice President of the United States
Evan Bayh, 46th governor of Indiana and former Senator from Indiana

The United States acquired the land that became Indiana after the American Revolutionary War. The region was originally organized as the Northwest Territory, consisting of all of the land in the United States north and west of the Ohio River. The Indiana Territory was split from the Northwest Territory in 1800.

For the period before the Indiana Territory was formed, see the list of Governors of Northwest Territory.

Governors of the Indiana Territory[edit]

Indiana Territory was formed on July 4, 1800, and consisted of present-day Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and parts of Michigan and Minnesota. Michigan Territory was split from the territory on June 30, 1805, and Illinois Territory followed on March 1, 1809, leaving Indiana Territory with its final borders.[4] From October 1, 1804, to July 4, 1805, the District of Louisiana was under the jurisdiction of Indiana Territory.[5]

# Governor Took office Left office Days in office Appointed by
1 William Henry Harrison January 10, 1801 December 28, 1812 4612 John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison
John Gibson December 28, 1812 March 3, 1813 65 acting[N 1]
2 Thomas Posey March 3, 1813 November 7, 1816 1345 James Madison

Governors of the state of Indiana[edit]

Indiana was admitted to the Union on December 11, 1816.[7] The original 1816 Constitution of Indiana provided for the election of a governor and a lieutenant governor every three years.[8] The second and current constitution of 1851 lengthened terms to four years and set the commencement of the governor's term on the second Monday in the January following the election.[9] Governors were allowed to serve for four years in any eight-year period,[9] but this was extended by a 1972 amendment permitting governors to serve for eight years in any twelve-year period.[10] Should the office of governor become vacant, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.[11] Nine lieutenant governors have succeeded to the governorship. If the office of lieutenant governor is vacant, the president pro tempore of the Indiana Senate becomes governor;[11] this has happened once, when James B. Ray succeeded William Hendricks.[12]

      Democratic-Republican (3)       Democratic (21)       Independent (1)       Republican (21)       Whig (3)

