2002 Winter Olympics
The emblem combines a snow crystal and a sun rising over a mountain. The yellow, orange, and blue colors represent the varied Utah landscape.
|Host city||Salt Lake City, Utah, United States|
|Motto||Light The Fire Within|
|Athletes participating||2,399 (1,513 men, 886 women)|
|Events||78 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)|
|Opening ceremony||February 8|
|Closing ceremony||February 24|
|Officially opened by||President George W. Bush|
|Athlete's Oath||Jim Shea|
|Judge's Oath||Allen Church|
|Olympic Torch||Members of the 1980 USA hockey team, led by team captain Mike Eruzione|
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
|2002 Winter Olympics|
The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XIXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Salt Lake 2002, were a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated in February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Approximately 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC). Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games, and the 2002 Winter Olympics are the most recent games to be held in the United States.
The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, and sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area ever to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger. Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were also larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan; this became a trend with more and more events held in subsequent Games.
The Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. Nevertheless, from sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history; records were set in both the broadcasting and marketing programs. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours. The Games were also financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues. U.S. Federal subsidies amounted to $1.3 billion.
- 1 Host city selection
- 2 Venues
- 3 Participating nations
- 4 Sports
- 5 Calendar
- 6 Medal table
- 7 Highlights
- 8 Opening ceremony
- 9 2002 Olympic Symbols
- 10 Concerns and controversies
- 11 Security measures
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Host city selection
Salt Lake City was chosen over Québec City, Canada, Sion, Switzerland, and Östersund, Sweden, on June 16, 1995, at the 104th IOC Session in Budapest, Hungary. Salt Lake City had previously come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano, Japan, and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Denver, Colorado, withdrew. The 1976 Winter Olympics were ultimately awarded to Innsbruck, Austria.
|2002 Winter Olympics bidding result|
|Salt Lake City||United States||54|
|Deer Valley||Alpine skiing (slalom), freestyle skiing||13,400|||
|E Center||Ice hockey||10,500|||
|Park City Mountain Resort||Alpine skiing (giant slalom), snowboarding||16,000|||
|Peaks Ice Arena||Ice hockey||8,400|||
|Salt Lake Ice Center1||Figure skating, short track speed skating||17,500|||
|Snowbasin||Alpine skiing (combined, downhill, super-G)||22,500|||
|Soldier Hollow||Biathlon, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined (cross-country skiing portion)||15,200|||
|The Ice Sheet at Ogden||Curling||2,000|||
|Utah Olympic Oval||Speed skating||5,236|||
|Utah Olympic Park
(bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track)
|Bobsleigh, luge, skeleton, Nordic combined (ski jumping portion), ski jumping||18,100 (ski jumping)
15,000 (sliding track)
1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the EnergySolutions Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center", causing some confusion for visitors.
|Main Media Center||International Broadcast Center & Main Press Center|
|2002 Olympic Medals Plaza||Olympic medal presentations & Olympic Celebration Series concerts||20,000|||
|2002 Olympic Village||Olympic Village & Olympic Family Hotel|
|Park City Main Street||Main Street celebration area, Park City Technical Center, NBC broadcast center, sponsor showcases|||
|Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium||Opening & closing ceremonies||≈50,000|||
|Salt Lake Olympic Square||Olympic Medals Plaza, Salt Lake Ice Center, Olympic Superstore, sponsor showcases|||
A total 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the Salt Lake City games. Cameroon, Hong Kong (China), Nepal, Tajikistan, and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic games.
|Participating National Olympic Committees|
There were 78 events contested in 7 sports (15 disciplines).
In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport are held. The number in each box represents the number of finals that were contested on that day.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Cross country skiing||2||2||1||1||1||2||1||1||1||12|
|Short track speed skating||1||2||2||3||8|
Host country (United States)
Several medals records were set and/or tied. They included (bold-face indicates broken during the Vancouver Olympics):
- Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13.
- Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36.
- The following records the United States set and/or tied:
- The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within," the official song of the 2002 Olympics.
- The Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies.
- John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Olympiad. It was performed by the Utah Symphony Orchestra and featured the Mormon Tabernacle Choir and the Madeleine Choir School singing the official motto of the Olympic Games "Citius, Altius, Fortius" (Faster, Higher, Stronger). The premiere of the work at the opening ceremonies also corresponded with John Williams's 70th birthday. The work is featured on the CD American Journey, and also on the Choir's recording Spirit of America.
