Comparison of orbital launch systems

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This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families.

Spacecraft propulsion[note 1] is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).[note 2] Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some[note 3] have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.[note 4]

Legend for orbit abbreviations in table:

Legend for launch system status in below table:   [under development] — [retired] — [operational]

Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to
LEO
(kg)
Mass to
other orbits
(kg)
Launches Status First flight Last flight
Angara 1.2  Russia Khrunichev 3,800[1] 0 Development July 2014, suborbital test flight [2]
Angara A5  Russia Khrunichev 24,500[3][4] 5,400-7,300 to GTO[5] 0 Development[5]
Antares 110  United States Orbital 2[6] Retired 2013 2013
Antares 120  United States Orbital 4,600[7] 1,500 to SSO[7] 2[6] Operational 2014
Antares 121  United States Orbital 4,750[7] 2,900 to SSO[7] 0 Operational
Antares 130  United States Orbital 5,100[7] 0 Development
Antares 131  United States Orbital 5,600[7] 3,600 to SSO[7] 0 Development
Antares 132  United States Orbital 1,800 to GTO[7] 0 Development
Ariane 1  Europe Aérospatiale 1,400 1,830 to GTO[8] 11[8] Retired 1979 1986
Ariane 2  Europe Aérospatiale 2,270 to GTO[8] 6[8] Retired 1986 1989
Ariane 3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,650 to GTO[8] 11[8] Retired 1984 1989
Ariane 4 40  Europe Aérospatiale 4,600[8] 2,740 to SSO
1,900 to GTO[8]
3[8] Retired 1990 1993
Ariane 4 40 H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 2,020 to GTO[8] 1[8] Retired 1995 1995
Ariane 4 40 H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,105 to GTO[8] 3[8] Retired 1995 1999
Ariane 4 42L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 4,500 to SSO
3,200 to GTO[8]
1[8] Retired 1993 1993
Ariane 4 42L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 3,350 to GTO[8] 1[8] Retired 1994 1994
Ariane 4 42L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 3,480 to GTO[8] 11[8] Retired 1995 2002
Ariane 4 42P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,000[8] 3,400 to SSO
2,600 to GTO[8]
2[8] Retired 1990 1992
Ariane 4 42P H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 2,740 to GTO[8] 4[8] Retired 1992 1994
Ariane 4 42P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,930 to GTO[8] 9[8] Retired 1994 2002
Ariane 4 44L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 6,000 to SSO
4,200 to GTO[8]
11[8] Retired 1989 1992
Ariane 4 44L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 4,460 to GTO[8] 5[8] Retired 1992 1994
Ariane 4 44L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 4,720 to GTO[8] 24[8] Retired 1995 2003
Ariane 4 44LP  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 5,000 to SSO
3,700 to GTO[8]
7[8] Retired 1988 1993
Ariane 4 44LP H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 4,030 to GTO[8] 6[8] Retired 1992 1995
Ariane 4 44LP H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[8] 4,220 to GTO[8] 13[8] Retired 1995 2001
Ariane 4 44P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,500[8] 4,100 to SSO
3,000 to GTO[8]
2[8] Retired 1991 1991
Ariane 4 44P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 3,465 to GTO[8] 9[8] Retired 1995 2001
Ariane 5ECA  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[9] 10,050 to GTO[10] 44[11] [note 5] Operational 2002
Ariane 5ME  Europe EADS Astrium 25,200[12] 11,500 to GTO[13] 0 Development
Ariane 5ES  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[9] 8,000 to GTO[11] 4[11] Operational 2008
Ariane 5G  Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[11] 6,900[11] 16[11] Retired[14] 1996 2003
Ariane 5G+  Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[citation needed] 7,100 to GTO [11] 3[11] Retired[14] 2004 2004
Ariane 5GS  Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[citation needed] 6,600 to GTO [11] 6[11] Retired[14] 2005 2009
Ariane 6  Europe EADS Astrium 6,500 to GTO 0 Development
ASLV  India ISRO[15] 150[16] 4[16] Retired 1987 1994
Athena I  United States Lockheed Martin 820 4[17] Retired 1995 2001
Athena Ic [18]  United States ATK
Lockheed Martin
0 Development
Athena II  United States Lockheed Martin 2,065[citation needed] 3[19] Retired[citation needed] 1998 1999
