Americans, or American people, are citizens of the United States of America. The country is home to people of different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship. With the exception of the Native American population, generally all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries. Also, there are other groups that did not immigrate to the United States but became American because of American expansion in the late 1800s. These groups are people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture held in common by most Americans is referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants. It also includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia, Africa, and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.
In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as three to seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora.
- 1 Racial and ethnic groups
- 2 National personification
- 3 Language
- 4 Religion
- 5 Culture
- 6 References
Racial and ethnic groups
The United States of America is a diverse country, racially and ethnically. Six races are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races. "Some other race" is also an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation.
White and European Americans
People of European descent, or whites, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 74.8% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial; with largest combination being white and black. Additionally, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority. The state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine.
The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe. This includes people via African, North American, Caribbean, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora.
The Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents.
In 2009, German Americans (16.5%), Irish Americans (11.9%), and English Americans (9.0%) were the three largest self-reported ancestry groups in the United States, collectively comprising 37.4% of the population.
Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, and median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation.
|Population by ancestry group|
of total est. population
George Washington (English), Paul Revere (French), Sam Houston (Scottish), John Basilone (Italian), Thomas Edison (Dutch), Marilyn Monroe (Norwegian), John F. Kennedy (Irish), John Steinbeck (German), Martha Stewart (Polish)
|7||French (except Basque)||2.87%||8,891,224|
|White and European American (total)||231,040,398
2010 United States Census
|2009–2011 American Community Survey|
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race) make up the largest ethnic minority in the United States and form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, making up 16.3% of the population, according to the 2010 United States Census.
People of Spanish or Hispanic descent have lived in what is now the United States since the founding of St. Augustine, Florida in 1565 by Pedro Menendez de Aviles. In the State of Texas, Spaniards first settled the region in the late 1600s and formed a unique cultural group known as Tejanos.
|Population by national origin|
of total est. population
Cesar Chavez (Mexican), Humbert Roque Versace (Puerto Rican), Félix Rodríguez (Cuban)
Consuelo de Saint Exupéry (Salvadoran), Al Horford (Dominican), Daphne Zuniga (Guatemalan)
|Hispanic and Latino American (total)||16.34%||50,477,594|
|2010 United States Census|
Black and African Americans
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes) are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. According to the Office of Management and Budget, the racial category include those who self-identify as African American, Sub-Saharan Africans, and Afro-Caribbeans. According to the 2009 American Community Survey, there were 38,093,725 blacks in the United States, which represented 12.4% of the population. In addition, there were 37,144,530 non-Hispanic blacks, which represented 12.1% of the population. This number increased to 42 million according to the 2010 United States Census, when including Multiracial African Americans, making up 14% of the total population of the United States. African Americans make up the second largest race in the United States, but the third largest group after White Americans and Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race); the majority of the population (55%) live in the South, while compared to 2000 Census there is a decrease of African Americans in the Northeast and Midwest.
Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captive Africans who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States, although some are—or are descended from—immigrants from African, Caribbean, Central American or South American nations. As an adjective, the term is usually spelled African-American. More recent immigrants from Africa may, or may not, self-identify as "African-American"; and may experience conflict with American-born African-Americans.
The first African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean. All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves); by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War 1/5th of the total population was enslaved. During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army or Continental Navy, while others would serve the British Empire in Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, and other units. By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason-Dixon Line) had abolished slavery. However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the thirteenth amendment. Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, which saw the first African American representation in Congress, African Americans became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws, legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act due to the Civil Rights Movement.
|Population by ancestry group|
of total est. population
Dred Scott, Frederick Douglass, Jack Johnson (Ghanaian), W. E. B. Du Bois (Haitian & Ghanaian), Martin Luther King, Jr., Shirley Chisholm (Barbadian), Harry Belafonte (Jamaican), Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (Trinidadian and Tobagonian), LeVar Burton (Nigerian)
|4||Trinidadian and Tobagonian||0.06%||193,233|
|Sub-Saharan African (total)||0.92%||2,864,067|
|West Indian (total) (except Hispanic groups)||0.85%||2,633,149|
|Black and African Americans (total)||42,020,743
2010 United States Census
|2009–2011 American Community Survey|
Another significant population is the Asian American population, comprising 17.3 million in 2010, or 5.6% of the U.S. population. California is home to 5.6 million Asian Americans, the greatest number in any state. In Hawaii, Asian Americans make up the highest proportion of the population (57 percent). Asian Americans live across the country, yet are heavily urbanized, with significant populations in the Greater Los Angeles Area, New York metropolitan area, and the San Francisco Bay Area.
