List of missions to the Moon

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As part of man's exploration of the Moon, many space missions have been undertaken to study Earth's natural satellite. Luna 2 was the first spacecraft to reach its surface successfully, intentionally impacting the Moon on 14 September 1959. In 1966, Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to achieve a controlled soft landing, while Luna 10 became the first mission to enter orbit.

Between 1968 and 1972, manned missions to the Moon were conducted by the United States as part of the Apollo programme. Apollo 8 was the first manned mission to enter orbit in December 1968, and was followed by Apollo 10 in May 1969. Six missions landed men on the Moon, beginning with Apollo 11 in July 1969, during which Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon. Apollo 13 was intended to land, however it was restricted to a flyby due to a malfunction aboard the spacecraft. All nine manned missions returned safely to the Earth.

While the United States focused on the manned Apollo programme, the Soviet Union conducted unmanned missions that deployed rovers and returned samples to the Earth. Three rover missions were launched, of which two were successful, and eleven sample return flights were attempted with three successes.

Missions to the moon have been conducted by the Soviet Union, United States, European Space Agency, Japan, India and the People's Republic of China. The Moon has also been visited by five spacecraft not dedicated to studying it; four spacecraft have flown past it to gain gravity assists, and a radio telescope, Explorer 49, was placed into selenocentric orbit in order to use the Moon to block interference from terrestrial radio sources.

Spacecraft Launch Date[1] Carrier rocket[2] Operator Mission Outcome Remarks
Able I[3] 17 August 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I[3] USAF
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure First attempted launch beyond Earth orbit; failed to orbit due to turbopump gearbox malfunction resulting in first stage explosion.[3] Reached apogee of 16 kilometres (9.9 mi)[4]
E-1 No.1 23 September 1958 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; rocket disintegrated due to excessive vibration[3][5]
Able II[3] 11 October 19581 Thor DM-18 Able I[3] NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; premature second stage cutoff due to accelerometer failure. Later known as Pioneer 1.[3] Reached apogee of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi).[6]
E-1 No.2 11 October 19582 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; carrier rocket exploded due to excessive vibration.[3][5]
Pioneer 2
(Able III)
8 November 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; premature second stage cutoff due to erroneous command by ground controllers; third stage failed to ignite due to broken electrical connection[3] Reached apogee of 1,550 kilometres (960 mi).[7]
E-1 No.3 4 December 1958 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; seal failure in hydrogen peroxide pump cooling system resulted in core stage underperformance[3][5]
Pioneer 3 6 December 1958 Juno II NASA
United States
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; premature first stage cutoff.[3] Reached apogee of 102,360 kilometres (63,600 mi).[8]
Mechta
(E-1 No.4)
2 January 1959 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor 0.1Launch failure Carrier rocket guidance problem resulted in failure to impact Moon, flew past in heliocentric orbit, later known as Luna 1[9] Closest approach 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi) on 4 January.[10]
Pioneer 4 3 March 1959 Juno II NASA
United States
Flyby 0.1Launch failure Second stage overperformance resulted in flyby at greater altitude than expected, out of instrument range.[9] Closest approach at 22:25 UTC on 4 March. First US spacecraft to leave Earth orbit.[11]
E-1A No.1 18 June 1959 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; guidance system malfunction[9]
Luna 2
(E-1A No.2)
12 September 1959 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor 4Successful Successful impact at 21:02 on 14 September 1959. First spacecraft to reach lunar surface[12]
Luna 3
(E-2A No.1)
4 October 1959 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby 4Successful Returned first images of the far side of the Moon[13]
P-3
Able IVB
26 November 1959 Atlas-D Able NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit;[14] payload fairing disintegrated due to design fault[9]
E-3 No.1 15 April 1960 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; premature third stage cutoff[15]
E-3 No.2 16 April 1960 Luna OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; rocket disintegrated ten seconds after launch[15]
