Mughal Empire

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Mughal Empire
گورکانیان (Persian)
Gūrkāniyān
مغلیہ سلطنت (Urdu)
Mug̱ẖliyah Salṭanat
1526–1857

Flag of the Mughal Empire
Flag

Map of the Mughal Empire.
The Mughal Empire during the reign of Aurangzeb c. 1700
Capital Agra
(1526–1571)
Fatehpur Sikri
(1571–1585)
Lahore
(1585–1598)
Agra
(1598–1648)
Shahjahanabad/Delhi
(1648–1857)
Languages Persian (official and court language)[1]
Chagatai Turkic (only initially)
Urdu (later period)
Religion Islam
(1526–1582)
Din-e Ilahi
(1582–1605)
Islam
(1605–1857)
Government Absolute monarchy, unitary state
with federal structure
Emperor[2]
 -  1526–1530 Babur (first)
 -  1837–1857 Bahadur Shah II (last)
Historical era Early modern
 -  Battle of Panipat 21 April 1526
 -  Siege of Delhi 21 September 1857
Area
 -  1700[a] 4,500,000 km² (1,737,460 sq mi)
Population
 -  1700[a] est. 150,000,000 
     Density 33.3 /km²  (86.3 /sq mi)
Currency Rupee
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Timurid dynasty
Delhi Sultanate
Suri dynasty
Adil Shahi dynasty
Sultanate of Bengal
Deccan Sultanates
Maratha Empire
Durrani Empire
Indian Empire
Hyderabad State
Nawab of Carnatic
Nawab of Bengal
Nawab of Awadh
Kingdom of Mysore
Bharatpur State
Sikh Confederacy
Today part of  Afghanistan
 Bangladesh
 Bhutan
 India
   Nepal
 Pakistan
 Tajikistan
  1. ^ Area source:[citation needed] Population source:[3]

The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‎, Mug̱ẖliyah Salṭanat),[4] self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān),[5] was a Persianate[6][7] empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and ruled by a dynasty of Chagatai-Turkic origin.[8][9][10]

In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers,[11] fell to the superior mobility and firepower of the Mughals.[12] The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices[13][14] and diverse and inclusive ruling elites,[15] leading to more systematic, centralized, and uniform rule.[16] Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.[15] The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture[17] and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency,[18] caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.[16] The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion,[16] resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.[19] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.[20] Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.[20] As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to control their own affairs.[21]

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the founder Babur's victory over Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat (1526). It reached its peak extent under Aurangzeb, and declined rapidly after his death (in 1707) under a series of ineffective rulers. The empire's collapse followed heavy losses inflicted by the smaller army of the Maratha Empire in the Deccan Wars (1680–1707),[22] which encouraged the Nawabs of Bengal, Bhopal, Oudh, Carnatic, Rampur, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Shah of Afghanistan to declare their independence from the Mughals.[23] Following the Third Anglo-Maratha war in 1818, the Mughal emperor became a pensioner of the Raj, and the empire, its power now limited to Delhi, lingered on until 1857, when it was effectively dissolved after the fall of Delhi during the Indian Rebellion that same year.[24]

The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turko-Mongols from modern-day Uzbekistan, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled much of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Bengal in the east to Kabul & Sindh in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south. [25] Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million (quarter of the world's population), over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles).[3]

The "classic period" of the empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, India enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior. He also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but they were subdued by Akbar. Most Mughal emperors were Muslims. However Akbar in the latter part of his life, and Jahangir, were followers of a new religion called Deen-i-Ilahi, as recorded in historical books like Ain-e-Akbari & Dabestan-e Mazaheb.[26]

The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world's population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion.[3][27]

By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Moghul armies, and won over several Mughal provinces from the Deccan to Bengal, and internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the Mughal Empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to the declaration of independence by the Nawabs of Bengal, Bhopal, Oudh, Carnatic, Rampur, the Nizam of Hyderabad and Shah of Afghanistan. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, and their capital sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline. During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and was therefore tried by the British for treason, imprisoned, exiled to Rangoon and the last remnants of the empire were taken over by the British Raj.

Etymology

Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire,[28] which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, and was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves.[29] Another name was Hindustan, which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire.[30] In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.[31] The use of Mughal, deriving from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and emphasising the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty,[32] gained currency during the nineteenth century, but remains disputed by Indologists.[33] Babur's ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turko-Mongol culture.[34]

History

The Mughal Empire at its zenith spanned from Afghanistan to Cape Comorin c. 1700.