They are by no means a monolithic group. The largest sub-groups are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from Cambodia, Mainland China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asians overall have higher income levels than all other racial groups in the United States, including whites, and the trend appears to be increasing in relation to those groups. Additionally, Asians have a higher education attainment level than all other racial groups in the United States. For better or worse, the group has been called a model minority.
While Asian American have been in what is now the United States since before the Revolutionary War, relatively large waves of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese immigration did not begin until the mid-to-late 19th century. Immigration and significant population growth continue to this day. Due to a number of factors, Asian Americans have been stereotyped as "perpetual foreigners".
of total population
Anna May Wong (Chinese), Jose Calugas (Filipino), Kalpana Chawla (Indian), Maggie Q (Vietnamese),
Seo Jae-pil (Korean), Ellison Onizuka (Japanese), Nadia Ali (Pakistani), François Chau (Cambodian)
|Asian American (total)||5.6%||17,320,856|
|2010 United States Census|
American Indians and Alaska Natives
According to the 2010 Census, there are 5.2 million people who are American Indian or Alaska Native alone, or in combination with one or more races; they make up 1.7% of the total population. According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), a "American Indian or Alaska Native" is a person whose ancestry have origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America. 2.3 million individuals who are American Indian or Alaskan Native are multiracial; additionally the plurality of American Indians reside in the Western United States (40.7%). Collectively and historically this race has been known by several names; as of 1995, 50% of those who fall within the OMB definition prefer the term "American Indian", 37% prefer "Native American" and the remainder have no preference or prefer a different term altogether.
Native Americans, whose ancestry are indigenous to the Americas, originally migrated to the two continents between 10,000-45,000 years ago. These Paleoamericans spread throughout the two continents and evolved into hundreds of distinct cultures during the pre-Columbian era. Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, the European colonization of the Americas began, with St. Augustine, Florida becoming the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe; genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers and colonists, as well as between tribes; displacement from their lands; internal warfare, enslavement; and intermarriage.
|Population by selected tribal groups|
of total population
|4||Mexican American Indian||0.05%||175,494|
|American Indian (total)||1.69%||5,220,579|
|2010 United States Census||Florence Owens Thompson (Cherokee), Code talkers (Navajo), Pushmataha (Choctaw)
Chief Bender (Chippewa), Sitting Bull (Sioux), Geronimo (Apache)
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders
As defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are "persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands." Previously called Asian Pacific American, along with Asian Americans beginning in 1976, this was changed in 1997. As of the 2010 United States Census there are 1.2 million who reside in the United States, and make up 0.4% of the nation's total population, of whom 56% are multiracial. 14% of the population have at least a bachelors degree, and 15.1% live in poverty, below the poverty threshold. As compared to the 2000 United States Census this population grew by 40%; and 71% live in the West; of those over half (52%) live in either Hawaii or California, with no other states having populations greater than 100,000. The largest concentration of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, is Honolulu County in Hawaii, and Los Angeles County in the continental United States.
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander by ancestries|
|Other Pacific Islanders||0.09%||308,697|
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (total)||0.39%||1,225,195|
|2010 United States Census||Duke Kahanamoku (Hawaiian), Dwayne Johnson (Samoan)
Sonny Sandoval (Chamorro), Sione Pouha (Tongan)
Two or more races
The U.S. has a growing multiracial identity movement. Multiracial Americans numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population; by the 2010 census the Multiracial increased to 9,009,073, or 2.9% of the total population. They can be any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, "Some other race") and ethnicities. The largest population of Multiracial Americans were those of White and African American descent, with a total of 1,834,212 self-identifying individuals. Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States, is biracial with his mother being of English and Irish descent and his father being of Kenyan birth; however, Obama only self-identifies as being African American.
Selena Gomez (Mexican and Italian)
Uncle Sam is a national personification of the United States and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812. He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of the flag of the United States – for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers.
