Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi

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Shaykh-ul-Quran
شیخ القرآن

Mulana Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
سیدی شیخ عبدالغفور ہزاروی
Title Rahbar-e-Sharia, Qudwat ul-Salikeen, Zubdat ul-Arfeen, Burhan-ul-Wasleen, Makhdoom Ahle Sunnah, Hazrat Shaykh-ul-Quran, Abu al-Haqaiq
Born 10 Dhu al-Hijjah 1328 Hijri (1910-12-12)12 December 1910
Kot Najeebullah, North-West Frontier Province, British India
Died 8 Sha'aban 1390 Hijri 9 October 1970(1970-10-09) (aged 59)
Resting place Wazirabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Nationality British India
Pakistan
Ethnicity Karlal
Era Modern era
Region South Asia
Occupation Political leader, Grand Mufti
Denomination Sunni
Jurisprudence Hanafi
Creed Barelvi
Movement Barelvi
Main interest(s) Fiqh, Tafsir, Sunnah, Hadith, Sharia, ʿAqīdah, Seerah, Mantiq, Islamic philosophy, oratory
Notable idea(s) Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat
Notable work(s) Jamia Nizamia Ghousia, Manaqib-al-Jaleela
Alma mater Darul Uloom Bareily
Disciple of Hamid Raza Khan
Awards Nishan-e-Imtiaz (1958)

Barelvi movement

Sunni Barelvis consider Dargah Ajmer Shareef as their prime center of Islam in South Asia
Central figures

Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
Hamid Raza Khan

Organizations

Jamaat Ahle Sunnat, Pakistan
Sunni Tehreek, Pakistan
Sunni Ittehad Council, Pakistan
Dawat-e-Islami, International
Sunni Dawat-e-Islami, International

Institutions

Al Jamiatul Ashrafia · Manzar-e-Islam
Al-Jame-atul-Islamia · Jamiatur Raza

Notable Scholars

Ameen Mian Qaudri, India
Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi, Pakistan
Muhammad Ilyas Qadri, Pakistan
Akhtar Raza, India
Qamaruzzaman Azmi, United Kingdom
Muhammad Muslehuddin Siddiqui, Pakistan
Arshadul Qaudri, India

Literature
Kanzul Iman, translation of the Qur'an

Mulana Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi (Urdu: اخوندزادہ محمد عبدالغفور ہزاروی چشتی‎) was a prominent Muslim theologian, Faqīh, Mufassir, Orator, Muslim revivalist leader, political philosopher and a 20th-century Islamic thinker in Pakistan.[1] He was a pioneer of Pakistan movement, member of Council of Islamic Ideology. He was the companion of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and separatist leader Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and played a vital role in the independence movement of Pakistan against the British Raj.[2] He was the founding member of the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (JUP) and became its president in 1967. He was also a political figure in Pakistan and was the first recipient of Nishan-e-Imtiaz (Order of Excellence) by the President of Pakistan.[3] He was also the chairman of Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat, an organisation opposed to the Ahmadiyya Movement that waged a campaign against Mirza Ghulam Ahmed's claim of prophethood.[4]

Early life[edit]

Hazarvi was born in Chamba Village, Kot Najeebullah, North-West Frontier Province, British India. His father Maulana Abdul Hameed Hazarvi, an Islamic scholar, belonged to the Karlal Hindko tribe. He was a follower of the Chishti Order[5] He was the elder of his four brothers and sisters.[6] Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi studied with top scholars including Moulana Muhib-un-Nabi. He started studies of Islamic law, Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages at the local maktab in Chamba Village, He was the student of well known Islamic Scholar Moulana Mushtaq Ahmad Kanpuri, where he learned Islamic Jurisprudence and traditional Dars-i-Nizami. He completed the Dawra Hadith and Qur'anic exegesis with the Hamid Raza Khan the elder son of Ahmad Raza Khan in Madrasa Manzar-e-Islam, Bareily. Hamid Raza Khan gave this student of his khilafat, which is why Qadri is written on his gravestone. He became famous with the name which was kept by his grandfather Mohammad Aalam Hazarvi. It was the time when Hazarvi was attracted to Mathematics, and he studied the fundamental concepts in Mathematics in depth.[7]