- There were also signs of remembrance of September 11, 2001, being the first Olympics since then. They included the flag that flew at Ground Zero, NYPD officer Daniel Rodriguez singing "God Bless America", and honor guards of NYPD and FDNY members.
- Along with the flag that flew at the World Trade Center site, the Challenger flag was also carried into the stadium.
- The opening segment of the opening ceremony celebrated all previous hosts of the Olympic Winter Games.
- The Olympic Flame was lit by the members of the Gold Medal-winning US Hockey Team of the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, NY, which was the previous time the Winter Olympics were in the US. (See picture at right)
- These Olympics marked the first time a President of the United States opened an Olympic Winter Games held in the United States, although previous Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and Richard Nixon had opened the 1932 Winter Olympics and the 1960 Winter Olympics in their roles as Governor of New York and Vice President of the United States, respectively.
- These were the first Games to be presided over by IOC president Jacques Rogge.
- Competition highlights included biathlete Ole Einar Bjørndalen of Norway, winning gold in all four men's events (10 k, 12.5 k, 20 k, 4 x 7.5 relay), Nordic combined athlete Samppa Lajunen of Finland winning three gold medals, Simon Ammann of Switzerland taking the double in ski jumping. In alpine skiing, Janica Kostelić won three golds and a silver (the first Winter Olympic medals ever for an athlete from Croatia and the first three-gold performance by a female), while Kjetil André Aamodt of Norway earned his second and third career golds, setting up both athletes to beat the sport's record with their fourth golds earned at the next Winter Olympics near Turin (Aamodt also set the overall medal record in the sport with 8).
- Skeleton returned as a medal sport in the 2002 Games for the first time since 1948.
- Ireland reached its best ever position and came close to winning its first winter medal when Clifton Wrottesley (Clifton Hugh Lancelot de Verdon Wrottesley, 6th Baron Wrottesley) finished fourth in the men's skeleton event.
- The Women's Bobsled Event had its debut at the 2002 Games after several years of World Cup competition.
- A feature of these Games was the emergence of the extreme sports, such as snowboarding, moguls and aerials, which appeared in previous Olympic Winter Games but have captured greater public attention in recent years.
- The United States completed a remarkable sweep of the podium in men's halfpipe snowboarding, with Americans Ross Powers, Danny Kass, and Jarret Thomas all winning medals.
- American Sarah Hughes won the gold medal in figure skating. American and heavy favorite Michelle Kwan fell during her long program and received the bronze medal.
- China won its first and second Winter Olympic gold medals, both by women's short-track speed skater Yang Yang (A).
- One of the most memorable stories of the event occurred at the men's short track. Australian skater Steven Bradbury, a competitor who had won a bronze in 1994 as part of a relay team but well off the pace of the medal favourites, cruised off the pace in his semifinal only to see three of his competitors crash into each other, allowing him to finish second and go through to the final. Bradbury was again well off the pace, but lightning struck again and all four other competitors crashed out in the final turn, leaving a jubilant Bradbury to take the most unlikely of gold medals, the first for Australia—or any other country of the Southern Hemisphere—in the Olympic Winter Games.
- Australia winning their second gold medal, courtesy of Alisa Camplin in Women's Aerials, the first ever Winter Games gold won by a woman from the Southern Hemisphere.
- The Canadian men's ice hockey team defeated the American team 5–2 to claim the gold medal, ending 50 years without the hockey gold. The Canadian women's team also defeated the American team 3–2 after losing to them at the 1998 Winter Olympic Games in Nagano.
- The closing ceremonies marked the final live performance of KISS with its lineup of Stanley/Simmons/Frehley/Singer. They performed "Rock and Roll All Nite". Other artists performing at the 2002 ceremonies were Willie Nelson, Creed, Sting, Yo Yo Ma, R. Kelly, Christina Aguilera, Dianne Reeves, Harry Connick Jr., Dorothy Hamill, Dave Matthews Band, 'N Sync, Earth, Wind & Fire, The Dixie Chicks, Josh Groban, Charlotte Church, Bon Jovi, Mormon Tabernacle Choir and, during the presentation of Turin, Irene Grandi, and Elisa.