P-30
(Able VA)
25 September 1960 Atlas-D Able NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; second stage oxidiser system malfunction resulting in premature cutoff[15][16] payload fairing disintegrated due to design fault[9]
P-31
(Able VB)
15 December 1960 Atlas-D Able NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit;[17] second stage ignited while first stage was still attached and burning, vehicle exploded[15]
Ranger 3
(P-34)
26 January 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 1Spacecraft failure Partial launch failure due to guidance problem; attempt to correct using spacecraft's engine resulted in it missing the Moon by 36,793 kilometres (22,862 mi)[18][19]
Ranger 4
(P-35)
23 April 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 1Spacecraft failure Failed to deploy solar panels, ran out of power ten hours after launch; incidental impact on the far side of the Moon on 26 April[18][20]
Ranger 5
(P-36)
18 October 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 1Spacecraft failure Solar panels erroneously disengaged from power system, failed 8 34 hours after launch when batteries were depleted.[18] Missed the Moon as course correction was not completed[21]
E-6 No.2 4 January 1963 Molniya-L OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander 0Launch failure Failed to depart Low Earth orbit;[22] guidance system power failure prevented upper stage ignition[23]
E-6 No.3 3 February 1963 Molniya-L OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; guidance failure[23]
Luna 4
(E-6 No.4)
2 April 1963 Molniya-L OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Failed to perform mid-course correction,[23] remained in high Earth orbit until given escape velocity by orbital perturbation[24]
Ranger 6
(P-54)
30 January 1964 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 1.5Spacecraft failure Impacted on 2 February 1964, failed to return images due to power system failure[25][26]
E-6 No.6 21 March 1964 Molniya-M OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; third stage underperformed due to oxidiser valve failure[25]
E-6 No.5 20 April 1964 Molniya-M OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; power failure caused by broken connection resulted in premature third stage cutoff[25]
Ranger 7 28 July 1964 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 4Successful Impacted on 30 July 1964 at 13:25:48 UTC[27]
Ranger 8 17 February 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 4Successful Impacted on 20 February 1965 at 09:57:37 UTC[28][29]
Kosmos 60
(E-6 No.9)
12 March 1965 Molniya-L NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 0Launch failure Upper stage failed to restart due to guidance system short-circuit.[28] Failed to depart low Earth orbit[30]
Ranger 9 21 March 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA
United States
Impactor 4Successful Impacted on 24 March 1965 at 14:08:20 UTC[28][31]
E-6 No.8 10 April 1965 Molniya-L NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 0Launch failure Third stage failed to ignite due to loss of oxidiser pressure, failed to orbit[28]
Luna 5
(E-6 No.10)
9 May 1965 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Loss of control after gyroscope malfunction,[28] failed to decelerate for landing and impacted the Moon at 19:10 UTC on 12 May 1965.[32]
Luna 6
(E-6 No.7)
8 June 1965 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Engine failed to shut down after performing mid-course correction manoeuvre,[28] flew past the moon in heliocentric orbit.[33]
Zond 3
(3MV-4 No.3)
18 July 1965 Molniya NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 4Successful Flew past the Moon on 20 July 1965 at a distance of 9,200 kilometres (5,700 mi).[34] Conducted technology demonstration for future planetary missions.[28]
Luna 7
(E-6 No.11)
4 October 1965 Molniya NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Attitude control failure shortly before landing prevented controlled descent; impacted the lunar surface 22:08:24 UTC on 7 October 1965.[28][35]
Luna 8
(E-6 No.12)
3 December 1965 Molniya NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Landing airbag punctured, resulting in loss of attitude control shortly before planned touchdown,[28] impacted Moon at 21:51:30 UTC on 6 December 1965[36]
Luna 9
(E-6 No.13)
31 January 1966 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 4Successful First spacecraft to land successfully on the Moon; touchdown at 18:45:30 UTC on 3 February 1966.[37] Returned data until 22:55 UTC on 6 February.[38]
Kosmos 111
(E-6S No.204)
1 March 1966 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 0Launch failure Upper stage lost attitude control and failed to ignite;[38] spacecraft never left low Earth orbit[39]
