|Slogan or nickname||The Sunshine State|
|Motto(s)||Audax at Fidelis
(Bold but Faithful)
Other Australian states and territories
Banana Bender (colloquial)
|- Governor||Penelope Wensley|
|- Premier||Campbell Newman (LNP)|
|- Self-governing colony||6 June 1859|
|- Australia Act||3 March 1986|
|- Total||1,852,642 km² (2nd)
715,309 sq mi
|- Land||1,730,620 km²
668,196 sq mi
|- Water||121,994 km² (6.58%)
47,102 sq mi
(End of March 2012)
|- Population||5,027,889 (3rd)|
|- Density||2.90/km² (5th)
7.5 /sq mi
|- Highest point||Mount Bartle Frere
1,622 m (5,322 ft)
|Gross state product
|- Product ($m)||$251,616 (3rd)|
|- Product per capita||$55,414 (5th)|
|Time zone(s)||UTC+10 (AEST)
(does not observe DST)
|- House seats||30/150|
|- Senate seats||12/76|
|- ISO 3166-2||AU-QLD|
|- Floral||Cooktown orchid
|- Bird||Brolga (Grus rubicunda)|
|- Fish||Barrier Reef Anemonefish
|- Mineral or Gemstone||Sapphire|
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,560,059, concentrated along the coast and particularly in the state's South East. The state is the world's sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australia's third largest city. Referred to as the 'Sunshine State', Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third largest economy.
Queensland was first occupied by Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, who arrived at least 60,000 years ago. The first European to land in Queensland (and Australia) was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney; New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement permitted in 1842.
The state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The date 6 June is now celebrated state-wide as Queensland Day. Queen Victoria, who went on to become Britain's longest reigning monarch, chose an eponymous name for the colony over Cooksland, which had been suggested by the influential local Presbyterian minister John Dunmore Lang in honour of navigator James Cook. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transport
- 6 Governance
- 7 Universities
- 8 Sports
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. Estimated to have been settled by Indigenous Australians more than 60,000 years ago, the north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Portuguese and French navigators before being encountered by Captain James Cook in 1770. The Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the employment of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia.
Arrival of Aboriginals
The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC. The Indigenous Australians reached the country likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, South East Asia and explored the continent over the next hundred years, living in Queensland with over 90 different language groups.
A drop in global temperatures resulted in an ice age, which caused Queensland's landscape to become largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce, leading to the world's first seed-grinding technology. The land again became habitable thanks to a warming in temperatures, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast and generated the growth of the state’s tropical rain forests.
European arrival (1606)
In 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York. This marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was also explored by French and Portuguese explorers (commanded by Louis Antoine de Bougainville and Luís Vaz de Torres, respectively) prior to the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1770. Liuetenant James Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of England on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, 'New South Wales'.
In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone (then Port Curtis) and Moreton Bay. At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He returned in 1824 and established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe. The settlement, initially known as Edenglassie, was then transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port. The first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton.
A war erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland. The Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia, which is believed to be due to the fact that Queensland has larger pre-contact indigenous population than the other colonies of Australia. A recent survey states that approximately 1,500 European settlers and their allies who consisted of Chinese, Aboriginal and Melanesian Assistants were killed in frontier skirmishes during the nineteenth century. The same study similarly indicates the actual casualties Aboriginal people suffered, which was classified as 'warfare' and at times, notably, as a 'war of extermination'. The death toll was highly likely to exceed 30,000. A paid force in the Queensland government known as the 'Native Police Force' was a key instrument in seeing the oppression of the indigenous people.
During this time, the largest massacre on whites by Aborigines also took place in Queensland. On 27 October 1857, Martha Fraser's Hornet Bank station on the Dawson River took the lives of 11 Europeans.
Colony of Queensland
A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider Queensland's proposed separation from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria signed Letters Patent to form the separate colony of what is now Queensland. Brisbane was appointed as the capital city. On 10 December 1859, a proclamation was read by British author George Bowen, whereby Queensland was formally separated from the state of New South Wales. As a result, Bowen became the first Governor of Queensland. On 22 May 1860 the first Queensland election was held and Robert Herbert, Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first Premier of Queensland. Queensland also become the first Australian colony to establish its own parliament rather than pending time as a Crown Colony. In 1865, the first rail lane in the state opened between Ipswich and Grandchester.