Athena IIc [18]  United States ATK
Lockheed Martin
0 Development
Atlas-Centaur  United States Lockheed 8,618[citation needed] 3,833 to GTO[citation needed] 148 Retired 1962 1983
Atlas G  United States Lockheed 5,900[20] 2,222 to GTO
1,179 to HCO[20]
7[20] Retired 1984 1989
Atlas H/MSD  United States Lockheed 5 Retired 1983 1987
Atlas I  United States Lockheed Martin 5,900[20] 2,340[20] 11[20] Retired 1990 1997
Atlas II  United States Lockheed Martin 6,780[20] 2,810 to GTO
2,000 to HCO[20]
10[20] Retired 1991 1998
Atlas IIA  United States Lockheed Martin 7,316[20] 3,180 to GTO
2,160 to HCO[20]
23[20] Retired 1992 2002
Atlas IIAS  United States Lockheed Martin 8,618[20] 3,833 to GTO
2,680 to HCO[20]
30[20] Retired 1993 2004
Atlas IIIA  United States Lockheed Martin 8,686[20] 4,060 to GTO
2,970 to HCO[20]
2[20] Retired 2000 2004
Atlas IIIB/DEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,759[20] 4,609 to GTO[20] 1[20] Retired 2002 2002
Atlas IIIB/SEC  United States Lockheed Martin 4,193 to GTO [20] 3[20] Retired 2003 2005
Atlas V 401  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[21] 6,670 to SSO
4,950 to GTO[21]
20[21] Operational 2002
Atlas V 411  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[21] 8,495 to SSO
6,075 to GTO[21]
3[21] Operational 2006
Atlas V 421  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[21] 9,050 to SSO
7,000 to GTO[21]
3[21] Operational 2007
Atlas V 431  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[21] 9,050 to SSO
7,800 to GTO[21]
2[21] Operational 2005
Atlas V 501  United States United Launch Alliance 8,250[21] 5,945 to SSO
3,970 to GTO
1,500 to GEO[21]
5[21] Operational 2010
Atlas V 511  United States United Launch Alliance 10,950[21] 7,820 to SSO
5,370 to GTO
1,750 to GEO[21]
0[21] Operational
Atlas V 521  United States United Launch Alliance 13,300[21] 9,585 to SSO
6,485 to GTO
2,760 to GEO[21]
2[21] Operational 2003
Atlas V 531  United States United Launch Alliance 15,300[21] 11,160 to SSO
7,425 to GTO
3,250 to GEO[21]
3[21] Operational 2010
Atlas V 541  United States United Launch Alliance 17,100[21] 12,435 to SSO
8,240 to GTO
3,730 to GEO[21]
1[21] Operational 2011
Atlas V 551  United States United Launch Alliance 18,500[21] 12,435 to SSO
8,700 to GTO
3,960 to GEO[21]
4[21] Operational 2006
Black Arrow  United Kingdom RAE 73 2 Retired 1969[note 6] 1971
Titan IIICommercial Titan III  United States Martin Marietta 4 Retired 1990 1992
Delta 0300  United States McDonnell Douglas 700[citation needed] 370 to SSO[citation needed] 3[22] Retired[23] 1972 1973
Delta 0900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,300[24] 818 to SSO[22] 2[22] Retired 1972 1972
Delta 1410  United States McDonnell Douglas 1[22] Retired 1975 1975
Delta 1604  United States McDonnell Douglas 2[22] Retired 1972 1973
Delta 1900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,800[22] 1[22] Retired 1973 1973
Delta 1910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1[22] Retired 1975 1975
Delta 1913  United States McDonnell Douglas 1[22] Retired 1973 1973
Delta 1914  United States McDonnell Douglas 2[22] Retired 1972 1973
Delta 2310  United States McDonnell Douglas 3[22] Retired 1974 1981
Delta 2313  United States McDonnell Douglas 3[22] Retired 1974 1977
Delta 2910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,887[22] 6[22] Retired 1975 1978
Delta 2913  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,000[25] 700 to GTO[25] 6[22] Retired 1975 1976
Delta 2914  United States McDonnell Douglas 724 to GTO[22] 30[22] Retired 1974 1979
Delta 3910  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,494[22] 1,154 to GTO with PAM-D[22] 10[22] Retired 1980 1988
Delta 3913  United States McDonnell Douglas 1[22] Retired 1981 1981
Delta 3914  United States McDonnell Douglas 954 to GTO[22] 13[22] Retired 1975 1987
Delta 3920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,452[22] 1,284 to GTO with PAM-D[22] 10[22] Retired 1982 1989
Delta 3924  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,104 to GTO[22] 4[22] Retired 1982 1984
Delta 4925  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,400[26] 1,312 to GTO[22] 2[22] Retired 1989 1990
Delta 5920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,848[27] 1[22] Retired 1989 1989