# Governor Took office Left office Party Lt. Governor[N 2] Terms[N 3]
1   Jonathan Jennings November 7, 1816 September 12, 1822 Democratic-
Republican
Christopher Harrison[N 4] 1 12[N 5]
Ratliff Boon
2   Ratliff Boon September 12, 1822 December 5, 1822 Democratic-
Republican
vacant 12[N 6]
3   William Hendricks December 5, 1822 February 12, 1825 Democratic-
Republican
Ratliff Boon 12[N 7]
4   James B. Ray February 12, 1825 December 7, 1831 Independent John H. Thompson 2 12[N 8][N 9]
Milton Stapp
5   Noah Noble December 7, 1831 December 6, 1837 Whig David Wallace 2
6   David Wallace December 6, 1837 December 9, 1840 Whig David Hillis 1
7   Samuel Bigger December 9, 1840 December 6, 1843 Whig Samuel Hall 1
8   James Whitcomb December 6, 1843 December 26, 1848 Democratic Jesse D. Bright 12[N 7]
Paris C. Dunning
9   Dunning, Paris C.Paris C. Dunning December 26, 1848 December 5, 1849 Democratic vacant 12[N 6]
10   Wright, Joseph A.Joseph A. Wright December 5, 1849 January 12, 1857 Democratic James H. Lane 2
Ashbel P. Willard
11   Ashbel P. Willard January 12, 1857 October 4, 1860 Democratic Abram A. Hammond 12[N 10]
12   Abram A. Hammond October 4, 1860 January 14, 1861 Democratic vacant 12[N 6]
13   Henry Smith Lane January 14, 1861 January 16, 1861 Republican Oliver P. Morton 12[N 7]
14   Oliver P. Morton January 16, 1861 January 23, 1867 Republican Conrad Baker 3[N 6][N 7]
15   Conrad Baker January 23, 1867 January 13, 1873 Republican Will Cumback 12[N 6][N 11]
16   Thomas A. Hendricks January 13, 1873 January 8, 1877 Democratic Leonidas Sexton 1
17   James D. Williams January 8, 1877 November 20, 1880 Democratic Isaac P. Gray 12[N 10]
18   Isaac P. Gray November 20, 1880 January 10, 1881 Democratic vacant 12[N 6]
19   Albert G. Porter January 10, 1881 January 12, 1885 Republican Thomas Hanna 1
20   Isaac P. Gray January 12, 1885 January 14, 1889 Democratic Mahlon Dickerson Manson 1
21   Alvin P. Hovey January 14, 1889 November 23, 1891 Republican Ira Joy Chase 12[N 10]
22   Ira Joy Chase November 23, 1891 January 9, 1893 Republican vacant 12[N 6]
23   Claude Matthews January 9, 1893 January 11, 1897 Democratic Mortimer Nye 1
24   James A. Mount January 11, 1897 January 14, 1901 Republican William S. Haggard 1
25   Winfield T. Durbin January 14, 1901 January 9, 1905 Republican Newton W. Gilbert 1
26   J. Frank Hanly January 9, 1905 January 11, 1909 Republican Hugh Thomas Miller 1
27   Thomas R. Marshall January 11, 1909 January 13, 1913 Democratic Frank J. Hall 1
28   Samuel M. Ralston January 13, 1913 January 8, 1917 Democratic William P. O'Neill 1
29   James P. Goodrich January 8, 1917 January 10, 1921 Republican Edgar D. Bush 1
30   Warren T. McCray January 10, 1921 April 30, 1924 Republican Emmett Forrest Branch 12[N 12]
31   Emmett Forrest Branch April 30, 1924 January 12, 1925 Republican vacant 12[N 6]
32   Edward L. Jackson January 12, 1925 January 14, 1929 Republican F. Harold Van Orman 1
33   Harry G. Leslie January 14, 1929 January 9, 1933 Republican Edgar D. Bush 1
34   Paul V. McNutt January 9, 1933 January 11, 1937 Democratic M. Clifford Townsend 1
35   M. Clifford Townsend January 11, 1937 January 13, 1941 Democratic Henry F. Schricker 1
36   Henry F. Schricker January 13, 1941 January 8, 1945 Democratic Charles M. Dawson 1
37   Ralph F. Gates January 8, 1945 January 10, 1949 Republican Richard T. James 1
38   Henry F. Schricker January 10, 1949 January 12, 1953 Democratic John A. Watkins 1
Rue J. Alexander
39   George N. Craig January 12, 1953 January 14, 1957 Republican Harold W. Handley 1
40   Harold W. Handley January 14, 1957 January 9, 1961 Republican Crawford F. Parker 1
41   Matthew E. Welsh January 9, 1961 January 11, 1965 Democratic Richard O. Ristine 1
42   Roger D. Branigin January 11, 1965 January 13, 1969 Democratic Robert L. Rock 1
43   Edgar Whitcomb January 13, 1969 January 8, 1973 Republican Richard E. Folz 1
44   Otis R. Bowen January 8, 1973 January 12, 1981 Republican Robert D. Orr 2
45   Robert D. Orr January 12, 1981 January 9, 1989 Republican John Mutz 2
46   Evan Bayh January 9, 1989 January 13, 1997 Democratic Frank O'Bannon 2
47   Frank O'Bannon January 13, 1997 September 13, 2003 Democratic Joe Kernan 1 12[N 10]
48   Joe Kernan September 13, 2003 January 10, 2005 Democratic Kathy Davis 12[N 6]
49   Mitch Daniels January 10, 2005 January 14, 2013 Republican Becky Skillman 2
50   Mike Pence January 14, 2013 incumbent Republican Sue Ellspermann 1[N 13]

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of congressional seats and other federal offices held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Indiana except where noted.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Sources
U.S. House U.S. Senate
William Henry Harrison 1800–1812 Delegate from Northwest Territory†,
U.S. Representative and Senator from Ohio, Minister to Gran Colombia,
President of the United States
[15][16]
Thomas Posey 1813–1816 U.S. Senator from Louisiana [17][18]
Jonathan Jennings 1816–1822 H* Delegate from Indiana Territory [19][20]
Ratliff Boon 1822 H [21]
William Hendricks 1822–1825 H† S* [22]
David Wallace 1837–1840 H [23]
James Whitcomb 1843–1848 S* [24]
Joseph A. Wright 1849–1857 H S Minister to Prussia [25][26]
Henry Smith Lane 1861 H S* [27]
Oliver P. Morton 1861–1867 S* [28]
Thomas A. Hendricks 1873–1877 H S Vice President of the United States [29]
James D. Williams 1877–1880 H† [30]
Albert G. Porter 1881–1885 H Minister to Italy [31]
Alvin P. Hovey 1888–1891 H† Minister to Peru [32]
J. Frank Hanly 1905–1909 H [33]
Thomas R. Marshall 1909–1913 Vice President of the United States [34]
Samuel M. Ralston 1913–1917 S [35]
Paul V. McNutt 1933–1937 High Commissioner to the Philippines, Ambassador to the Philippines [36]
Otis R. Bowen 1973–1981 U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services [37]
Robert D. Orr 1981–1989 Ambassador to Singapore [38]
Evan Bayh 1989–1997 S [39]
Mitch Daniels 2005–2013 Director of the Office of Management and Budget[40]
Mike Pence 2013–present H