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side.[35] Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass.[35] Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526.[35] The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India.[35] The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels.[35] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire. The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.[35] Humayun's son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India.[35]

Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river. He created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the military aristocracy of India's social groups, implemented a modern government, and supported cultural developments.[35] At the same time, Akbar intensified trade with European trading companies. India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and economic development. Akbar allowed free expression of religion, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult.[35] He left his successors an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge.[35] Akbar's son, Jahangir, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques.[35] During the reign of Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal.[35] The maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue.[35]

Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father's illness. However, a younger son, Aurangzeb, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed.[35] Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more, but his religious conservatism and intolerance undermined the stability of Mughal society.[35] Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt.[35] Aurangzeb's son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds. In 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne.[35]

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. The campaigns of Nadir Shah, who had reestablished Iranian suzerainty over most of West Asia and Central Asia, culminated with the Sack of Delhi and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige.[35] Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms.[35] The Mughal Emperor, however, continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. Not only the Muslim gentry, but the Maratha, Hindu, and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.[36]

The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline, and ultimately had to seek the protection of outside powers. In 1784, the Marathas under Mahadji Scindia won acknowledgement as the protectors of the emperor in Delhi, a state of affairs that continued until after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Thereafter, the British East India Company became the protectors of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi.[36] After a crushed rebellion which he nominally led in 1857–58, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was deposed by the British government, who then assumed formal control of the country.[35]

List of Mughal emperors

Main article: Mughal emperors
Emperor Birth Reign Period Death Notes
Babur Feb 23, 1483 1526–1530 Dec 26, 1530 Was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through Timur and was the founder of the Mughal Empire after his victories at the Battle of Panipat (1526) and the Battle of Khanwa.
Humayun Mar 6, 1508 1530–1540 Jan 1556 Reign interrupted by Suri Dynasty. Youth and inexperience at ascension led to his being regarded as a less effective ruler than usurper, Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah Suri 1472 1540–1545 May 1545 Deposed Humayun and led the Suri Dynasty.
Islam Shah Suri c.1500 1545–1554 1554 2nd and last ruler of the Suri Dynasty, claims of sons Sikandar and Adil Shah were eliminated by Humayun's restoration.
Humayun Mar 6, 1508 1555–1556 Jan 1556 Restored rule was more unified and effective than initial reign of 1530–1540; left unified empire for his son, Akbar.
Akbar Nov 14, 1542 1556–1605 Oct 27, 1605 He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore; He greatly expanded the Empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Empire as he set up the empire's various institutions; he married Mariam-uz-Zamani, a Rajput princess. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort.
Jahangir Oct 1569 1605–1627 1627 Jahangir set the precedent for sons rebelling against their emperor fathers. Opened first relations with the British East India Company. Reportedly was an alcoholic, and his wife Empress Noor Jahan became the real power behind the throne and competently ruled in his place.
Shah Jahan Jan 5, 1592 1627–1658 1666 Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Deposed by his son Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb Oct 21, 1618 1658–1707 Mar 3, 1707 He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri; he captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda; he spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels; at its zenith, his conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent; the over-stretched empire was controlled by Mansabdars, and faced challenges after his death. He is known to have transcribed copies of the Qur'an using his own styles of calligraphy. he died during a campaign against the ravaging Marathas in the Deccan.
Bahadur Shah I Oct 14, 1643 1707–1712 Feb 1712 First of the Mughal emperors to preside over an empire ravaged by uncontrollable revolts. After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors.
Jahandar Shah 1664 1712–1713 Feb 1713 Was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead;
Furrukhsiyar 1683 1713–1719 1719 His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers, execution of the rebellious Banda In 1717 he granted a Firman to the English East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal, the Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan.
Rafi Ul-Darjat Unknown 1719 1719  
Rafi Ud-Daulat Unknown 1719 1719  
Nikusiyar Unknown 1719 1743  
Muhammad Ibrahim Unknown 1720 1744  
Muhammad Shah 1702 1719–1720, 1720–1748 1748 Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Countered the emergence of the renegade Marathas and lost large tracts of Deccan and Malwa in the process. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.[37]
Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1725 1748–54 1775
Alamgir II 1699 1754–1759 1759 The Mughal Empire had impulsively began to re-centralize after subjects anxiously sought his gratification, he was murdered according to the conspiracy of the unscrupulous Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and his schismatic Maratha associate Sadashivrao Bhau;
Shah Jahan III Unknown In 1759 1772 Was ordained to the imperial throne by Sadashivrao Bhau who went on to loot the Mughal heartlands, he was generally regarded as an usurper and was overthrown after the Third Battle of Panipat by Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht.
Shah Alam II 1728 1759–1806 1806 Was nominated as the Mughal Emperor by Ahmad Shah Durrani after the Third Battle of Panipat. Defeat of the combined forces of Mughal, Nawab of Oudh & Nawab of Bengal, Bihar at the hand of East India Company at the Battle of Buxar. Treaty of Allahabad. Hyder Ali becomes Nawab of Mysore in 1761. Ahmed-Shah-Abdali in 1761 defeated the Marathas during the Third Battle of Panipat; The fall of Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1799; He was the last Mughal Emperor to preside effective control over the empire.
Akbar Shah II 1760 1806–1837 1837 He designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh, Although he was under British protection his imperial name was removed from the official coinage after a brief dispute with the British East India Company;
Bahadur Shah II 1775 1837–1857 1862 The last Mughal emperor was deposed by the British and exiled to Burma following the Indian Rebellion of 1857. End of Mughal dynasty.

