Tipton County, Indiana

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Tipton County, Indiana
Tipton-indiana-courthouse2.jpg
Map of Indiana highlighting Tipton County
Location in the state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana's location in the U.S.
Founded 1844
Named for John Tipton
Seat Tipton
Largest city Tipton
Area
 • Total 260.57 sq mi (675 km2)
 • Land 260.54 sq mi (675 km2)
 • Water 0.03 sq mi (0 km2), 0.01%
Population
 • (2010) 15,936
 • Density 61/sq mi (23.63/km²)
Congressional district 5th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Footnotes: Indiana county number 80

Tipton County is located in central Indiana, north of the state capital of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, the population was 15,936, a decrease of 3.9% from the 2000 population of 16,577.[1] The county seat is Tipton.[2] The county has four incorporated towns with a total population of about 7,000,[3] as well as many small unincorporated communities. It is divided into six townships which provide local services.[4][5] Three Indiana state roads and one U.S. Route cross the county,[6] as do two railroad lines.[7]

Before the arrival of non-indigenous settlers in the early 19th century, the area was inhabited by several Native American tribes. The county was officially established in 1844 and was one of the last Indiana counties to be settled.

History[edit]

Prior to the arrival of non-indigenous settlers in the 1830s, the area now known as Tipton County was inhabited by the Miami and Delaware tribes.[8]

Tipton County was formed in 1844. It was named for John Tipton, a soldier of the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tipton served as United States Senator for Indiana from 1831 until shortly before his death in 1839.[9]

Courthouse[edit]

The first Tipton County Courthouse was a two-story frame building. It was planned in early 1845 and was completed by the end of the year at a cost of about $1200.[n 1] It was expanded the following year. By 1858 a new courthouse was needed, and the brick building was completed by 1859 at a cost of approximately $15,000.[n 2][11]

The present courthouse was designed by Adolph Sherrer. He had taken over the Indiana Statehouse project when architect Edwin May died in 1880; five years after the completion of that project in 1888, Scherrer began work on the Tipton building, which was built of sandstone in a Romanesque style with a clock tower that rises 206 feet above the ground, including the flagstaff on top. It was built by Pierce and Morgan of Indianapolis during 1893 and 1894 at a cost of $170,988.[n 3] It is one of several Romanesque courthouses dating from the 1890s that are still in use.[12]

Geography[edit]

Map of Tipton County

Tipton County lies in the central part of the state. One county, Hamilton, separates it from Indianapolis and Marion County to the south. To the north lies Howard County; to the west, Clinton County; and to the east, Madison County. A short portion of the eastern border, less than 2 miles (3.2 km) long, is shared with Grant County to the northeast.

Most of the county consists of level till plain with elevations from 850 feet (260 m) to 900 feet (270 m) above sea level.[13] Prior to settlement by non-indigenous people, it was mostly covered with dense forests consisting of oak, beech, maple, walnut, hickory, sycamore and tulip trees. The southern part of the county has better natural drainage, and this area was first cleared for agriculture. Much of the rest of the county tended to be swampy due to the level ground and lack of sufficient natural waterways, so drainage channels had to be dug to make the land suitable for farming.[14]

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 260.57 square miles (674.9 km2), of which 260.54 square miles (674.8 km2) (or 99.99%) is land and 0.03 square miles (0.078 km2) (or 0.01%) is water.[15]

The county is divided into six townships: Cicero, Jefferson, Liberty, Madison, Prairie and Wildcat.[4]

There are four incorporated settlements in the county. The largest is Tipton. Located near the center of the county, it is the county seat; its population in 2000 was 5251.[16] Kempton is located near the western border in Jefferson Township and has a population of 380.[17] The town of Sharpsville is located near the northern border, in Liberty Township; its population is 618.[18] Wildcat Township contains Windfall City, which has a population of 712.[19] The city of Elwood lies in Madison County to the east and extends slightly over the border; as of the 2000 census, seven Elwood residents lived in Tipton County.[3] The county also contains several unincorporated communities.[20]

Climate and weather[edit]