Pledge of allegiance and services[edit]

Hazarvi did Bay'ah on the hands of Pir Meher Ali Shah[citation needed] at the age of about 11 and asked him to pray that he could become a Mawlawi. Pir Meher Ali Shah said to him that "jaao! eik din tum bohot barei moulvi bano gei" (Mawlawi was the title used for Alim in those days).[8]

At the age of 26, in 1937 Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi went to Jeendhar Sharif, Gujrat, at the service of Uwais-e-Waqat Khawaja Gohar Munir Jeendharvi which was a great Sufi of the Uwaisi order, who devoted everything to his followers, due to this immense fayz (blessing), Hazarvi progressed rapidly through the stages of spiritual training and Tasawwuf. He conferred khilafah upon Hazarvi thus giving him permission to speak on behalf of the Uwaisi Order.[9]

After taking the education he started the teaching Quran and Hadith in Madrasa Manzar-e-Islam in Bareilly, India. After then he taught Dars-i-Nizami in Jamia Khudam-ul-Sufiya in Gujrat, where he performed his duties as Mudarris. On (1935), Hazarvi established Jamia Nizamia Ghousia in Wazirabad, where he served as the Mohatmim and Khatib. Hazarvi was a great Mudarris and in the month of Ramadan especially he would teach Dowra Qur'an to advanced students over the 30 days.[9]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi being one of the best speakers in South Asia, he was a brilliant orator, and he had his gifted ability to answer and reply spontaneously. Many people would go "Mast" when he delivered his speeches. Ghazali-e-Zaman Syed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi Shah would consider himself uneducated in front of him. Hazarvi shared a close relationship with Muhaddith-e-Azam Pakistan Moulana Sardar Ahmad Qadri; both had studied under Hamid Raza Khan.[10]

Hazarvi was the either the founding member of most Muslim organisations or was the part of them, such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (JUP), Anjuman-e-Talaba-e-Islam (ATI), Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat and All India Majlis-e-Ittehad-e-Millat later on merged in All-India Muslim League in 1940.[11]

Muslim League and patriotism[edit]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi was a famous political and spiritual leader of Pakistan. He was one of the provincial delegates to the Lahore Resolution of the All India Muslim League session which he was participated on 22 – 24 March 1940. He contributed to the passing of the resolution for a separate Muslim state at Minto Park in Lahore. During the Pakistan Movement, Hazarvi was among the scholars who sided with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League, on the platform of "All India Sunni Conference″ held at Banaras in 1946. He was the Chief Organizer at the Banaras Conference. When Pakistan movement began for the independence of India, the Indian National Congress was supported by many Muslim scholars, leaders and the learned who were devotees of Indian nationality and stood side by side with the Hindu leaders. Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi announced his assistance and loyalty to Qa'id A'zam in the struggle to acquire Pakistan.[12]

Soon after merging the Ittehad-e-Millat into the All-India Muslim League in 1940, Hazarvi toured the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province to win support for the Muslim League. He invited Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah to tour the both provinces. In one of Jinnah's letters to Hazarvi, He promised that sharia law would be applied to the affairs of the Muslim community. On 1 October 1946, Hazarvi and his companion Zafar Ali Khan organised a historic meeting of the Ulema and Mashaikh at Peshawar, which passed resolutions expressing full loyalty with the Muslim League and reposing complete confidence in Jinnah's leadership. Hazarvi was active in campaigning for the Muslim League in the referendum held in NWFP in 1947, which decided the accession of the NWFP to Pakistan.[10]

In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi donated all the ornaments of his family to the Pakistan Army. He was twice nominated as a member of the Council of Islamic Ideology, where he worked hard to Islamicize the existing laws.[13]

Agitation for democracy[edit]