Queensland's economy expanded rapidly in 1867 after James Nash discovered gold on the Mary River near the town of Gympie, sparking a gold rush. While still significant, they were on a much smaller scale than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales. During the 1890s, a large portion of workers known as the Kanakas were brought to Queensland from neighbouring Pacific Island nations to work in the states sugar cane fields. Some of whom had been kidnapped under a process known as Blackbirding. During the Australian federation of 1901, the White Australia policy came into effect, which saw all foreign workers in Australia deported under the Pacific Island Labourers Act of 1901, which saw the Pacific Islander population of the state decrease rapidly.
On 1 January 1901, Australia was federated following a proclamation by Queen Victoria. During this time, Queensland had a population of half a million people. Brisbane was subsequently proclaimed a city in 1902. In 1905, women voted in state elections for the first time and the University of Queensland was established in 1909. In 1911, The first alternative treatments for polio are pioneered in Queensland and remain in use across the world today. Australia's first major airline, Qantas, was founded in 1920 to serve outback Queensland.
In 1922, Queensland abolishes the Upper House, becoming the only state parliament in Australia to have one house. In 1935, cane toads were deliberately introduced to Queensland from Hawaii in a poorly thought out and unsuccessful attempt to reduce the number of French’s Cane and Greyback Cane beetles that were destroying the roots of sugar cane plants, which are integral to Queensland's economy. In 1962, the first commercial production of oil in Queensland and Australia begins at Moonie.
The humid climate, regulated by the availability of air conditioning, saw Queensland (particularly the south eastern region) undergo rapid population growth as a result of interstate migration. To this day, it is one of Australia's fastest growing states.
Queensland borders the Torres Strait to the north, with Boigu Island off the coast of New Guinea representing the absolute northern extreme of its territory. The triangular Cape York Peninsula, which points toward New Guinea is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. West of the peninsula's tip, northern Queensland is bordered by the Gulf of Carpentaria, while the Coral Sea— an arm of the Pacific Ocean— borders Queensland to the east. To the west, Queensland is bordered by the Northern Territory, at the 138°E longitude, and to the southwest by the northeastern corner of South Australia.
In the south, there are three sections that comprise its border: the watershed from Point Danger to the Dumaresq River; the river section involving the Dumaresq, the Macintyre and the Barwon; and 29°S latitude (including some minor historical encroachments below the 29th parallel) over to the South Australian border.
The state capital is Brisbane, located on the coast 100 kilometres (60 mi) by road north of the New South Wales border. The state is divided into several officially recognised regions. Other smaller geographical regions of note include the Atherton Tablelands, the Granite Belt, and the Channel Country in the far southwest.
Queensland has many places of natural beauty, including: the Sunshine Coast and the Gold Coast having some of the state's most popular beaches; the Bunya Mountains and the Great Dividing Range with numerous lookouts, waterfalls and picnic areas; Carnarvon Gorge; Whitsunday Islands and Hinchinbrook Island.
The state contains six World Heritage listed preservation areas: Australian Fossil Mammal Sites at Riversleigh in the Gulf Country, Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, Fraser Island, Great Barrier Reef, Lamington National Park and the Wet Tropics of Queensland.
Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot summers are typical for the inland west, a monsoonal 'wet' season in the far north, and warm temperate conditions along the coastal strip. Inland and in southern ranges low minimum temperatures are experienced. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.
There are five predominant climatic zones in Queensland, based on temperature and humidity:
- hot humid summer, warm dry winter (far north and coastal) Cairns, Townsville, Gladstone
- warm humid summer, mild dry winter (coastal elevated hinterlands and coastal south-east) Brisbane, Bundaberg, Rockhampton
- hot dry summer, mild dry winter (central west) Mt Isa, Emerald, Longreach
- hot dry summer, cool dry winter (southern west) Roma, Charleville, Goondiwindi
- warm humid summer, cold dry winter (inland south-east) Toowoomba, Warwick, Stanthorpe
However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: a "winter" period of rather warm temperatures and minimal rainfall and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall.
The annual mean statistics for some Queensland centres is shown below:
|City||Min. Temp||Max. Temp||No. Clear days||Rainfall|
|Brisbane||15.7 °C (60.3 °F)||25.5 °C (77.9 °F)||113.1||1,149.1 mm (45.24 in)|
|Mackay||19.0 °C (66.2 °F)||26.4 °C (79.5 °F)||123.0||1,570.7 mm (61.84 in)|
|Cairns||20.8 °C (69.4 °F)||29.0 °C (84.2 °F)||89.7||2,006.3 mm (78.99 in)|
|Townsville||19.8 °C (67.6 °F)||28.9 °C (84.0 °F)||120.9||1,136.7 mm (44.75 in)|
The highest official maximum temperature recorded in the state was 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville Police Station on 24 December 1972, although the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite measured a ground surface temperature of 69.3 °C (156.7 °F). This temperature was the hottest value worldwide measured by MODIS in 2003.