Delta II 6920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,983[22] 3[22] Retired 1990 1992
Delta II 6925  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,447 to GTO[22] 14[22] Retired 1989 1992
Delta II 7320  United States United Launch Alliance 2,865[note 7][22] 1,651 to SSO[note 7][22] 10[22] Operational 1999 2014[28]
Delta II 7326  United States Boeing IDS 934 to GTO
636 to TLI
629 to HCO[note 7][22]
3[22] Retired 1998[citation needed]
Delta II 7420  United States United Launch Alliance 3,185[note 7][22] 1,966 to SSO[note 7][22] 13[22] Retired 1998 2010
Delta II 7425  United States Boeing IDS 1,100 to GTO
804 to HCO[note 7][22]
4[22] Retired 1998 2002
Delta II 7426  United States Boeing IDS 1,058 to GTO
734 to TLI
711 to HCO[note 7][22]
1[22] Retired 1999 1999
Delta II 7920  United States United Launch Alliance 5,030[note 7][22] 3,123 to SSO[note 7][22] 27[22] Operational 1998 2011
Delta II 7925  United States Boeing IDS 1,819 to GTO
1,177 to TLI
1,265 to HCO[note 7][22]
69[22] Retired 1990 2009
Delta II-H 7920H  United States United Launch Alliance 6,097[note 7][22] 3[22] Retired 2003 2011
Delta II-H 7925H  United States United Launch Alliance 2,171 to GTO
1,508 to HCO[note 7][22]
3[22] Retired 2003 2007
Delta III 8930  United States Boeing IDS 8,292[22] 3,810 to GTO[22] 3[22] Retired 1998 2000
Delta IV-H  United States United Launch Alliance 22,950[29] 12,980 to GTO [29] 6[30] Operational 2004
Delta IV-M  United States Boeing IDS 8,120[30] 4,210 to GTO
2,722 to HCO[30]
3[30] Retired 2003 2006
Delta IV-M+(4,2)  United States United Launch Alliance 11,750[31] 5,740 to GTO[31] 9[30] Operational 2002
Delta IV-M+(5,2)  United States United Launch Alliance 10,250[31] 4,590 to GTO[31] 1[30] Operational 2012
Delta IV-M+(5,4)  United States United Launch Alliance 13,500[31] 6,470 to GTO[31] 4[30] Operational 2009[32]
Diamant  France SEREB 12 Retired 1965 1975
Dnepr-1  Ukraine Yuzhmash 3,700[33] 19[33] Operational 1999
Energia[note 8]  Soviet Union NPO Energia 100,000[34] 20,000 to GEO[34]
32,000 to TLI[34]
1[35] Retired 1987 1987
Energia-Buran  Soviet Union NPO Energia (Launcher)
NPO Molniya (Orbiter)
30,000[34]
[note 9]
1 Retired 1988 1988
Epsilon  Japan IHI Aerospace[36]      1,200[37] 1 Operational[37] 2013
Falcon 1  United States SpaceX 670[citation needed] 5 Retired[38] 2006 2009
Falcon 1e  United States SpaceX 1,010[citation needed] 0 Retired[38]
Falcon 9 v1.0  United States SpaceX 10,450[39][40][41] 5[42] Retired[43] 2010 2013
Falcon 9 v1.1  United States SpaceX 13,150[44] 4,850 to GTO[44] 5 Operational 2013
Falcon Heavy  United States SpaceX 53,000[45][46] 21,200 to GTO[45]
13,200 to TLI[46]
0 Development
GSLV Mk.I(a)  India ISRO[47][48] Retired 2001 2001
GSLV Mk.I(b) [49][50]  India ISRO 5,000[citation needed] 2,500 to GTO[51] Retired 2004 2007[citation needed]
GSLV Mk.I(c)  India ISRO 5,000[citation needed] 2,500 to GTO[51] 1[citation needed] Operational 2010 2010[citation needed]
GSLV Mk.II  India ISRO 5,000[citation needed] 2,500 to GTO[51] 1[citation needed] Operational 2010 2014
GSLV Mk.III  India ISRO[52] 10,000[citation needed] 4,000 to GTO[53] 0 Development
H-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 3,200[citation needed] 1,100 to GTO[citation needed] 9 Retired 1986 1992
H-II  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 5[54][note 10] Retired 1994 1998
H-IIA 202  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 10,000[55] 3,800 to GTO[55] 9[55] Operational 2001
H-IIA 204  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 5,800 to GTO[55] 1[55] Operational 2006 2006
H-IIA 2022  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 4,200[55] 3[55] Retired 2005 2007
H-IIA 2024  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 7[55] Retired 2002 2008
H-IIB 304  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 16,500[45] 8,000[56] 2[57] Operational 2009
H-II/SSB  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 1[54] Retired 1995 1995
H-IIS  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 1[note 11][54] Retired 1999 1999
J-I  Japan IHI Corporation
Nissan Motors[58]
0(+1) Retired 1996 1996
Kaituozhe-1  China CALT 2 Operational 2002 2003[citation needed]
Kosmos-3M  Soviet Union
 Russia
NPO Polyot 1,500 442[citation needed] Retired 1967 2010[citation needed]
Lambda 4S  Japan Nissan Motors[58] 26[37] 5 Retired 1966 1970[citation needed]