During the Ayub era, nine prominent leaders belonging to different political parties were tried for mutiny under the Official Secret Act. The nine of them had decided to initiate a democratic movement; As a president of Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi was one of the nine. The trial lingered on for two years. Ultimately, the case was taken back by the government,for lack of evidence. In 1965, the joint opposition was organised, he was one of its central leaders. Along with other leaders of the COP, Hazarvi toured the two wings of the country (East and West Pakistan) to create mass awareness and organise a strong national democratic movement. The military ruler, president Muhammad Ayub Khan (1958–1969), banned political parties and warned Hazarvi against continued political activism. Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan supported the opposition party, the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM). In the 1964 – 1965 presidential elections, Hazarvi supported the opposition leader, Fatima Jinnah.[14]

Opposition to other sects[edit]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the Mahdi and the Messiah awaited by the Muslims as well as Christians. These claims proved to be extremely controversial among many in the Muslim community, and he was branded a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi. Hazarvi was also the founding member of Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat, Pakistani nationalist Muslim political movement in Pakistan. He led a movement against Ahmadis and held a Khatme Nabuwwat Conference at Rabwah in 21–23 October 1953.[15] Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi was a central figure in the Khatme Nabuwwat Movement of 1953, which demanded that government of Pakistan declare the Ahmadis as non-Muslims. Hazarvi was active in the Khatme Nabuwwat movement. In his lectures he stressed the importance of the concept of finality of prophethood and argued against the interpretations of Quranic verses and hadiths used by Qadianis to support their beliefs. The resolution moved on 30 June 1974 in the National Assembly in support of declaring Qadianis as non-Muslims in Pakistan.[16]

Works[edit]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi wrote and translated numerous books on a variety of subjects. Amongst his famous works were his compilation of Manaqib-al-Jaleela, is a book on Islamic Jurisprudence.[17]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi's works include

  1. Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalima-tul-Haq (The Truth about Kalima-tul-Haq)
  2. Shamsul Hidayah
  3. I'la Kalimatillah Fi Bayan-e-Wa Ma Uhilla Bihi Legharillah
  4. AlFatuhat-us-Samadiyyah (Divine Bounties)
  5. Tasfiah Mabain Sunni Wa Shi'ah
  6. Majmua Fatawa

Beliefs regarding Muhammad[edit]

Hazarvi have several beliefs regarding Muhammad's nature, which distinguish them from Deobandi, Salafi and Shia groups in South Asia:

  • He is a human being but created from light like angels, rather than from clay like other human beings.[18]
  • He is present in many places at the same time.[19]
  • He is still witnessing all that goes on in the world.[19]
  • He has knowledge of that which is unknown, including the future.[20]
  • He has the authority to do whatever he desires as granted to him by God.[21]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi's beliefs regarding Muhammad include that Muhammad, although human, possessed a nūr (light) that predates creation.[22] This contrasts with the Deobandi view that Muhammad was insan-e-kamil ("the complete man"), a respected but physically typical human.[23][24]

  • He is haazir naazir (can be present in many places at the same time, as opposed to God, who is everywhere by definition).[19]
  • God has granted him ilm-e-ghaib (the knowledge of the unseen).

Hazarvi wrote:

We do not hold that anyone can equal the knowledge of Allah Most High, or possess it independently, nor do we assert that Allah's giving of knowledge to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is anything but a part. But what a patent and tremendous difference between one part [the Prophet's] and another [anyone else's]: like the difference between the sky and the earth, or rather even greater and more immense.[24]

—Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi, Shamsul Hidayah (c00), 291.