- There was a Canadian dollar underneath the ice in support of the Canadian men's team, supposedly placed there at the request of Wayne Gretzky, who knew the man responsible for ice upkeep.
- Team Belarus's Vladimir Kopat scored a game winning goal from center ice against Team Sweden in the quarter finals, getting Belarus to their best place in international hockey so far.
- The games were formally closed by International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge departing from former IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch's tradition of declaring each games "best ever". Rogge's began a tradition of assigning each games their own identity in his comments calling the 2002 Salt Lake Games "flawless".
Prior to the ceremony, the turf inside the stadium was removed and a giant, abstract shaped ice rink, designed by Seven Nielsen, was installed, covering a large part of the stadium floor. Performers would later perform on ice skates, rather than shoes.
An American flag rescued from the World Trade Center Site on September 11 was carried into the stadium by an honor guard of American athletes and was carried in by firefighters and police officers. The Mormon Tabernacle Choir, clad in white sweaters, performed The Star Spangled Banner, the US national anthem, as the flag was raised. The parade of the 2,300 athletes was led by the Child of Light and began traditionally with Greece and ending with the host nation, the United States of America. As the artistic section kicked off, the five native Utah Native American tribes arrived together on horseback and performed several traditional "Welcome" stomp dances. The Dixie Chicks also performed.
The beauty of the Utah landscape was showcased as huge puppets of native Utah animals, including a 15-foot-long bison and the American bald eagle (the national bird and animal of the U.S.), entered the stadium, as well as dancing pioneer settlers as two trains came together on, symbolizing the US railroad industry which was beneficial to Utah's economy beginning in the 1860s, as well as economically linking the Western U.S. and the Eastern U.S. At the end of their performance, the performers unfurled a giant quilt that covered the entire stadium floor with the 2002 Winter Olympics logo in the center. Two figure skaters, Olympians Kristi Yamaguchi and Scott Hamilton performed on the over-sized ice rink as "Light the Fire Within," the 2002 Winter Olympic's theme song was sung by LeAnn Rimes.
After speeches by Jacques Rogge, President over the IOC and Mitt Romney, the CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee, the Olympic flame, which had traveled 13,500 miles (21,700 km) was carried into the stadium by gold medalists Dorothy Hamill and Dick Button. They passed the flame to other pairs U.S. Olympic heroes, who either ran or skated their short relay. Gold medalists in Nagano 1998 Picabo Street and Cammi Granato carried the flame up the steps to the towering cauldron where they were met by Mike Eruzione, captain of the miracle on ice hockey team that won the Olympic gold medal in 1980. Eruzione summoned the other members of the team, who together lit the Olympic cauldron. The Opening Ceremony would win seven Emmy Awards.
While there was a lot of international sympathy for the US in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, there were complaints that the Games were being conducted in an overtly patriotic manner. President Bush received some criticism for departing from the Olympic charter by extending the declaration to open the Games, saying “On behalf of a proud, determined and grateful nation” before the traditional formula, “I declare open the Games of Salt Lake City”. In addition, the President opened the Games standing among the US athletes, while previous heads of state opened the Games from an official box. NBC's Bob Costas applauded the move during the network's coverage of the Opening Ceremony.
The official box was occupied by the President's Olympic delegation:
- Dorothy Koch, the President's sister
- Colin Powell, U.S. Department of State
- Mel Martinez, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
- Gale Ann Norton, U.S. Department of the Interior
- Tommy Thompson, Department of Health and Human Services
- Ann Veneman, U.S. Department of Agriculture
- Christine Todd Whitman, Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
- Lance Armstrong, champion cyclist
- Hayden Fry, 2003 College Football Hall of Fame (University of Iowa head football coach)
- John Morris, Bass Pro Shops founder
- Cal Ripken, Jr., 2007 Baseball Hall of Fame (Baltimore Orioles shortstop)
- Sheryl Swoopes-Jackson, WNBA star
- Darrell Waltrip, 2012 NASCAR Hall of Fame (3-time NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Champion)
2002 Olympic Symbols
The 2002 Olympic emblem is a snowflake, which consisted of three separate sections. The yellow top section symbolizes the Olympic Flame, and represents the athletes' courage. The orange center section symbolizes the ancient weaving styles of Utah's Native Americans, and represents the region's culture. The blue/purple bottom section symbolizes a snow-capped mountain, and represents the contrast of Utah's mountain and desert areas. The orange/yellow colors above the blue/purple bottom section also gave the appearance of a sun rising from behind a mountain.