Columbia is a poetic name for the Americas and the feminine personification of the United States of America, made famous by African-American poet Phillis Wheatley during the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It has inspired the names of many persons, places, objects, institutions, and companies in the Western Hemisphere and beyond, including the District of Columbia, the seat of government of the United States.
|English (only)||225.5 million|
|Spanish, including. Spanish-based creole languages||34.5 million|
|French, including French-based creole languages||2.0 million|
English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states. Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii by state law.
While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French. Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents. The latter include court forms. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.
Religion in the United States has a high adherence level, compared to other developed countries, and diversity in beliefs. The First Amendment to the country's Constitution prevents the Federal government from making any "law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this as preventing the government from having any authority in religion. A majority of Americans report that religion plays a "very important" role in their lives, a proportion unusual among developed countries, although similar to the other nations of the Americas. Many faiths have flourished in the United States, including both later imports spanning the country's multicultural immigrant heritage, as well as those founded within the country; these have led the United States to become the most religiously diverse country in the world.
The majority of Americans (76%) identify themselves as Christians, mostly within Protestant and Catholic denominations, accounting for 51% and 25% of the population respectively. Non-Christian religions (including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), collectively make up about 4% to 5% of the adult population. Another 15% of the adult population identifies as having no religious belief or no religious affiliation. According to the American Religious Identification Survey, religious belief varies considerably across the country: 59% of Americans living in Western states (the "Unchurched Belt") report a belief in God, yet in the South (the "Bible Belt") the figure is as high as 86%.
Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans, Pennsylvania by Irish and English Quakers, Maryland by English and Irish Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans. Although some individual states retained established religious confessions well into the 19th century, the United States was the first nation to have no official state-endorsed religion. Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the framers of the Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the federal government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise, thus protecting any religious organization, institution, or denomination from government interference. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them.
The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. is the largest Catholic church in the United States.
The development of the culture of the United States of America has been marked by a tension between two strong sources of inspiration: European ideals, especially British; and domestic originality, such as Jeffersonian democracy. Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American.
American culture encompasses traditions, ideals, customs, beliefs, values, arts, folklore and innovations developed both domestically and imported via colonization and immigration. Prevalent ideas and ideals that evolved domestically such as important national holidays, uniquely American sports, proud military tradition, and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a strong sense of national pride among the population as a whole.
- American Australian
- American Brazilian
- American Canadians
- American Mexican
- American New Zealander
- American ethnicity
- American studies
- Ancestry of the people of the United States
- Emigration from the United States
- Hispanic and Latino Americans
- Hyphenated American
- Immigration to the United States
- North Americans in Chile
- Race and ethnicity in the United States
- Stereotypes of Americans
- "U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "U.S. POPClock Projection". U.S. Census Bureau. Figure updated automatically.
- People live in Mexico, INEGI, 2010
- Smith, Dr. Claire M. (August 2010). "These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans Overseas and Voter Turnout". OVF Research Newsletter. Overseas Vote Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City."
- "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. June 10, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2013. "Ethnic origins Americans Total responses 316,350"
- Barrie McKenna (June 27, 2012). "Tax amnesty offered to Americans in Canada". The Globe and Mail (Ottawa). Retrieved December 17, 2012. "There are roughly a million Americans in Canada – many with little or no ties to the United States."
- "U.S. Relations With the Philippines". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. United States Department of State. September 10, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "There are an estimated four million Americans of Philippine ancestry in the United States, and more than 300,000 U.S. citizens in the Philippines."
- Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). "Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!". Haaretz. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories."
- Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). "In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship". USA Today (Jerusalem). Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free."
- "Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report, August 2012". Office for National Statistics. August 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Simon Rogers (May 26, 2011). "The UK's foreign-born population: see where people live and where they're from". The Guardian. Retrieved February 17, 2013. "County of birth and county of nationality. United States of American 197 143"
- Americans abroad 1999[dead link]
- "Background Note: Costa Rica". Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. United States Department of State. April 9, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually."
- "U.S. Citizen Services". Embassy of the United States Seoul, Korea. United States Department of State. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea."
"North Korea propganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking". Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. 22 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013. "According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops."
- "Americans in France". Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of STate. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 100,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates."