Long March 1  China CALT 300[citation needed] 2[59] Retired[60] 1970[59] 1971[59]
Long March 1D  China CALT 0(+3) Retired 1995[note 12] 2002
Long March 2A  China CALT 2,000 4[61] Retired 1974[61] 1978[61]
Long March 2C  China CALT 3,850 34[61] Operational 1982[61]
Long March 2D  China CALT 3,500 17 [61] Operational 1992[61]
Long March 2E  China CALT 9,500 7[61] Retired 1990 1995[61]
Long March 2F  China CALT 8,400 7[61] Operational 1999[61] 2008[61]
Long March 2F/G  China CALT 8,400 4[61] Operational 2011[61]
Long March 3  China CALT 5,000 14[62] Retired 1984[62] 2000[62]
Long March 3A  China CALT 2,650 to GTO[63] 23[62] Operational 1994[62]
Long March 3B  China CALT 11,200[45][64][source needs translation] 10[62] Operational 1996[62]
Long March 3B/E  China CALT 11,500[45][64][source needs translation] 5,500 to GTO [64] 17[62] Operational 2007[62]
Long March 3B(A)  China CALT 0 Development[citation needed]
Long March 3C  China CALT 3,800 to GTO [64] 10
[62]
Operational 2008[62]
Long March 4A  China CALT 4,000 2[65] Retired 1988[65] 1990[65]
Long March 4B  China CALT 4,200[66] 20[66] Operational 1999[66]
Long March 4C  China CALT 13[65] Operational 2006[65]
Long March 5  China CALT 25,000 [67] 14,000 to GTO [67] 0 Development[citation needed]
Long March 6  China CALT 0 Development[citation needed]
since 2009
Long March 7  China CALT 0 Development
since 2009[citation needed]
Long March 9  China CALT 130,000[68] 0 Development[citation needed]
M-V  Japan Nissan Motors[58] (-2000)
IHI AEROSPACE[36] (-2006)
1,800 - 1,850[37] 7 Retired 1997 2006
Minotaur I  United States Orbital 580[69] 10[70] Operational 2000 2013
Minotaur IV  United States Orbital 3(+2)[71] Operational 2010[71] 2011[71]
Minotaur V  United States Orbital 640 to GTO
447 to TLI
1[71] Operational 2013[71]
Minotaur-C  United States Orbital 1,450[72] 1,050[72] to SSO 9[73] Operational[74] 1994 2011[73]
Molniya  Soviet Union RSC Energia 24[75] Retired 1960 1965[75]
Molniya-M  Soviet Union
 Russia
RSC Energia 275 Retired 1964 2010
Mu-3C  Japan Nissan Motors[58] 195[37] 4 Retired 1974 1979
Mu-3H  Japan Nissan Motors[58] 300[37] 3 Retired 1977 1978
Mu-3S  Japan Nissan Motors[58] 300[37] 4 Retired 1980 1984[citation needed]
Mu-3SII  Japan Nissan Motors[58] 770[37] 8 Retired 1985 1995
Mu-4S  Japan Nissan Motors[58] 180[37] 4 Retired 1971 1972
N1  Soviet Union NPO Energia 95,000 [76][77][78][note 13] 4 [79] Retired 1969 1972
N-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Retired 1975 1982[citation needed]
N-II  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 8 Retired 1981 1987[citation needed]
Naro-1  South Korea
 Russia
KARI/Khrunichev 3 Retired 2009 2013
Paektusan  North Korea KCST Retired 1998
Pegasus  United States Orbital 443 41[80] Operational 1990 2013[80]
Pegasus II  United States Orbital 6,120[81] Development
Polyot  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,400 Retired 1963 1964[citation needed]
Proton-K  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 19,760[citation needed] 4,930[citation needed] to GTO 311 [82] Retired 1965 2012[citation needed]
Proton-M  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 21,600[83] 6,150 to GTO[83] 83[84][85] Operational 1999[84]
PSLV  India ISRO 3,200[86][better source needed] 1,600 to SSO
1,050 to GTO[87]
11[citation needed] Operational 1993[88]
PSLV-CA  India ISRO 2,800[86][better source needed] 1,100 to SSO[87] 9[88] Operational 2007
PSLV-XL  India ISRO 3,800[87] 1,750 to SSO
1,300 to GTO[87]
6[88] Operational 2008
PSLV-HP  India ISRO 4,000[87] 1,900 to SSO
1,440 to GTO[87]
0 Development
Rokot  Russia Khrunichev 1,950 21[89][90] Operational 1990
Safir  Iran Iranian Space Agency 3 Operational 2008 2012[citation needed]
Saturn I  United States Chrysler (S-I)
Douglas (S-IV)
10[91] Retired 1961 1965[91]
Saturn IB  United States Chrysler (S-IB)
Douglas (S-IVB)
20,412[citation needed] 9[92] Retired 1966 1975
Saturn V  United States Boeing (S-IC)
North American (S-II)
Douglas (S-IVB)
118,000[93] 47,000 to TLI[93] 13[94][95][note 14] Retired 1967 1973
Scout  United States US Air Force/NASA 150 125 Retired 1961 1994
Shavit  Israel IAE 160 9 Operational 1988 2010
Shtil'  Russia Makeyev 160 - 430 Operational 1998 2006[citation needed]
Simorgh  Iran Iranian Space Agency 60-100[96][97] 0
SLS Block 1  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[98]