Age and Population
population by year
|Source: Australian Bureau
A smaller proportion of Queensland's population lives in the capital city than any other mainland state. As of June 2004 the capital city represented 45.7% of the population; for the whole country, capital cities represented 63.8% of the total population.
On 9 December 2005, the population of Queensland officially reached 4 million. According to Queensland's Office of Economic and Statistical Research the estimated population of the state at the end of 2007 was 4,228,290 which is almost 20% of Australia's total. For many years until 2008, Queensland was the fastest growing state in Australia. At its peak growth in 2007, it was estimated that over 1,500 people moved to the state per week including 1,000 to the southern part of the state alone and the state recorded a TFR of 2.1, the highest since 1977. Queensland's growth rate has since been surpassed by Western Australia).
According to the 2011 Census, principal religious affiliations in Queensland are distributed as follows:
- Roman Catholic Church: 23.8%
- No Religion: 22.1%
- Anglican Church: 18.9%
- Uniting Church: 8.4%
- Presbyterian and Reformed Churches: 3.5%
- All other religions: 25.3%
Queensland's economy has enjoyed a boom in the tourism and mining industries over the past 20 years. A sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth. The 2008–09 saw the expansion slow to just 0.8%, the state's worst performance in 18 years.
Between 1992 and 2002, the growth in the Gross State Product of Queensland outperformed that of all the other states and territories. In that period Queensland's GSP grew 5.0% each year, while growth in Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose on average 3.9% each year. Queensland's contribution to the Australian GDP increased by 10.4% in that period, one of only three states to do so.
In 2003 Brisbane had the lowest cost of living of all Australia's capital cities. In late 2005 Brisbane was the third most expensive capital for housing after Sydney and Canberra and just ahead of Melbourne by $15,000.
Primary industries include: bananas, pineapples, peanuts, a wide variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain crops, wineries, cattle raising, cotton, sugar cane, wool and a mining industry including bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold, and copper. Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from Weipa and converted to alumina at Gladstone. There is also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a number of mills along the eastern coastline. Major tertiary industries are the retail trade and tourism.
Tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and overseas visitors flocking to the Sunshine State each year. The industry generates $4.0 billion annually, accounting for 4.5% of Queensland's GSP. Queensland is a state of many landscapes that range from sunny tropical coastal areas, lush rainforests to dry inland areas.
The main tourist destinations of Queensland include, Brisbane, Cairns, Port Douglas and the Daintree Rainforest, Gold Coast, the Great Barrier Reef, Hervey Bay and nearby Fraser Island, Townsville, Magnetic Island, North Stradbroke Island and South Stradbroke Island, Sunshine Coast, Hamilton Island, Daydream Island and the Whitsundays known for Airlie Beach and Whitehaven Beach.
Cairns is renowned as the "Gateway to the Barrier Reef" and the heritage listed Daintree Rainforests. The Gold Coast of Queensland is also sometimes referred to as "Australia's Theme Park Capital", with five major amusement parks. These are Dreamworld, Movie World, Sea World, Wet 'n' Wild and WhiteWater World.
There are numerous wildlife parks in Queensland. On the Gold Coast there is Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary at Currumbin and David Fleay Wildlife Park at Burleigh Heads. On the Sunshine Coast there is UnderWater World at Mooloolaba and Australia Zoo near Beerwah/Glass House Mountains, home of Steve Irwin until his death in 2006.
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary at Fig Tree Pocket and Brisbane Forest Park at The Gap are located in Brisbane. North of Brisbane is Alma Park Zoo which is relocating to Logan City and Kumbartcho Wildlife Sanctuary which was originally called Bunya Park Wildlife Sanctuary.
Accommodation in Queensland caters for nearly 22% of the total expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel (11%) and shopping/gifts (11%).
Queensland is served by a number of National Highways and, particularly in South East Queensland, motorways such as the M1. The Queensland government Department of Transport & Main Roads oversees the development and operation of main roads and public transport, including taxis and local aviation.
Major seaports include the Port of Brisbane and subsidiary ports at Gladstone, Townsville and Bundaberg. There are large coal export facilities at Hay Point / Dalrymple Bay, Gladstone and Abbot Point. Sugar is another major export, with facilities at Lucinda and Mackay.