- Statische Bundesamt Deutschland
- "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Brazil (11/30/11)". Previous Editions of Brazil Background Note. United States Department of State. November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "The consular section of the embassy, the consulates, and the consular agents provide vital services to the estimated 70,000 U.S. citizens residing in Brazil."
- "Colombia (03/28/13)". United States Department of State. Retrieved 27 February 2014. "Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year."
- "Hong Kong (10/11/11)". Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note. United States Department of State. October 11, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong."
- Barry Bearak; Seth Mydans (June 8, 2002). "Many Americans, Unfazed, Go On Doing Business in India". New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "The number of Americans living in India is often estimated at 60,000."
- ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia
- "Table 10.1 Registered Foreigners by Nationality: 1950-2006". Ministry of Justice, . Annual Report of Statistics on Legal Migrants. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Kelly Carter (May 17, 2005). "High cost of living crush Americans' dreams of Italian living". USA Today (Positano, Italy). Retrieved December 17, 2012. "Nearly 50,000 Americans lived in Italy at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office."
- "SAUDI-U.S. TRADE". Commerce Office. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. Retrieved February 14, 2012. "Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans living and working in the Kingdom."
- "Argentina (03/12/12)". Previous Editions of Argentina Background Note. United States Department of State. March 12, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012. "The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year."
- Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010
- "Bahamas, The (01/25/12)". Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. January 25, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2012. "The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents."
- Kate King (July 18, 2006). "U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2012. "About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters."
- "Panama (03/09)". Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. March 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality."
- "El Salvador (01/10)". United States Department of State. Retrieved 11 April 2014. "More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador"
- "North Americans: Facts and figures". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
- "Honduras (11/23/09)". Previous Editions of Honduras Background Note. United States Department of State. November 23, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "U.S.-Honduran ties are further strengthened by numerous private sector contacts, with an average of between 80,000 and 110,000 U.S. citizens visiting Honduras annually and about 15,000 Americans residing there."
- "Chile (07/08)". Previous Editions of Chile Background Note. United States Department of State. July 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "The Consular Section of the Embassy provides vital services to the more than 12,000 U.S. citizens residing in Chile."
- "06-08 外僑居留人數 Foreign Residents". National Immigration Agency, MOI. Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/bevoelkerung/bevoelkerungsstruktur/bevoelkerung_nach_staatsangehoerigkeit_geburtsland/. Missing or empty
- "Bermuda (12/09/11)". Previous Editions of Bermuda Background Note. United States Department of State. December 9, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. "An estimated 8,000 registered U.S. citizens live in Bermuda, many of them employed in the international business community."
- Tatiana Morales (August 2, 2009). "Americans in Kuwait: When To Go?". CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "There are about 8,000 Americans who live in Kuwait."
- Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston (February 2008). "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- Shklar, Judith N. (1991). American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
Slotkin, Richard (2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". American Literary History (Oxford University Press) 13 (3): 469–498. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging."
Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard (2001). European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200. Retrieved February 1, 2013. "In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior."
Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. Retrieved February 1, 2013. "To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American."
- Fiorina, Morris P., and Paul E. Peterson (2000). The New American Democracy. London: Longman, p. 97. ISBN 0-321-07058-5.
- Adams, J.Q., and Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X.
- Thompson, William, and Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X.
- Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, California, London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5.
- Jay Tolson (July 28, 2008). "A Growing Trend of Leaving America". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "Estimates made by organizations such as the Association of Americans Resident Overseas put the number of nongovernment-employed Americans living abroad anywhere between 4 million and 7 million, a range whose low end is based loosely on the government's trial count in 1999."
- "6.32 million Americans (excluding military) live in 160-plus countries.". Association of Americans Resident Overseas. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "The total is the highest released to date: close to 6.32 million."
- "The American Diaspora". Esquire (Hurst Communications, Inc.). Retrieved December 17, 2012. "he most frequently cited estimate of nonmilitary U. S. citizens living overseas is between three and six million, based on a very rough State Department calculation in 1999--and never updated."
- "OUR DIVERSE POPULATION: Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- Grieco, Elizabeth M; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2063" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 5908-01-30.
- "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder; T3-2008. Race ". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder; T4-2008. Hispanic or Latino By Race ". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (September 2011). "The White Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- Bernstein, Robert (May 17, 2012). "Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Ohio State University. Diversity Dictionary. 2006. September 4, 2006. OSU.edu
- "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". Library of Congress. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Latino chronology: chronologies of the American mosaic By D. H. Figueredo
- 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates
- "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004".