An official palette of colors, which ranged from cool blues to warm reds and oranges, was created for the Salt Lake 2002 games. The palette became part of the official design theme named Land of Contrast – Fire and Ice, with the blues representing the cooler, snowy, mountainous regions of Northern Utah, and the oranges and red representing the warmer, rugged, red-rock areas of Southern Utah.
As with all Olympic games, pictograms, which easily identified the venues, sports, and services for spectators without using a written language, were specifically designed for the Salt Lake 2002 games. The pictograms for these games mimicked the designs of branding-irons found in the western United States, and used the Fire and Ice theme colors of the Salt Lake 2002 Games. The line thickness and 30-degree angles found in the pictograms mirror those found in the snowflake emblem.
The mascots represent three of the indigenous animals of the Western United States, and are named after natural resources which have long been important to Utah's economy, survival, and culture. All three animals are major characters in the legends of local Native Americans, and each mascot wears a charm around its neck with an original Anasazi or Fremont-style petroglyph.
- Powder – A Snowshoe Hare, represents the Native American legend when the sun was too close to the earth and was burning it. The hare ran to the top of a mountain, and shot her arrow into the sun. This caused it to drop lower in the sky, cooling the earth.
- Copper – A Coyote, represents the Native American legend when the earth froze and turned dark, the coyote climbed to the highest mountaintop and stole a flame from the fire people. He returned and brought warmth and light to the people.
- Coal – An American black bear, represents the Native American legend of hunters who were never able to kill the mighty bear. Today the sons of these hunters still chase the bear across the night sky, as constellations.
The Olympic Torch and relay
The 2002 Olympic Torch is modeled after an icicle, with a slight curve to represent speed and fluidity. The Torch measures 33 inches (84 cm) long, 3 inches (7.6 cm) wide at the top, 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) at the bottom, and was designed by Axiom Design of Salt Lake City. It was created with three sections, each with its own meaning and representation.
The torch relay was a 65-day run, from December 4, 2001 to February 8, 2002, which carried the Olympic flame through 46 of the 50 states in the United States. The torch covered 13,500 miles (21,700 km), passed through 300 communities, and was carried by 12,012 Torchbearers.
The Olympic Cauldron
The Olympic Cauldron was designed with the official motto Light the Fire Within and the Fire and Ice theme in mind. It was designed to look like an icicle, and was made of glass which allowed the fire to be seen burning within. The actual glass cauldron stands atop a twisting glass and steel support, is 12 feet (3.7 m) high, and the flame within burns at 900 °F (482.2 °C). Together with its support the cauldron stands 117 feet (36 m) tall and was made of 738 individual pieces of glass. Small jets send water down the glass sides of the cauldron, both to keep the glass and metal cooled (so they would not crack or melt), and to give the effect of melting ice. The cauldron was designed by WET Design of Los Angeles, its frame built by Arrow Dynamics of Clearfield, Utah, and its glass pieces created by Western Glass of Ogden, Utah. The cauldron's cost was 2 million dollars, and it was unveiled to the public during its original install at Rice-Eccles Stadium (2002 Olympic Stadium) on January 8, 2002. Following the completion of the 2002 Winter Olympics the cauldron was installed at the permanent Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Cauldron Park, next the 2002 Olympic Stadium in Salt Lake City.
A second Olympic cauldron burned at the Awards Plaza in downtown Salt Lake City during the games. It was known as the Hero's Cauldron and was in the backdrop of every awards ceremony. This was the first time two cauldrons were used during the same Olympic Games.
Concerns and controversies
Bribery to bring the games to Salt Lake City
In 1998, several IOC members were forced to resign after it was uncovered that they had accepted bribes from Salt Lake Bid Committee co-heads Tom Welch and Dave Johnson in return for voting for Salt Lake City to hold the Games. In response to the scandal and a financial shortfall for the games, Mitt Romney, then CEO of the private equity firm Bain Capital (and future presidential candidate), was hired as the new President and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee, leaving him and IOC President Dr. Jacques Rogge to contend with the public outcry and financial mess. Romney, Kem C. Gardner, a Utah commercial real estate developer, and Don Stirling, the Olympics' local marketing chief, raised "millions of dollars from Mormon families with pioneer roots: the Eccles family, whose forebears were important industrialists and bankers" to help rescue the games, according to a later report. An additional $410 million was received from the federal government.