Influence on the Indian subcontinent

Mughal influence on South Asian art and culture

Main article: Indo-Persian culture
Emperor Shah Jahan, who ruled from 1628–1658 CE

A major Mughal contribution to the Indian subcontinent was their unique architecture. Many monuments were built by the Muslim emperors, especially Shahjahan, during the Mughal era including the UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal, which is known to be one of the finer examples of Mughal architecture. Other World Heritage Sites include Humayun's Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri, the Red Fort, the Agra Fort, and the Lahore Fort The palaces, tombs, and forts built by the dynasty stands today in Agra, Aurangabad, Delhi, Dhaka, Fatehpur Sikri, Jaipur, Lahore, Kabul, Sheikhupura, and many other cities of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.[38] With few memories of Central Asia, Babur's descendents absorbed traits and customs of the South Asia,[39] and became more or less naturalised.

Mughal influence can be seen in cultural contributions such as:[citation needed]

Although the land the Mughals once ruled has separated into what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan, their influence can still be seen widely today. Tombs of the emperors are spread throughout India, Afghanistan,[43] and Pakistan.

The Mughal artistic tradition was eclectic, borrowing from the European Renaissance as well as from Persian and Indian sources. Kumar concludes, "The Mughal painters borrowed individual motifs and certain naturalistic effects from Renaissance and Mannerist painting, but their structuring principle was derived from Indian and Persian traditions."[44]

Urdu language

Although Persian was the dominant and "official" language of the empire, the language of the elite later evolved into a form known as Urdu. Highly Persianized and also influenced by Arabic and Turkic, the language was written in a type of Perso-Arabic script known as Nastaliq, and with literary conventions and specialized vocabulary being retained from Persian, Arabic and Turkic; the new dialect was eventually given its own name of Urdu. Compared with Hindi, the Urdu language draws more vocabulary from Persian and Arabic (via Persian) and (to a much lesser degree) from Turkic languages where Hindi draws vocabulary from Sanskrit more heavily.[45] Modern Hindi, which uses Sanskrit-based vocabulary along with Urdu loan words from Persian and Arabic, is mutually intelligible with Urdu.[46] Today, Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and also an important co-official language in India.

Mughal society

A silver coin made during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II.

The Indian economy remained as prosperous under the Mughals as it was, because of the creation of a road system and a uniform currency, together with the unification of the country.[47] Manufactured goods and peasant-grown cash crops were sold throughout the world. Key industries included shipbuilding (the Indian shipbuilding industry was as advanced as the European, and Indians sold ships to European firms), textiles, and steel. The Mughals maintained a small fleet, which merely carried pilgrims to Mecca, imported a few Arab horses in Surat. Debal in Sindh was mostly autonomous. The Mughals also maintained various river fleets of Dhows, which transported soldiers over rivers and fought rebels. Among its admirals were Yahya Saleh, Munnawar Khan, and Muhammad Saleh Kamboh. The Mughals also protected the Siddis of Janjira. Its sailors were renowned and often voyaged to China and the East African Swahili Coast, together with some Mughal subjects carrying out private-sector trade.

Cities and towns boomed under the Mughals; however, for the most part, they were military and political centres, not manufacturing or commerce centres.[48] Only those guilds which produced goods for the bureaucracy made goods in the towns; most industry was based in rural areas. The Mughals also built Maktabs in every province under their authority, where youth were taught the Quran and Islamic law such as the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri in their indigenous languages.