- "Median household income newsbrief, US Census Bureau 2005". Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
- "US Census Bureau, Personal income for Asian Americans, age 25+, 2006". Retrieved December 17, 2006.
- "Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009". 2009 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. January 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "B04006, People Reporting Ancestry". 2009-2011 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- United States – QT-P3. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2010.
- Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2011. ""Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."
- Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race ". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau.
- "B03002. Hispanic or Latino origin by race". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau.
- Tafoya, Sonya (December 6, 2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. May 26, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- McKinnon, Jesse. "The Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2007.
- Sonya Tastogi; Tallese D. Johnson; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel; Malcolm P. Drewery, Jr. (September 2011). "The Black Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- United States – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "2010 Census Shows Black Population has Highest Concentration in the South". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. September 29, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "The size and regional distribution of the black population". Lewis Mumford Center. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- "African American" in the American Heritage Dictionary
- Nikole Hannah-Jones (January 18, 2012). "African immigrants help shape Portland's small black community". The Oregonian. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Kent, Mary Mederios (2007). "Immigration and America's Black Population". Population Bulletin (Population Reference Bureau) 62 (4). Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Rob Johnson (April 24, 2008). "African immigrants, black Americans at odds". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Tracie Reddick (1997). "African vs. African-American: A shared complextion does not guarantee racila solidarity". Yale University Library. Yale University. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2007). Relations between Africans and African Americans: misconceptions, myths and realities. Pretoria, South Africa: New Africa Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-9802534-5-0. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Appiah, Anthony; Henry Louis Gates (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "New World Exploration and English Ambition". The Terrible Transformation. PBS. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Gomez, Michael A. (1998). Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. University of North Carolina Press. p. 384. ISBN 9780807846940.
- Wood, Gordon S. (2002). The American revolution: a history. Modern Library. p. 55. ISBN 9780679640578.
- Liberty! The American Revolution (Documentary) Episode II:Blows Must Decide: 1774-1776. ©1997 Twin Cities Public Television, Inc. ISBN 1-4157-0217-9
- Foner, Philip Sheldon (1976). Blacks in the American Revolution. Volume 55 of Contributions in American history. Greenwood Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780837189468.
- "Black Loyalists". Black Presence. The National Archives. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Nicholas Boston; Jennifer Hallam (2004). "Freedom & Emancipation". Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution". ourdocuments.gov. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood". Office of the Clerk. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Walter, Hazen (2004). American Black History. Lorenz Educational Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780787706036. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "The Prize". We Shall Overcome. National Park Service. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- 2010 United States Census statistics
- "B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011". Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- Shan Li (3 May 2013). "Asian Americans had higher poverty rate than whites in 2011, study says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 May 2013. "In 2011, for example, nearly a third of Asians in the U.S. lived in the metropolitan regions around Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York."
"Selected Population Profile in the United States". U.S. Census. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- Meizhu Lui, Barbara Robles, Betsy Leondar-Wright, Rose Brewer, and Rebecca Adamson (2006). The Color of Wealth. The New Press.
- "US Census Bureau report on educational attainment in the United States, 2003". Archived from the original on July 22, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- The American Community-Asians: 2004. U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
- Chou, Rosalind; Joe R. Feagin (2008). The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism. Paradigm Publishers. p. x. ISBN 978-1-59451-586-6. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Tamar Lewin (June 10, 2008). "Report Takes Aim at ‘Model Minority’ Stereotype of Asian-American Students". New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Tojo Thatchenkery (March 31, 2000). "Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze". International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference. modelminority.com. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
- "The Journey from Gold Mountain: The Asian American Experience". Japanese American Citizens League. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- "California Declares Filipino American History Month". San Francisco Business Times. September 10, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Shirley Hune; David T. Takeuchi, Third Andresen, Seunghye Hong, Julie Kang, Mavae'Aho Redmond, Jeomja Yeo (April 2009). "Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing Their Hidden Achievement Gaps". Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. State of Washington. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Nicole Duran (November 3, 2011). "Asian-Americans Are Fastest-Growing Minority Population". National Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-415-93465-7. Retrieved February 9, 2012. "In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream."