Luna 10
(E-6S No.206)
31 March 1966 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit at 18:44 UTC on 3 April 1966, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the moon.[40] Continued to return data until 30 May.[38]
Surveyor 1 30 May 1966 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful Landed in Oceanus Procellarum at 06:17:36 UTC on 2 June 1966.[38] Returned data until loss of power on 13 July.[41]
Explorer 33
(AIMP-D)
1 July 1966 Delta E1 NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Magnetospheric probe; rocket imparted greater velocity than had been planned, leaving spacecraft unable to enter orbit.[38] Repurposed for Earth orbit mission which was completed successfully.[42]
Lunar Orbiter 1 10 August 1966 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA
United States
Orbiter 2Partial failure Orbital insertion at around 15:36 UTC on 14 August. Deorbited early due to lack of fuel and to avoid communications interference with the next mission, impacted the Moon at 13:30 UTC on 29 October 1966.[43]
Luna 11
(E-6LF No.101)
21 August 1966 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 2Partial failure[38] Entered orbit on 28 August 1966. Failed to return images; other instruments operated correctly. Conducted gamma ray and X-ray observations to study the composition of the Moon, investigated the lunar gravitational field, the presence of meteorites in the lunar environment and the radiation environment at the Moon. Ceased operations on 1 October 1966 after power was depleted.[44]
Surveyor 2 20 September 1966 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 1Spacecraft failure One thruster failed to ignite during mid-course correction manoeuvre resulting in loss of control.[38] Impacted the Moon at 03:18 UTC on 23 September 1966.[45]
Luna 12
(E-6LF No.102)
22 October 1966 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit on 25 October 1966 and returned data until 19 January 1967.[46] Completed photography mission intended for Luna 11.[38]
Lunar Orbiter 2 6 November 1966 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit at about 19:51 UTC on 10 November 1966 to begin photographic mapping mission. Impacted on the far side of the lunar surface following deorbit burn on 11 October 1967 at end of mission.[47]
Luna 13
(E-6M No.205)
21 December 1966 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander 4Successful Successfully landed in Oceanus Procellarum at 18:01 UTC on 24 December 1966.[38] Returned images from the surface and studied the lunar soil.[48] Operated until depletion of power at 06:31 UTC on 28 December.[38]
Lunar Orbiter 3 5 February 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit at 21:54 UTC on 8 February 1967. Deorbited at end of mission and impacted the Moon on 9 October 1967.[49]
Surveyor 3 17 April 1967 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful Landed at 00:04 UTC on 20 April 1967 and operated until 3 May.[50][51] Visited by Apollo 12 astronauts in 1969, with some parts removed for return to Earth.[52]
Lunar Orbiter 4 4 May 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit at 21:54 UTC on 8 May 1967, operated until 17 July. Decayed from orbit, with lunar impact occurring on 6 October 1967.[50][53]
Surveyor 4 14 July 1967 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Contact with spacecraft lost at 02:03 UTC on 17 July, two and a half minutes before scheduled landing.[50] NASA determined that the spacecraft may have exploded, otherwise it impacted the Moon.[54]
Explorer 35
(AIMP-E)
19 July 1967 Delta E1 NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Magnetospheric probe
Lunar Orbiter 5 1 August 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful
Surveyor 5 8 September 1967 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful
7K-L1 No.4L 27 September 1967 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; technology demonstration for planned manned missions
Surveyor 6 7 November 1967 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful
7K-L1 No.5L 22 November 1967 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; technology demonstration for planned manned missions
Surveyor 7 7 January 1968 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful
E-6LS No.112 6 February 1969 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit
Zond 4
(7K-L1 No.6L)
2 March 1968 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
FlybyPossible flyby Unclear Launched away from the Moon, unclear if this was due to a malfunction, or whether this was a test of the spacecraft without a Lunar flyby
Luna 14
(E-6LS No.113)
6 February 1969 Molniya-M NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 4Successful