70,000[99] 25,000 to TLI[100] 0 Development
SLS Block 2  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[98]

130,000[99] 0 Development
SLV  India ISRO 40[101] 4[101] Retired 1979 1983[101]
Soyuz  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,450 30 Retired 1966 1975
Soyuz-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 5,500 3 Retired 1970 1971
Soyuz-M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,600 8 Retired 1971 1976
Soyuz-U  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 6,200–6,700 kg from Plesetsk
6590-6950 from Baikonour[102]
767[103] Operational 1973
Soyuz-U2  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 92 Retired 1982 1995
Soyuz-FG  Russia TsSKB-Progress 6,790–7130 kg[104] 46[75][103] Operational 2001
Soyuz-2.1a  Russia TsSKB-Progress 7(+1)[75] Operational 2004[note 15]
Soyuz-2.1b  Russia TsSKB-Progress 7[75] Operational 2006
Soyuz-ST  Russia/ Europe TsSKB-ProgressESA 6[75] Operational 2011
Soyuz-2.1v  Russia TsSKB-Progress 2,850 1[105] Operational 2013
Space Shuttle  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)
Martin Marietta (ET)
Rockwell International (Orbiter)
24,400[note 9] 4944 to GTO with IUS[106]

3550 to escape with IUS[106]

1200 to GTO with PAM-D[107]