- Wu, Frank H. (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. Basic Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-465-00640-3. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel (January 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Kathryn Walbert. "American Indian vs. Native American: A note on terminology". Kearn NC. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Clyde Tucker; Brian Kojetin; Rodrick Harrison (1996). "A Statistical Analysis of the CPS Supplement on Race and Ethnic Origin". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Axelrod, Alan (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History. Complete Idiot's Guide to. Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 9780028644646. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Magoc, Chris J. (2011). Chronology of Americans and the Environment. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 9781598844115. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Columbus, Christopher; de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James Edward (1991). de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver, eds. The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493. Volume 70 of American Exploration and Travel Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 491. ISBN 9780806123844. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Rodriguez, Arturo B. (2000). U.S. Citizenship Guidebook. Sinagtala Educational Resources. p. 82. ISBN 9780967989808. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings (OceanSide Publications, Inc) 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. PMID 1483570. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780806122205. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Michael Medved (September 19, 2007). "Reject the Lie of White "Genocide" Against Native Americans". Towhhall.com. Salem Communications Corporation. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). Encyclopedia Of Native American Wars And Warfare. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 9780816033379. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780806122205. Retrieved September 9, 2012. "From whatever cause wars may be brought on, either between different Indian tribes or between indians and whites, they are very destructive, no only of the lives of the warriors engaged in it, but of the women and children also, often becoming a war of extermination."
- "Early History, Native Americans, and Early Settlers in Mercer County". Mercer County Historical Society. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- R. David Edmunds (March 14, 2006). "Native American Displacement Amid U.S. Expansion". KERA. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Blond, Becca; Dunford, Lisa; Schulte-Peevers, Andrea (2008). Southwest USA. Country Regional Guides. Lonely Planet. p. 37. ISBN 9781741047134. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Gallay, Alan (2010). Indian Slavery in Colonial America. University of Nebraska Press. p. 448. ISBN 9780803222007. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Woods Weierman, Karen (2005). One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, And Law, 1820-1870. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 44. ISBN 9781558494831. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage In Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project". Michigan Journal of History (University of Michigan) (Fall). Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- "American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2011". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. November 1, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (May 2012). "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "Fact Sheet:What You should Know About Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI's)". White House Initiative on Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI). United States Department of Education. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. April 29, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010". 2010 Census Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 3, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- Ewen MacAskill in Washington and Nicholas Watt (May 20, 2011). "Obama looks forward to rediscovering his Irish roots on European tour". The Guardian (London). Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Mason, Jeff (May 23, 2011). "Obama visits family roots in Ireland". Reuters. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Oscar Avila (April 4, 2010). "Obama's census-form choice: 'Black'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Sam Roberts; Peter Baker (April 2, 2010). "Asked to Declare His Race, Obama Checks ‘Black’". New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "Table 53—Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2007". Statistical Abstract of the United States 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- "Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning". MLA. Fall 2002. Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
- Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of the United States—Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress". Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service). Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4". Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- Dicker, Susan J. (2003). Languages in America: A Pluralist View. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 216, 220–25. ISBN 1-85359-651-5.
- "California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6)". Legislative Counsel, State of California. Retrieved December 17, 2007. "California Judicial Council Forms". Judicial Council, State of California. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
- "U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion". Pew Global Attitudes Project. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- Eck, Diana (2002). A New Religious America: the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation. HarperOne. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-06-062159-9.
- Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar (2009). "AMERICAN RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION SURVEY (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. Archived from the original on April 7, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- "CIA Fact Book". CIA World Fact Book. 2002. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- "Religious Composition of the U.S.". U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2007. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Newport, Frank (July 28, 2008). "Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S.". The Gallup Organization. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 10 ("For the first time in recorded history, they designed a government with no established religion at all.")
- Marsden, George M. 1990. Religion and American Culture. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp.45–46.
- DeVita, Philip R.; Armstrong, James D. (2002). Distant mirrors: America as a foreign culture. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. p. 197. ISBN 9780534556488. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Ortega, Mariana (2009). Alcoff, Linda, ed. Constructing the Nation: A Race and Nationalism Reader. SUNY Series, Philosophy and Race. SUNY Press. p. 35. ISBN 9781438428475. Retrieved September 17, 2012.