Disqualifications for doping
Athletes in cross-country skiing were disqualified for various reasons, including doping by two Russians and one Spaniard, leading Russia to file protests and threaten to withdraw from the competition.
In the first week of the Games, a controversy in the pairs' figure skating competition culminated in the French judge's scores being thrown out and the Canadian team of Jamie Salé and David Pelletier being awarded a second gold medal. Allegations of bribery were leveled against many ice-skating judges, leading to the arrest of known criminal Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov in Italy (at the request of the United States). He was released by the Italian officials. 
These Olympic games were the first since September 11, 2001, which meant a higher level of security than ever before provided for the Games. The Office of Homeland Security (OHS) designated the Olympics a National Special Security Event (NSSE).
According to the Wall Street Journal, the FBI and NSA arranged with Qwest Communications to use intercept equipment for a period of less than six months around the time of the 2002 Winter Olympics. The agencies monitored the content of all email and text communications in the Salt Lake City area.
Your nation is overcoming a horrific tragedy, a tragedy that has affected the whole world. We stand united with you in the promotion of our common ideals and hope for world peace.
- 2002 Winter Paralympics
- Olympic Games celebrated in the United States
- Winter Olympic Games
- Olympic Games
- International Olympic Committee
- List of IOC country codes
- Category:Competitors at the 2002 Winter Olympics
- Call of the Champions, the Olympic theme song for 2002
- The IOC site for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 77 participated NOCs, however one can count 78 nations looking through official results of 2002 Games Part 1, Part 2, Part 3. Probably this error is consequence that Costa Rica's delegation of one athlete joined the Games after the Opening Ceremony, so 77 nations participated in Opening Ceremony and 78 nations participated in the Games.
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- "Air Edel | Composers | MARK WATTERS". Retrieved May 14, 2011.
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- International Olympic Committee (2002). Marketing Matters (PDF). Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- 2002 Olympics to Cost US Taxpayers $1.3 Billion (accessed October 22, 2012)
- IOC Vote History
- GamesBids.com Past Olympic Games Bids
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- Salt Lake Organizing Committee (2002). Official Report of the XIX Olympic Winter Games (PDF). p. 101. ISBN 0-9717961-0-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
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- Costa Rica's delegation of one athlete joined the Games after the Opening Ceremony.
- "Salt Lake 2002 Official Report of the XIX Olympic Winter Games" (PDF). Salt Lake Organizing Committee. 2002. p. 41. ISBN 0-9717961-0-6. LCCN 2002109189.
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- "Two Cauldrons Burning". KSL-TV. February 9, 2002. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
- Johnson, Kirk (September 19, 2007). "In Olympics Success, Romney Found New Edge". NY Times. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
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- Karl, Jonathan, , "EXCLUSIVE: In ’02 Romney Touted D.C. Connections, Federal Funds"], ABC News, web pp. 1, March 2, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- Bob Weiner & Caitlin Harrison (December 29, 2010). "Expect illegal drugs at 2012 Olympics". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Andrew Dampf (August 13, 2002). "Taivanchik Hearing Ordered to Stay Put". The St Petersburg Times. Associated Press. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- Siobhan Gorman; Jennifer Valentino-Devries (August 20, 2013). "New Details Show Broader NSA Surveillance Reach: Programs Cover 75% of Nation's Traffic, Can Snare Emails". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013.. "For the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, officials say, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and NSA arranged with Qwest Communications International Inc. to use intercept equipment for a period of less than six months around the time of the event. It monitored the content of all email and text communications in the Salt Lake City area."
- "Winter Olympics Open Amid Tight Security". ABC News. February 8, 2002. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2002 Winter Olympics.|
- Official Salt Lake 2002 Legacy website
- "Salt Lake City 2002". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- Olympic Legacy image archives – Utah State Historical Society
- 2002 Olympic Winter Games Museum[dead link] in Park City, Utah
- 2002 Olympic Cauldron Park[dead link] in Salt Lake City.
Salt Lake City
XIX Olympic Winter Games (2002)