The Bengal region was especially prosperous from the time of its takeover by the Mughals in 1590 to the seizure of control by the British East India Company in 1757.[49] In a system where most wealth was hoarded by the elites, wages were low for manual labour. Slavery was limited largely to household servants. However some religious cults proudly asserted a high status for manual labour.[50]

The nobility was a heterogeneous body; while it primarily consisted of Rajput aristocrats and foreigners from Muslim countries, people of all castes and nationalities could gain a title from the emperor. The middle class of openly affluent traders consisted of a few wealthy merchants living in the coastal towns; the bulk of the merchants pretended to be poor to avoid taxation. The bulk of the people were poor. The standard of living of the poor was as low as, or somewhat higher than, the standard of living of the Indian poor under the British Raj; whatever benefits the British brought with canals and modern industry were neutralized by rising population growth, high taxes, and the collapse of traditional industry in the nineteenth century.[citation needed]

Science and technology

Muhammad Salih Thattvi headed the task of creating a seamless celestial globe using a secret wax casting method, the famous celestial globe was also inscribed with Arabic and Persian inscriptions.[51][52]

Astronomy

While there appears to have been little concern for theoretical astronomy, Mughal astronomers continued to make advances in observational astronomy and produced nearly a hundred Zij treatises. Humayun built a personal observatory near Delhi. The instruments and observational techniques used at the Mughal observatories were mainly derived from the Islamic tradition.[53][54] In particular, one of the most remarkable astronomical instruments invented in Mughal India is the seamless celestial globe.

Alchemy

Sake Dean Mahomed had learned much of Mughal Alchemy and understood the techniques used to produce various alkali and soaps to produce shampoo. He was also a notable writer who described the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the cities of Allahabad and Delhi in rich detail and also made note of the glories of the Mughal Empire.

Sake Dean Mahomed was appointed as shampooing surgeon to both Kings George IV and William IV.[55]

Technology

Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar, developed a volley gun.[56]

Akbar was the first to initiate and utilize metal cylinder rockets known as bans particularly against War elephants, during the Battle of Sanbal.[57]

In the year 1657, the Mughal Army utilized rockets during the Siege of Bidar.[58] Prince Aurangzeb's forces discharged rockets and grenades while scaling the walls. Sidi Marjan himself was mortally wounded after a rocket struck his large gunpowder depot and after twenty-seven day's of hard fighting Bidar was captured by the victorious Mughals.[58]

Later onward's the Mysorean rockets were upgraded versions of Mughal rockets utilized during the Siege of Jinji by the progeny of the Nawab of Arcot. Hyder Ali's father Fatah Muhammad the constable at Budikote, commanded a corps consisting of 50 rocketmen (Cushoon) for the Nawab of Arcot. Hyder Ali realized the importance of rockets and introduced advanced versions of metal cylinder rockets. These rockets turned fortunes in favor of the Sultanate of Mysore during the Second Anglo-Mysore War particularly during the Battle of Pollilur.[59]

Gallery

See also

References

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  2. ^ The title (Mirza) descends to all the sons of the family, without exception. In the Royal family it is placed after the name instead of before it, thus, Abbas Mirza and Hosfiein Mirza. Mirza is a civil title, and Khan is a military one. The title of Khan is creative, but not hereditary. pg 601 Monthly magazine and British register, Volume 34 Publisher Printed for Sir Richard Phillips, 1812 Original from Harvard University
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Further reading

History of the Mongols
Mongolian flag.png
Proto-Mongols Prehistory–Antiquity
Hünnü 209 BC – 93 AD
Xianbei 93–234
Üeban 160–490
Nirun 330–555
Tuoba Empire 386–585
Tuyuhun 285–670
Khitan Empire 906–1125
Khar-Khitan 1125–1221
Mongol khanates 1206–1368
Khitan Sultanate 1220s–1306
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s
Ilkhanate 1256–1335
Golden Horde 1240s–1502
Moghulistan 1346–1462
Chobanids 1335–1357
Jalairid Sultanate 1335–1432
Injuids 1335–1357
Mongol Khaganate 1368–1691
Kara Del 1383–1513
Four Oirat 1399–1634
Arghun state 1479–1599
Kalmyk Khanate 1630–1771
Khotgoid Khanate 1609–1691
Khoshut Khanate 1640s–1717
Zunghar Khanate 1634–1758
Mongolia 1911–1924
1924–1992
Mongolia 1992–present

Culture

Society and economy

  • Chaudhuri, K. N. "Some Reflections on the Town and Country in Mughal India," Modern Asian Studies (1978) 12#1 pp. 77–96 in JSTOR
  • Habib, Irfan. Atlas of the Mughal Empire: Political and Economic Maps (1982).
  • Habib, Irfan. Agrarian System of Mughal India (1963, revised edition 1999).
  • Heesterman, J. C. "The Social Dynamics of the Mughal Empire: A Brief Introduction," Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, (2004) 47#3 pp. 292–297 in JSTOR
  • Khan, Iqtidar Alam. "The Middle Classes in the Mughal Empire," Social Scientist (1976) 5#1 pp. 28–49 in JSTOR
  • Rothermund, Dietmar. An Economic History of India: From Pre-Colonial Times to 1991 (1993)

Primary sources

Older histories

External links