7K-L1 No.7L 22 April 1968 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; technology demonstration for planned manned missions
Zond 5
(7K-L1 No.9L)
14 September 1968 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 4Successful Technology demonstration for planned manned missions; first spacecraft to return to Earth following Lunar mission
Zond 6
(7K-L1 No.12L)
10 November 1968 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 1Spacecraft failure Technology demonstration for planned manned missions; Parachute failure upon return to Earth, recovery failed, only one image returned
Apollo 8 21 December 1968 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter 4Successful First manned mission to the Moon
7K-L1 No.13L 20 January 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; technology demonstration for planned manned missions
E-8 No.201 19 February 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander/Rover 0Launch failure Failed to orbit
7K-L1S No.3 21 February 1969 N1 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; intended to orbit the Moon and return to Earth
Apollo 10 18 May 1969 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter 4Successful Dress rehearsal for Apollo 11
E-8-5 No.402 14 June 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 0Launch failure Failed to orbit
7K-L1S No.5 3 July 1969 N1 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; intended to orbit the Moon and return to Earth
Luna 15
(E-8-5 No.401)
13 July 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 1Spacecraft failure Failed during descent, impacted the Moon on 21 July 1969
Apollo 11 16 July 1969 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander 4Successful First manned landing on the Moon. LM landed at 20:17 UTC on 20 July 1969
Zond 7
(7K-L1 No.11L)
7 August 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 4Successful Technology demonstration for planned manned missions; returned to Earth successfully
Kosmos 300
(E-8-5 No.403)
23 September 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 0Launch failure Failed to depart LEO
Kosmos 305
(E-8-5 No.404)
22 October 1969 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 0Launch failure Failed to depart LEO
Apollo 12 14 November 1969 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander 4Successful
E-8-5 No.405 6 February 1970 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 0Launch failure Failed to orbit
Apollo 13 11 April 1970 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander 1Spacecraft failure Mission aborted following oxygen tank explosion, flew past the Moon without entering orbit and returned to Earth
Luna 16
(E-8-5 No.406)
12 September 1970 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 4Successful
Zond 8
(7K-L1 No.14L)
20 October 1970 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby 4Successful Technology demonstration for planned manned missions; returned to Earth successfully
Luna 17
(E-8 No.203)
10 November 1970 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander/Rover 4Successful Deployed Lunokhod 1
Apollo 14 31 January 1971 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander 4Successful
Apollo 15 26 July 1971 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover 4Successful
PFS-1 26 July 1971 Saturn V NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Deployed from Apollo 15
Luna 18
(E-8-5 No.407)
2 September 1971 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 1Spacecraft failure Failed during descent to lunar surface
Luna 19
(E-8LS No.202)
28 September 1971 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 4Successful
Luna 20
(E-8-5 No.408)
14 February 1972 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 4Successful
Apollo 16 16 April 1972 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover 4Successful
PFS-2 16 April 1972 Saturn V NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Deployed from Apollo 16
7K-LOK No.1 3 July 1969 N1 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; intended to orbit the Moon and return to Earth
Apollo 17 7 December 1972 Saturn V NASA
United States
Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover 4Successful Last manned Moon landing
Luna 21
(E-8 No.204)
8 January 1973 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander/Rover 4Successful Deployed Lunokhod 2
Explorer 49
(RAE-B)
10 June 1973 Delta 1913 NASA
United States
Orbiter N/A Radio astronomy spacecraft, operated in selenocentric orbit to avoid interference from terrestrial radio sources
Luna 22
(E-8LS No.206)
29 May 1974 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter 4Successful
Luna 23
(E-8-5M No.410)