Brisbane Airport is the main international and domestic gateway serving the state. Gold Coast Airport, Cairns International Airport and Townsville Airport are the next most prominent airports, all with scheduled international flights. Other regional airports, with scheduled domestic flights, include Great Barrier Reef Airport, Hervey Bay Airport, Mackay Airport, Mount Isa Airport, Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport, Rockhampton Airport, and Sunshine Coast Airport.
South East Queensland has an integrated public transport system operated by the TransLink Transit Authority, which provides services bus, rail and ferry services through contracted bus and ferry operators and Queensland Rail. The TransLink network operates a fare system which allows a single ticket to be used across all modes for the same price irrespective of the number of transfers made on the trip. Regional bus and long-distance rail services are also provided throughout the State. Local bus services are also available in most regional centres.
Executive authority is vested in the Governor, who represents and is appointed by Elizabeth II on the advice of the Premier. The current governor is Ms. Penelope Wensley, AO. The head of government is the Premier, who is appointed by the Governor but must have the support of the Legislative Assembly. The current Premier is Campbell Newman of the Liberal National Party. Other ministers, forming the Executive Council, are appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Assembly on the Premier's recommendation.
The Queensland Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, is unicameral. It is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature. A bicameral system existed until 1922, when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor members' "suicide squad" so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices. The Parliament is housed in the 19th century Parliament House and 20th century Parliamentary Annexe in Brisbane. The state's politics are traditionally regarded as being conservative relative to other states.
The judicial system of Queensland consists of the Supreme Court and the District Court, established by the Queensland Constitution, and various other courts and tribunals established by ordinary Acts of the Queensland Parliament.
In 2001 Queensland adopted a new codified constitution, repealing most of the assorted Acts of Parliament that had previously made up the constitution. The new constitution took effect on 6 June 2002, the anniversary of the formation of the colony of Queensland by the signing of Letters patent by Queen Victoria in 1859.
Local government is the mechanism by which towns and districts can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 1993–2007. Queensland is divided into 73 local government areas which may be called Cities, Towns, Shires or Regions.
Each area has a council which is responsible for providing a range of public services and utilities, and derives its income from both rates and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the State and Commonwealth governments.
The state's first university, The University of Queensland was established in 1909. It was moved to St Lucia in 1945, where it remains today. The University of Queensland ranks amongst the top 100 universities in several global rankings.
James Cook University was set up in 1970 to become the first tertiary education institution in North Queensland. Griffith University was established in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan in 1971. Bond University was established in 1989 as a not-for-profit university, the first of its type in Queensland and is located at Robina on the Gold Coast. In the Brisbane central business district at Gardens Point the Queensland University of Technology was opened in 1989 (previously the Queensland Institute of Technology).
In the following decades the Central Queensland University, University of Southern Queensland and the University of the Sunshine Coast were established. The Australian Catholic University also operates a campus in Brisbane. In 1997 the National Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts (ACPA) was established and in 2010 Southern Cross University opened a new campus at the southern part of the Gold Coast.
The state of Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team sports are Rugby league, Rugby union and cricket, respectively. Rugby league's annual State of Origin series is a major event in the Queensland sporting calendar, with the Queensland Maroons in 2013 winning a record eighth series in a row. The Brisbane Broncos are the state's most successful team of any sport, having won 3 premierships in the NRL rugby league era and 6 in total during their 23-year existence.
Queensland's dominance is not restricted to rugby league. The early part of this century saw the AFL's Brisbane Lions claim a hat-trick of premierships between 2001–2003 inclusive, and coming so close to a record-equalling fourth, whilst recently Brisbane Roar FC won back to back A-League titles in the 2010/11 and 2011/12 season, and also set an Australian sporting record of 36 consecutive games unbeaten. Just four years after being branded "the joke of rugby union", the Queensland Reds won its first Super Rugby title in July 2011. The Queensland Firebirds were also an outstanding team in 2011, going undefeated in the Netball ANZ Championship to win the Grand Final.
Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with a majority of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Queensland swimmers won all six of Australia's gold medals, all swimmers on Australia's three female (finals) relays teams were from Queensland, two of which won gold.
