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21 February 1703 (1114 Hijri)|
|Died||20 August 1762
(aged 59) (1176 Hijri)|
|Notable work(s)||Hujjat Allah al-baligha (The Conclusive Argument from God)|
Qutb-ud-Dīn Ahmad ibn 'Abdul Rahīm (Arabic: قطب الدین احمد ابن عبدالرحیم), better known as Shāh Walīullāh (1703 — 1762 CE / 1114 — 1176 AH) was an islamic scholar, reformer and founder of modern Islamic thought who attempted to reassess Islamic theology in the light of modern changes. 
Shāh Walīullāh was born in 1703, four years before the death of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. His genealogy can be traced back to the family of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. He received a structured education and spiritual instruction at the madrasa (religious school) established by his father, Shah 'Abd al-Rahim, at Delhi. Along with the Qur'an, he studied Arabic and Persian grammar and literature and the higher philosophical, theological, metaphysical, mystical and juridical texts. He graduated from the school when he was barely fifteen years old; in the same year, his father initiated him into the famous Naqshbandi order. He began his career as a teacher at the Madrasa-e-Rahimia under the tutelage of his father; after the death of the latter in 1719, Shah Waliullah became the head of the madrasa, teaching all the current sciences at the school for about twelve years. During the same period he continued his own studies, growing in stature as a teacher and attracting students to his circle.
In 1731 he went to the Hijaz on a pilgrimage (Hajj) and stayed there for fourteen months studying Hadith and Fiqh under such distinguished scholars as abu Tahir al-Kurdi al-Madani, Wafd Allah al-Makki, and Taj al-Din al-Qali. During this period he came into contact with people from all parts of the Muslim world and, thus, obtained first-hand information about the conditions then prevailing in the various Muslim countries. During this time, he also saw the forty-seven spiritual visions which form the subject matter of his famous mystical work Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Mecca and Medina).
He returned to Delhi in 1733, where he spent the rest of his life in producing numerous works till his death in 1763 during the reign of Shah Alam II. The most important of Shah Waliullah's works is his Ḥujjat Allāh al-Bāligha in which he made an attempt to present the teachings of Islam in a spirit of scientific objectivity. The range of his works include: economic, political, social, meta-physical, as well as purely theological aspects.
Shah Waliullah married twice in his lifetime, first when he was 14 years old. He had a son and a daughter from his first marriage. He concluded the second marriage sometime after his return to India. He had four sons and a daughter from his second marriage.
List of works 
- Altaf al-quds (The sacred knowledge of the higher functions of the mind: Altaf al-Quds)
- Al-Khayr al-kathir (The Abundant Good)
- Ḥujjat Allāh al-Bāligha
- Sata'at (Manifestations)
- Lamahat (Flashes of Lightning)
- Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Mecca and Medina)
- Al-Tafhimat (Instructions or Clear Understanding)
- Al-Budur al-bazighah (The Full Moons Rising in Splendor)
- Jalbani, G.N. (2006). Life of Shah Wali Allah (1st ed.). New Delhi, India: Kitab Bhavan. ISBN 9788171513703.
- S.M. Ikram (1964). "XIX. A Century of Political Decline: 1707-1803". In Ainslie T. Embree. Muslim civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231025805. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Sharif, M. M. (1963). A History of Muslim Philosophy: With short accounts of other Disciplines and the Modern Renaissance in the Muslim Lands. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 9788175361461.
- Husain, M Hidayat (1912). "Al-Juz' al-Latif fi Tarjamat al-'Abd al-Da'if (English translation from Persian text)". Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 14: 161–175.
- Hermansen, transl. by Marcia K. (1996). The conclusive argument of God : Shāh Walī Allāh of Delhi's Ḥujjat Allāh al-Bāligha. Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. ISBN 9789004102989.
- Waliullah, Shah. Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Mecca and Medina).
- Waliullah, Shah (1982). The sacred knowledge of the higher functions of the mind: Altaf al-Quds. London: Octagon Pr. ISBN 0900860936.
- Waliullah, Shah (1974). al-Khayr al-kathir. LCCN 75930338.
|Sufism and Tariqa|