Tipton, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1.9
 
31
15
 
 
1.7
 
37
19
 
 
3
 
47
28
 
 
3.6
 
60
36
 
 
4
 
71
47
 
 
4.2
 
80
57
 
 
4.2
 
83
61
 
 
3
 
81
58
 
 
2.9
 
76
51
 
 
2.5
 
64
40
 
 
3.2
 
49
31
 
 
2.9
 
37
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[21]

Tipton County is in the humid continental climate region of the United States along with most of Indiana. Its Köppen climate classification is Dfa,[22] meaning that it is cold, has no dry season, and has a hot summer.[23] In recent years, average temperatures in Tipton have ranged from a low of 15 °F (−9 °C) in January to a high of 83 °F (28 °C) in July, although a record low of −25 °F (−32 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 98 °F (37 °C) was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.67 inches (42 mm) in February to 4.24 inches (108 mm) in June.[21] From 1950 through 2009, 13 tornadoes were reported in Tipton County, resulting in two deaths and several injuries; the total estimated property damage was over $3 million.[24]

Transportation[edit]

No interstate highways run through Tipton County. U.S. Route 31 runs through the western part of the county, entering from Howard County and Kokomo in the north and continuing to Hamilton County and Indianapolis in the south.[25] Indiana State Road 19 and Indiana State Road 28 intersect in the county seat of Tipton.[26][27] Indiana State Road 213 runs from north to south in the eastern part of the county, passing through the town of Windfall.[28]

Though they do not run through the county, three other state roads touch its southeastern corner. Indiana State Road 13 and Indiana State Road 37 share the same route here while approaching Elwood.[29][30] The point where they touch the corner of Tipton County is also the western terminus of Indiana State Road 128.[31]

Two Norfolk Southern Railway routes run through the county. One line connects Muncie in the east with Frankfort in the west. The other connects Logansport and Kokomo in the north with Indianapolis in the south. The two lines intersect in Tipton.[7]

Economy[edit]

Tipton County's economy is supported by a labor force of approximately 7,169 workers with an unemployment rate in September 2011 of 8.8%.[32]

Education[edit]

Tipton County has six schools, managed by three school corporations.[33] The Tipton Community School Corporation includes an elementary school, a middle school, and a high school, all located in Tipton; these schools served a total of 1,821 students during the 2009–2010 school year.[34] In the north part of the county, Tri-Central Community Schools (formerly Northern Community Schools) includes an elementary school and a combined middle and high school, both located in Sharpsville; these schools served a total of 970 students during the same school year.[35] Saint John the Baptist School was located in Tipton and was part of the Diocese of Lafayette Catholic Schools; it was an elementary school and served 82 students during the 2009–2010 school year.,[36] but it closed in 2014 due to declining enrollment.

Notable people[edit]

Charles Benjamin "Babe" Adams was born in Tipton in 1882. He became a baseball pitcher, and aside from a single game played for the Saint Louis Cardinals in 1906, he played his entire Major League career with the Pittsburgh Pirates, and was known for his location control. His last Major League game was in 1926. He died in 1968 at age 86.[37]

John Bunch was born in Tipton in 1921 and became a jazz pianist. While still in his early teens, he was playing in local clubs, and went on to play with the bands of Woody Herman, Benny Goodman and Maynard Ferguson. He composed many original works, and continued playing in various roles through early 2010. He died in Manhattan soon after his last engagement; he was 88 years old.[38]

Government[edit]

The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes.[39][40]

The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue and managing day-to-day functions of the county government.[39][40]

The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[40]

The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and be residents of the county.[40]

Each of the townships has a trustee who administers rural fire protection and ambulance service, provides poor relief and manages cemetery care, among other duties.[5] The trustee is assisted in these duties by a three-member township board. The trustees and board members are elected to four-year terms.[41]