Practices[edit]

  • Veneration of the dead, specifically those who lead pious/righteous lives. This consists of the intervention of an ascending, linked and unbroken chain of holy personages claimed to reach ultimately to Muhammad, who Barelvis believe intercede on their behalf with God.[27]
  • Visiting the tombs of Muhammad, his companions and of pious Muslims, an act the Barelvis claim is supported by the Quran, Sunnah and acts of the companions, but which opponents call "shrine-worshipping" and Grave worshiping and consider to be un-Islamic.[28][29][30][31]
  • Leaving the beard to grow for men; the Hazarvi's views a man who trims his beard to less than a fist-length as a sinner, and shaving the beard is considered abominable.[36]

Death[edit]

He died on 9 October 1970, in the road accident at Wazirabad, Punjab, Pakistan.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zebiri, Kate. Review of Maududi and the making of Islamic fundamentalism. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 61, No. 1.(1998), pp. 167–168.
  2. ^ http://dawn.com/news/767235/alliance-with-pml-q-triggers-rift-in-sunni-ittehad
  3. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inayat_Ollah_Khan_Niazi.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ http://www.jamiatulmadina.com/branches.asp
  5. ^ Adams, p.100-101
  6. ^ Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi. Official website of the Jamaat-e-Islami.
  7. ^ Tazkira-e-Qari Muslehuddin – Page 4 – Professor Jalaluddin Ahmad Noori (Karachi University)
  8. ^ Mahmood, Sohail (1995). Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan, Egypt and Iran. Vanguard. 
  9. ^ a b Irfan-e-Manzil – Darul Kutub Hanfia Kharadar Karachi – 1984
  10. ^ a b "Preachers of hate on British TV: what they said that broke the broadcasting rules". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  11. ^ "7th National Assembly". National Assembly of Pakistan. Retrieved 7 October 2012. 
  12. ^ Ismail Khan, The Assertion of Barelvi Extremism. Hudson Institute: Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, vol. 12. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology.
  13. ^ a b "Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin Issue number 205, 8 May 2012". Ofcom. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  14. ^ Al Mujahid, Sharif (1986). Eur, ed. Far East and Australasia 2003 (34th ed.). Routledge. p. 1163. ISBN 1-85743-133-2. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  15. ^ Muhammad Taqi Usmani; Sami ul Haq (January 2005) [1974]. Qadianism on Trial. trnns. Muhammad Wali Raazi. London: Khatme Nubuwwat Academy. p. 209. 
  16. ^ "Sunni Ittehad Council to launch Difa-e-Pakistan drive". 
  17. ^ A‘lahazrat as a Translator of Holy Qur‘an. wimnet.org[verification needed]
  18. ^ Ahmed Raza. "Noor o Bashar ::Islamic Books, Books Library". Faizaneraza.org. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal. Urban Terrorism : Myths And Realities. Publisher Pointer Publishers, 2009 ISBN 81-7132-598-X, 9788171325986. pg. 67
  20. ^ Clinton Bennett. Muslims and modernity: an introduction to the issues and debates. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005 ISBN 0-8264-5481-X, 9780826454812. pg. 189
  21. ^ Muḥammad Yūsūf Ludhiyānvī (1999). Differences in the Ummah and the straight path. Zam Zam Publishers. pp. 35–38. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  22. ^ Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 1 September 2010. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 4 May 2011. 
  23. ^ Pakistan perspectives, Volume 7. Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, 2002
  24. ^ a b Akbar S. Ahmed (1999) Islam today: a short introduction to the Muslim world. I.B. Tauris Publishers, ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9
  25. ^ Sirriyeh 1999: 49
  26. ^ Sirriyeh 2004: 111
  27. ^ Martin Parsons (1 January 2006). Unveiling God: Contextualizing Christology for Islamic Culture. William Carey Library. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-0-87808-454-8. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  28. ^ Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities – N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  29. ^ Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities – N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  30. ^ "outlookindia.com". M.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  31. ^ Curriculum in Today's World: Configuring Knowledge, Identities, Work and ... – Lyn Yates, Madeleine Grumet – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  32. ^ The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism – Olivier Roy, Antoine Sfeir – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. 26 September 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  33. ^ Tremors of Violence: Muslim Survivors of Ethnic Strife in Western India – Rowena Robinson – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  34. ^ Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities – N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  35. ^ Indian Defence Review: April – June 2007 – Bharat Verma – Google Books. Books.google.com.my. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  36. ^ Arun Shourie, The World of Fatwas or the Sharia in Action, pg. 135. ASA Publications, 1995. ISBN 9788190019958

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