Living former governors[edit]

As of August 2014, four former governors are alive. The most recent governor to die was Otis R. Bowen (1973-1981), on May 4, 2013. The most recently serving governor to die was Frank O'Bannon (1997–2003), in office on September 13, 2003.

Name Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Edgar Whitcomb 1969–1973 (1917-11-06) November 6, 1917 (age 96)
Evan Bayh 1989–1997 (1955-12-26) December 26, 1955 (age 58)
Joe Kernan 2003–2005 (1946-04-08) April 8, 1946 (age 68)
Mitch Daniels 2005–2013 (1949-04-07) April 7, 1949 (age 65)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ John Gibson is sometimes known as Indiana's second territorial governor. He actually only served as acting governor of the Indiana Territory during the absences of Governor William Henry Harrison.[6]
  2. ^ Does not include acting lieutenant governors. All lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor.
  3. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served due to resignations and deaths. Note that before 1851 the gubernatorial term was three years, and it was four years after 1851.
  4. ^ Christopher Harrison served as acting governor for three months in 1819 while Jennings conducting negotiations with native tribes
  5. ^ Resigned to take elected seat in the United States House of Representatives.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  7. ^ a b c d Resigned to take elected seat in the United States Senate.
  8. ^ As president pro tempore of the Indiana Senate, filled unexpired term.
  9. ^ At age 31, Governor Ray is the youngest person to serve as governor.
  10. ^ a b c d Died in office.
  11. ^ Conrad Baker also acted as governor for five months during Governor Morton's term, as he was lieutenant governor when Morton suffered a stroke and handed over executive powers.[13]
  12. ^ Resigned following his conviction for mail fraud, and served three years in prison until he was pardoned by President Herbert Hoover in 1927.[14]
  13. ^ Governor Pence's term expires on January 9, 2017; he is not yet term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ IN Const. art V
  2. ^ Funk, p. 204
  3. ^ "Henry Smith Lane". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved December 6, 2008. 
  4. ^ Funk, p. 188
  5. ^ Shoemaker, Floyd Calvin (1916). Missouri's Struggle for Statehood, 1804-1821. Jefferson City: The Hugh Stephens Printing Co. pp. 15–24. OCLC 4014912. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  6. ^ "John Gibson Letters". Indiana State Library. Retrieved December 6, 2008. 
  7. ^ Funk, p. 36
  8. ^ 1816 Const. art. IV, § 3
  9. ^ a b IN Const. art. V, § 1
  10. ^ McLauchlan p. 94
  11. ^ a b IN Const. art. V, § 10
  12. ^ Woollen, p. 56
  13. ^ "Indiana Governor Conrad Baker". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 13, 2010. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Warren Terry McCray". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved December 6, 2008. 
  15. ^ Woollen, pp. 1–5
  16. ^ "Harrison, William Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  17. ^ Woollen, p. 28
  18. ^ "Posey, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  19. ^ Woollen, pp. 29–31
  20. ^ "Jennings, Jonathan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Boon, Ratliff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  22. ^ "Hendricks, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  23. ^ "Wallace, David". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  24. ^ "Whitcomb, James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  25. ^ Woollen, p. 96
  26. ^ "Wright, Joseph Albert". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  27. ^ "Lane, Henry Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  28. ^ "Morton, Oliver Hazard Perry Throck". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Hendricks, Thomas Andrew". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Williams, James Douglas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Porter, Albert Gallatin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  32. ^ "Hovery, Alvin Peterson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  33. ^ "Hanly, James Franklin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  34. ^ "Marshall, Thomas Riley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  35. ^ "Ralston, Samuel Moffett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  36. ^ "Indiana Governor Paul Vories McNutt". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 8, 2008. [dead link]
  37. ^ "Indiana Governor Otis Ray Bowen". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 8, 2008. [dead link]
  38. ^ "Robert D. Orr (1917–2004". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Bayh, Evan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  40. ^ "Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on September 12, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2008.