135[108] Retired 1981 2011
Sputnik 8K71PS  Soviet Union RSC Energia 500 2 Retired 1957 1957
Sputnik 8A91  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,327 2 Retired 1958 1958
Start-1  Russia MITT 532[citation needed] 167 to SSO[citation needed] 7[citation needed] Operational 1993 2006[citation needed]
StratoLaunch  United States Stratolaunch Systems 6,100[109] Development[109] 2016[110]
Strela  Russia Khrunichev 1,700 2[111] Operational[111] 2003 2013
Super Haas  Romania ARCA 2,600 0 Development
Titan II GLV  United States Martin Marietta 3,580 11(+1) Retired 1964 1966
Titan II(23)G  United States Martin Marietta 13 Retired 1988 2003
Titan IIIA  United States Martin Marietta Retired 1964 1965
Titan IIIB  United States Martin Marietta 70 Retired 1966 1987
Titan IIIC  United States Martin Marietta 36 Retired 1965 1982
Titan IIID  United States Martin Marietta 22 Retired 1971 1982
Titan IIIE  United States Martin Marietta 7 Retired 1974 1977
Titan 34D  United States Martin Marietta 15 Retired 1982 1989
Titan IVA  United States Martin Marietta 17,110[112] 14090 to SSO[112]

4944 to GTO with IUS[112]

4540 to GSO with Centaur[112]

3550 to escape with IUS[112]

22[113] Retired 1989 1998
Titan IVB  United States Lockheed Martin 21,682[114] 5,761 to GTO [114]
(9,000 with upper stage)
17[113] Retired 1997 2005
Tronador II  Argentina CONAE 0 Development
Tsyklon-2A  Soviet Union Yuzhmash 8[115] Retired 1967 1969
Tsyklon-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 106[116] Retired 1969 2006[116]
Tsyklon-3  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 122[117] Retired 1977 2009[117]
Tsyklon-4  Ukraine Yuzhmash 5,500 [118] 1,700 to GTO [118] 0 Development
Unha  North Korea KCST 100 3 Operational 2009
Vanguard  United States Martin 23[citation needed] 11(+1) Retired 1957 1959
Vega  Europe ESA/ASI 1,430 to polar[119]

1,330 to SSO[119]

3[120] Operational 2012 [121]
VLS-1  Brazil AEB, INPE 380 2[note 16] Operational 1997 2003
Volna  Russia Makeyev 100 1(+5)[A] Operational[citation needed] 1995[note 17] 2005
Voskhod  Soviet Union RSC Energia 306 Retired 1963 1976
Vostok-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 4 Retired 1960 1960
Vostok-K  Soviet Union RSC Energia 16 Retired 1960 1964[citation needed]
Vostok-2  Soviet Union RSC Energia 45 Retired 1962 1967[citation needed]
Vostok-2M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 93[citation needed] Retired 1964 1991[citation needed]
Soyuz/Vostok  Soviet Union RSC Energia Retired 1965 1966[citation needed]
Zenit-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhnoye 13,740[122] 37[57] Retired 1985 2004[123]
Zenit-2M (2SLB)  Ukraine Yuzhnoye 13,920[122] 1 Operational 2007
Zenit-3F  Ukraine Yuzhnoye[note 18] 1 Operational 2011
Zenit-3SL  Ukraine Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 19]
6,000 to GTO [124] 30 Operational 1999
Zenit-3SLB  Ukraine Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 18]
3,750 to GTO[125] 5[125] Operational 2008

Proposed and design concepts[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
  2. ^ The first medieval rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Arabs, in warfare as early as the 13th century.
  3. ^ Such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne.
  4. ^ Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.
  5. ^ A full listing of the Ariane 5 launch history is in its main article.
  6. ^ Suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l With 9.5 foot (2.9 metre) fairing
  8. ^ Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
  9. ^ a b The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the spaceplanes themselves.
  10. ^ Not including two launches made using the H-II/SSB and H-IIS configurations
  11. ^ Only launch failed to achieve orbit
  12. ^ Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
  13. ^ The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to increase the payload capacity to 90—95 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
  14. ^ The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight History (1968). For more information, see the Saturn V article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn, but the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with the Skylab.
  15. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2004, first orbital launch in 2006
  16. ^ A third rocket exploded before launch
  17. ^ First orbital launch attempt in 2005
  18. ^ a b Operated by Land Launch
  19. ^ Operated by Sea Launch

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