Major professional teams include:
- Australian Football: Brisbane Lions, Gold Coast Suns
- Basketball: Townsville Crocodiles, Cairns Taipans and the Gold Coast Blaze
- Cricket: Queensland Bulls, Brisbane Heat
- Football: Brisbane Roar, North Queensland Fury (no longer in the A-League) and Gold Coast United (no longer in the A-League)
- Netball: Queensland Firebirds
- Rugby league:
- Rugby union: Queensland Reds
- Gold Coast 600
- State of Origin series
- NRL All Stars game
- Townsville 400
- Quicksilver Pro and Roxy Pro
- Outline of Australia
- Index of Australia-related articles
- Australia at Wikipedia books
- Queensland Council of Unions
- Queensland Day
- Queensland Expatriate Awards
- Queensland State Archives
- State Library of Queensland
- 2010–2011 Queensland floods
- United Nations Association of Australia (Queensland) Community Award
- Governor of Queensland
- Premier of Queensland
- List of highways in Queensland
- List of schools in Queensland
- Protected areas of Queensland
- Category:People from Queensland
- 3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014
- "Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2010–11". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 5220.0. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "Floral Emblem of Queensland". AU: ANBG. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Queensland". Parliament@Work. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "How Old is Australia's Rock Art?". Aboriginal Art Online. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Dortch, C.E. and Hesp, P.A. 1994. "Rottnest Island artifacts and palaeosols in the context of Greater Swan Region prehistory" (Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 77:23–32)
- Place Names
- "Dictionary of Australian Biography". Gutenberg.net.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "Queensland Government – Q150". Q150.qld.gov.au. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- Karl Bitar. "Labor History: Timeline: Foundations: Colonial Origins". Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Queensland's History". Qld.gov.au. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- Richard Daintree's glass plates, National Museum of Australia
- A History of Queensland by Raymond Evans, Cambridge University Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-87692-6)
- European discovery and the colonisation of Australia culture.gov.au http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/australianhistory/
- Cumpston, JHL (1914). The History of Small-Pox in Australia 1788–1908. Melbourne: Australian Government Printer.
- "New Hope Group". Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Welcome to Frontier". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
- Australia. "Stories of the Dreaming - Australian Museum". Dreamtime.net.au. Retrieved 2010-08-04.; NSWV&P re 26 Oct 1857; MBC Nov 14, 1857. Book: Reid, Gordon: A Nest of Hornets: The Massacre of the Fraser family at Hornet Bank Station, Central Queensland, 1857, and related events, Melbourne 1982.
- "Q150 Timeline". Queensland Treasury. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Documenting Democracy". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
- National Climate Centre. "Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology – Climate of Queensland". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology – Australian climatic zones". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.[dead link]
- "Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology – Climate statistics for Australian locations". Bom.gov.au. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "Brisbane Regional Office". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "Mackay M.O.". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "Cairns Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "Townsville Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "Rainfall and Temperature Records". Bureau of Meteorology (Australian Government). Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "The Hottest Spot on Earth".
- "Rainfall and Temperature Records: National" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- "ABS.gov.au". ABS.gov.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "ABS.gov.au". ABS.gov.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "3301.0 – Births, Australia, 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- Tara Ravens (2 July 2008). "Couriermail.com.au". Couriermail.com.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "2011 Census QuickStats: Queensland". Australian Bureau of Statistics - Census 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Mackay. Travel guide for Mackay: eGuide. Mackayeguide.com. Retrieved on 18 August 2011.
- Tom Dusevic (17 December 2009). "Queensland falls back with the pack". The Australian. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "1387.3 – Queensland in Review, 2003". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Gladstone". Comalco.com. Rio Tinto Aluminium. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "About TQ – Profile". Tourism Queensland. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- "Tourism related information and statistics". Discoverqueensland.com.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- Wanna, John (2003). "Queensland". In Moon, Campbell; Sharman, Jeremy. Australian Politics and Government: The Commonwealth, the States and Territories. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-521-82507-5. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Daly, Margo (2003). The Rough Guide To Australia. Rough Guides Ltd. p. 397. ISBN 978-1-84353-090-9.
- Penrith, Deborah (2008). Live & Work in Australia. Crimson Publishing. p. 478. ISBN 978-1-85458-418-2.
- Why Labor struggles in Queensland
- George Megalogenis, "The Green and the Grey", Quarterly Essay, Vol. 40, 2010, p69. Available at: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=BHQzwqY1b90C&pg=PA121&dq=quarterly+essay+trivial+pursuit&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BLFqT8zAGYKaiAep6KTpBQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=quarterly%20essay%20trivial%20pursuit&f=false.
- "Australia ready for first female leader". BBC News. 25 June 2010.
- Local Government Act 1993, s.34. (Reprint 11E, as in force at 22 November 2007.)
- "Rates and valuations". Queensland: Department of Local Government, Sport and Recreation. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Queensland.|
- Government of Queensland
- State Archives, Government of Queensland.
- State Library, Government of Queensland.
- Far North Queensland (historical footage), AU: National Film and Sound Archive.
- Daintrees, Richard, Glass plates, AU: National Museum.