Afghan–Sikh Wars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Afghan-Sikh Wars)
Jump to: navigation, search
Afghan-Sikh Wars
Date First Phase:November 1751 – May 1765
Second Phase:December 1766-1799
Third Phase:1800-1837
Location Punjab, Haryana, Pakistan and Afghanistan
Result First Phase: Sikh Victory
Second Phase: Sikh Victory
Third Phase: Sikh Victory
Belligerents
Durrani Empire (1751-1826)
Emirate of Afghanistan (1823-1837)
Afghan tribesmen (1751-1837)
Khalsa (1751-1837)
Dal Khalsa (1748-1765)
Misldar Army (1765-1800)
Sikh Empire (1800-1837)
Sikh Khalsa Army (1799-1837)
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Ahmed Shah Durrani
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Timur Shah Durrani
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Mir Mannu
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Shah Zaman
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Fateh Khan
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Dost Muhammad Khan
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Nawab Muzaffar Khan  
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Azim Khan
Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes.jpeg Syed Akbar Shah  
Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes.jpeg Sultan Mohammad Shah
Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes.jpeg Akbar Khan
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Baba Deep Singh  
Sikh flag.jpg Nawab Kapur Singh
Sikh flag.jpg Sardar Tara Singh Ghaiba & Badesha Sardars
Sikh flag.jpg Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgharia
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Hari Singh Bhangi
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Charat Singh
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Maha Singh
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Baba Ala Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Misr Diwan Chand
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Jarnail Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa  
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sher Singh Sandhanwalia
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Kanwar Nau Nihal Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Sham Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Chattar Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Sher Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Kharak Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Mahan Singh Mirpuri
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Phula Singh  
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Sadhu Singh  
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Naina Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Lehna Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Ranjodh Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Jean-Francois Allard
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Jean-Baptiste Ventura
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Claude Auguste Court
Strength
During Ahmad Shah Durrani's invasions:Estimated 100,000 each time
During invasions of Zaman Shah Durrani: Estimated 60,000
During Maharaja Ranjit Singh's counterattack: Estimated 180,000 (including tribes)
During Ahmad Shah Durrani's early invasions: 50,000 Khalsa
During late Ahmad Shah Abdali invasions: Estimated 60,000
Misldar Army:Estimated 100,000
Sikh Empire period: 120,000.
Casualties and losses
First Phase: Estimated 38,000
Second Phase: Estimated 60,000
Third Phase: Estimated 32,000
First Phase: Estimated 24,000
Second Phase: Estimated 20,000
Third Phase: Estimated 26,000

The Afghan–Sikh wars were a series of wars between the Afghan Pashtuns Durrani Empire, and the Sikh Empire. The conflict had its origins stemming from the days of the Dal Khalsa.

Battle of Attock[edit]

This war started with the Battle of Attock, also known as the Battle of Chuch or the Battle of Haidru, this was the first significant victory of the Sikh Empire over Afghans. In the aftermath of this battle, Sikhs had seized the control of Attock District. After his defeat at Attock, Zaman Khan, the vizier of Kabul, fought off an attempt by Ali Shah, the ruler of Persia, and his son Ali Mirza to capture the Durrani province of Herat, which left their newly captured province of Kashmir open to attack.[1]

Battle of Multan[edit]

The Battle of Multan was the 2nd battle in the Afghan–Sikh wars, which the Sikhs had also won. This started in March 1818 and ended 2 June 1818.[2] This battle ended the Durrani influence in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region, and led to Sikhs holding the city of Peshawar.

Battle of Shopian[edit]

The Battle of Shopian was different from the first two battles, due to it taking place in the Kashmir region, more specifically Shopian. This was the 3rd battle in the Afghan–Sikh wars and the 3rd Sikh victory. This battle included the 1819 Kashmir expedition, which led to Kashmir being annexed to the Sikh Empire.[3] After taking Srinagar, the Sikh army faced no major opposition in conquering Kashmir. The Sikh Empire had controlled all of Kashmir.[4]

Battle of Nowshera[edit]

The Battle of Nowshera wasn't fought by the Durranis, but by a Pashtun force with support of the Durranis. This was the 4th battle in the Afghan–Sikh wars and 4th Sikh victory.[5] After this, the Sikhs again came in possession of Peshawar, along with the whole Khyber Pass. With this victory, Maharaja Ranjit Singh planned to eventually push further west and take the Afghan capital of Kabul itself.

Battle of Jamrud[edit]

The Battle of Jamrud was the 5th and foremost battle within the Afghan–Sikh wars. The Afghans had been losing their long held territories to Sikhs over the preceding years due to internal conflicts, and had seen their once mighty empire shrink with the loss of the Punjab region, Multan, Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The loss of Peshawar was the most personal as the inhabitants of the region were fellow Pashtuns and the city was the second capital of Afghanistan, so the Afghans set to reclaim it.[6] As a result of this battle, Jamrud and the Khyber pass became the western limits of Sikh influence.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cunningham 1918, p. 152
  2. ^ Jaques 2006, p. 81
  3. ^ Chopra 1928, p. 26
  4. ^ Chopra 1928, p. 26
  5. ^ Ganda Singh (1986) Maharaja Ranjit Singh: First Death Centenary Memorial. Nirmal Publishers
  6. ^ The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View, by Byron Farwell Published by W.W. Norton, 2001. ISBN 0-393-04770-9, ISBN 978-0-393-04770-7.