Tipton County is part of Indiana's 5th congressional district; Indiana Senate districts 20 and 21;[42] and Indiana House of Representatives districts 32 and 35.[43]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 3,532
1860 8,170 131.3%
1870 11,953 46.3%
1880 14,407 20.5%
1890 18,157 26.0%
1900 19,116 5.3%
1910 17,459 −8.7%
1920 16,152 −7.5%
1930 15,208 −5.8%
1940 15,135 −0.5%
1950 15,566 2.8%
1960 15,856 1.9%
1970 16,650 5.0%
1980 16,819 1.0%
1990 16,119 −4.2%
2000 16,577 2.8%
2010 15,936 −3.9%
Est. 2013 15,650 −1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[44]
1790-1960[45] 1900-1990[46]
1990-2000[47] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[48] of 2000, there were 16,577 people, 6,469 households, and 4,748 families residing in the county. The population density was 64 people per square mile (25/km²). There were 6,848 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile (10/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.35% Whiteor caucasian, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.65% from two or more races. 1.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 33.1% were of American, 22.8% German, 12.7% English and 7.3% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 6,469 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.30% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.60% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the county the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, and 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $48,546, and the median income for a family was $56,080. Males had a median income of $42,109 versus $25,061 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,926. About 2.90% of families and 5.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.50% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over.

Another view of the courthouse
Tipton County jail

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A $1,200 capital expense in 1845 would be roughly equivalent to $602,000 in 2010.[10]
  2. ^ A $15,000 capital expense in 1858 would be roughly equivalent to $5,200,000 in 2010.[10]
  3. ^ A $171,000 capital expense in 1894 would be roughly equivalent to $39,000,000 in 2010.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Tipton County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  2. ^ "Find a County – Tipton County, IN". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  3. ^ a b "Tipton County, Indiana – County Subdivision and Place. GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-02-09. 
  4. ^ a b "Tipton". Indiana Township Association. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  5. ^ a b "Duties". United Township Association of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  6. ^ "Indiana Transportation Map 2009–2010" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  7. ^ a b "State of Indiana 2011 Rail System Map" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  8. ^ Goodspeed 1883, pp. 1–2.
  9. ^ Goodrich, De Witt Clinton; Tuttle, Charles Richard (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indianapolis: R. S. Peale and Company. p. 574. 
  10. ^ a b c Williamson, Samuel H. (April 2010). Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1774 to present. MeasuringWorth. Calculations made using Nominal GDP Per Capita, a measure of capital intensivity, using "the 'average' per-person output of the economy in the prices of the current year." This is a measure of the amount of capital and volume of labor required to reproduce the work over varying production methods, but assuming that money represents a proportion of the economy.
  11. ^ Goodspeed 1883, pp. 18–20.
  12. ^ Counts, Will; Jon Dilts (1991). The 92 Magnificent Indiana Courthouses. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 166–7. ISBN 978-0-253-33638-5. 
  13. ^ Hurst 1914, p. 1–2.
  14. ^ Hurst 1914, p. 10.
  15. ^ "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  16. ^ "Census data for Tipton". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  17. ^ "Census data for Kempton". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  18. ^ "Census data for Sharpsville". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  19. ^ "Census data for Windfall City". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  20. ^ United States Geological Survey. "Geographic Names Information System: Populated places in Tipton County, Indiana". Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  21. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Tipton, Indiana". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  22. ^ "Köppen Climate Classification for the Conterminous United States". Idaho State Climate Services. Retrieved 2011-01-23. 
  23. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Copernicus Publications. p. 1636. Retrieved 2011-01-23. 
  24. ^ "Tipton County Tornadoes, 1950–2009". National Weather Service. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  25. ^ "U.S. Route 31". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  26. ^ "State Road 19". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  27. ^ "State Road 28". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  28. ^ "State Road 213". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  29. ^ "State Road 13". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  30. ^ "State Road 37". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  31. ^ "State Road 128". Highway Explorer. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  32. ^ STATS Indiana. "InDepth Profile: Tipton County, Indiana". Indiana Business Research Center. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  33. ^ "Tipton County School Corporations". Indiana Department of Education. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  34. ^ "Tipton Community School Corp - Overview". Indiana Department of Education. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  35. ^ "Tri-Central Community Schools - Overview". Indiana Department of Education. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  36. ^ "Saint John the Baptist School - Overview". Indiana Department of Education. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  37. ^ "Babe Adams". Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  38. ^ "John Bunch". Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  39. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". Government of Indiana. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  40. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). Government of Indiana. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  41. ^ "Government". United Township Association of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  42. ^ "Indiana Senate Districts". State of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  43. ^ "Indiana House Districts". State of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  44. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  45. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  46. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  47. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  48. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°19′N 86°03′W / 40.31°N 86.05°W / 40.31; -86.05