28 October 1974 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 1Spacecraft failure Tipped over upon landing
E-8-5M No.412 16 October 1975 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 0Launch failure Failed to orbit
Luna 24
(E-8-5M No.413)
9 August 1976 Proton-K/D NPO Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Sample return 4Successful Final mission of the Luna programme. Entered orbit on 11 August 1976 and landed in Mare Crisium at 16:36 UTC on 18 August. Sample capsule launched at 05:25 UTC on 19 August and recovered 96 12 hours later.[55] Returned 170.1 grams (6.00 oz) of lunar regolith.[56]
ISEE-3
(ICE/Explorer 59)
12 August 1978 Delta 2914 NASA
United States
Gravity assist N/A Five flybys in 1982 and 1983 en route to comet 21P/Giacobini–Zinner
Hiten
(MUSES-A)
24 January 1990 Mu-3S-II ISAS
Japan
Flyby/Orbiter 4Successful Designed for flyby, placed into selenocentric orbit during extended mission after failure of Hagoromo
Hagoromo 24 January 1990 Mu-3S-II ISAS
Japan
Orbiter 1Spacecraft failure Deployed from Hiten. Communications failure; entered selenocentric orbit but returned no data
Geotail 24 July 1992 Delta II 6925 ISAS/NASA
Japan/United States
Gravity assist N/A Series of flybys to regulate high Earth orbit
Clementine
(DSPSE)
25 January 1994 Titan II (23)G Star-37FM USAF/NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Completed Lunar objectives successfully; failed following departure from selenocentric orbit
HGS-1 24 December 1997 Proton-K/DM3 Hughes
United States
Gravity assist N/A Communications satellite; made two flybys in May and June 1998 en route to geosynchronous orbit after delivery into wrong orbit
Lunar Prospector
(Discovery 3)
7 January 1998 Athena II NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful
Nozomi
(PLANET-B)
3 July 1998 Mu-5M-V ISAS
Japan
Gravity assist N/A Two flybys en route to Mars
SMART-1 27 September 2003 Ariane 5G ESA
Europe
Orbiter 4Successful Impacted moon in LQ26 quadrangle at end of mission on 3 September 2006
ARTEMIS P1 17 February 2007 Delta II 7925 NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational THEMIS spacecraft moved to selenocentric orbit for extended mission; entered orbit July 2011
ARTEMIS P2 17 February 2007 Delta II 7925 NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational THEMIS spacecraft moved to selenocentric orbit for extended mission; entered orbit July 2011
Kaguya
(SELENE)
14 September 2007 H-IIA 2022 JAXA
Japan
Orbiter 4Successful Impacted the Moon in LQ30 quadrangle at end of mission on 10 June 2009[57]
Okina
(RSAT)
14 September 2007 H-IIA 2022 JAXA
Japan
Orbiter 4Successful Deployed from Kaguya, decayed and impacted moon in LQ08 quadrangle on 12 February 2009 after end of mission
Ouna
(VRAD)
14 September 2007 H-IIA 2022 JAXA
Japan
Orbiter 4Successful Deployed from Kaguya, completed operations on 29 June 2009[58] but remains in selenocentric orbit
Chang'e 1 24 October 2007 Chang Zheng 3A CNSA
PR China
Orbiter 4Successful Impacted moon in LQ21 quadrangle on 1 March 2009, at end of mission
Chandrayaan-1 21 October 2008 PSLV-XL ISRO
India
Orbiter 2Partial failure Failed partway through mission, remains in selenocentric orbit; discovered & confirmed water on Moon[59]
Moon Impact Probe 21 October 2008 PSLV-XL ISRO
India
Impactor 4Successful Deployed from Chandrayaan-1, impacted Moon in LQ30 quadrangle on 14 November 2008
LRO 18 June 2009 Atlas V 401 NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational
LCROSS 18 June 2009 Atlas V 401 NASA
United States
Impactor 4Successful Observed impact of Centaur upper stage that launched it and LRO, then impacted itself. Impacts in LQ30 quadrangle
Chang'e 2 1 October 2010 Chang Zheng 3C CNSA
PR China
Orbiter 4Successful Following completion of six month Lunar mission, departed selenocentric orbit for Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point;[60] subsequently flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis[61]
Ebb
(GRAIL-A)
10 September 2011[62][63] Delta II 7920H NASA
United States
Orbiter[64] 4Successful Part of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory,[65] impacted the moon in LQ01 quadrangle on 17 December 2012 at end of mission.[66]
Flow
(GRAIL-B)
10 September 2011[62][63] Delta II 7920H NASA
United States
Orbiter[64] 4Successful Part of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory,[65] impacted the moon in LQ01 quadrangle on 17 December 2012 at end of mission.[66]
LADEE 7 September 2013 Minotaur V NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational
Chang'e 3 1 December 2013 Chang Zheng 3B CNSA
PR China
Lander/Rover 5Operational Entered orbit on 6 December 2013 with landing at 13:12 UTC on 14 December. Deployed Yutu rover.

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