List of Indian monarchs

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The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents.

Early later documented rulers and dynasties who are deemed to have ruled a portion of the Indian subcontinent are included in this list.

Heheya Kingdom[edit]

Later they were divided among different sub-castes which include Kansara, Kasera, Tamrakar, Thathera, Tambat and many more.[3]

Medieval Haihayas[edit]

A number of early medieval dynasties, which include the Kalachuri and Mushika Kingdom of Kerala, claimed their descent from the Haihayas.[4]

Magadha dynasties[edit]

This list includes the legendary kings of Magadha:

Brihadratha dynasty (c. 1700–682 BCE)[edit]

  • Brihadratha
  • Jarasandha
  • Sahadeva of Magadha
  • Somadhi (1661–1603 BCE)
  • Srutasravas (1603–1539 BCE)
  • Ayutayus (1539–1503 BCE)
  • Niramitra (1503–1463 BCE)
  • Sukshatra (1463–1405 BCE)
  • Brihatkarman ( 1405–1382 BCE)
  • Senajit ( 1382–1332 BCE)
  • Srutanjaya ( 1332–1292 BCE)
  • Vipra (1292–1257 BCE)
  • Suchi (1257–1199 BCE)
  • Kshemya (1199–1171 BCE)
  • Subrata (1171–1107BCE)
  • Dharma ( 1107–1043 BCE)
  • Susuma (1008–970 BCE)
  • Dridhasena (970–912 BCE)
  • Sumati (912–879 BCE)
  • Subala (879–857 BCE)
  • Sunita (857–817 BCE)
  • Satyajit (817–767 BCE)
  • Viswajit (767–732 BCE)
  • Ripunjya (732–682 BCE)

(He was the last ruler of Brihadratha dynasty dethorned by Pradyota in 682 BCE)

Pradyota dynasty (c. 682–544 BCE)[edit]

  • Pradyota Mahasena (682–659 BCE)
  • Palaka (659–635 BCE)
  • Visakhayupa (635–585 BCE)
  • Ajaka (585–564 BCE)
  • Varttivarddhana (564–544 BCE)

(last ruler of the Pradyota dynasty)

Haryanka dynasty (c. 544–413 BCE)[edit]

(last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty)

Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413–345 BCE)[edit]

(He was placed on the throne by the people who revolted against the Haryanka dynasty rule)

(His empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda)

Nanda dynasty (c. 345–322 BCE)[edit]

(Son of Mahanandin, founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire)

  • Pandhukananda (340–339 BCE)
  • Panghupatinanda (339–338 BCE)
  • Bhutapalananda (338–337 BCE)
  • Rashtrapalananada (337–336 BCE)
  • Govishanakananda (336–335 BCE)
  • Dashasidkhakananda (335–334 BCE)
  • Kaivartananda (334–333 BCE)
  • Karvinathanand (333–330 BCE)
  • Dhana Nanda (330–321 BCE)

(Agrammes, Xandrammes by Greeks), (lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him.)

Maurya dynasty (c. 322–185 BCE)[edit]

Ruler Reign Notes
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Maurya and Bhadrabahu.png 321–297 BCE Founder of First Indian United Empire
Bindusara Amitraghata I42 1karshapana Maurya Bindusara MACW4165 1ar (8486583162).jpg 297–273 BCE Known for his Foreign diplomacy
Ashoka Ashoka's visit to the Ramagrama stupa Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern gateway.jpg 268–232 BCE Greatest King of Maurya dynasty, His son, Kunala, was blinded, and died before his father. Ashoka was succeeded by his grandson.
Dasharatha Maurya Dasaratha Maurya inscription on entrance of Vadathika cave.jpg 232–224 BCE Grandson of Ashoka.
Samprati 224–215 BCE Brother of Dasharatha.
Shalishuka Mauryan Empire. temp. Salisuka or later. Circa 207-194 BC.jpg 215–202 BCE
Devavarman 202–195 BCE
Shatadhanvan 195–187 BCE The Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign
Brihadratha 187–184 BCE Assassinated by Pushyamitra Shunga

Shunga Empire (c. 185–73 BCE)[edit]

(founded the dynasty after assassinating Brihadratha in 184 BCE)

(Greatest of Sunga Emperors, extended empire up to Kashmir)

  • Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BCE)
  • Vasumitra (131–124 BCE)
  • Andhraka (124–122 BCE)
  • Pulindaka (122–119 BCE)
  • Ghosha (119–116 BCE)
  • Vajramitra (116–110 BCE)
  • Bhagabhadra (c. 110 BCE),

(also mentioned by the Puranas)

(last ruler of Shunga dynasty, dethroned by Vasudeva Kanva of Kanva dynasty)

Kanva dynasty (c. 73–26 BCE)[edit]

  • Vasudeva (75–66 BCE)
  • Bhumimitra (66–52 BCE)
  • Narayana (52–40 BCE)
  • Susarman (40–26 BCE)

(Susarman was the last ruler of Kanva dynasty, dethroned by Simuka of Satavahan dynasty)

Ancient South Indian Kingdoms[edit]

Tamilakam

Pandyan dynasty (c. 1100 BCE – 1650 CE)[edit]

Early Pandyans[edit]

(Earliest Known Pandyan king, dated 10th Century BCE)

(Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan) (he was mentioned in legend of Kannagi)

(Pasumpun Pandiyan)

  • Nan Maran
  • Nedunj Cheliyan III

(Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan)

  • Maran Valudi
  • Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
  • Ukkirap Peruvaluthi

Middle Pandyans (c. 590 – 920 CE)[edit]

Pandyans under Chola empire (c. 920 – 1216 CE)[edit]

  • Sundara Pandyan I
  • Vira Pandyan I
  • Vira Pandyan II
  • Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa
  • Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandyan
  • Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandyan
  • Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandyan
  • Jatavarman Chola Pandya
  • Seervallabha Manakulachala (1101–1124)
  • Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132–1161)
  • Parakrama Pandyan I (1161–1162)
  • Kulasekara Pandyan III
  • Vira Pandyan III
  • Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175–1180)
  • Jatavarman Kulasekaran I (1190–1216)

Pandalam Later Pandyans (c. 1212 – 1345 CE)[edit]

Tenkasi Pandyans (c. 1422 – 1650 CE)[edit]

During the 15th century, the Pandyans lost their traditional capital city Madurai because of the Islamic and Nayaks invasion, and were forced to move their capital to Tirunelveli in southern Tamilakam and existed there as vassals.

  • Cataiyavarman Parakrama Pandyan

(1422–1463)

  • Cataiyavarman III Kulasekara Pandyan

(1429–1473)

(1473–1506)

  • Kulasekara Pandyan

(1479–1499)

  • Cataiyavarman Civallappa Pandyan

(1534–1543)

  • Parakrama Kulasekara Pandyan

(1543–1552)

  • Nelveli Maran

(1552–1564)

  • Cataiyavarman Adiveerama Pandyan

(1564–1604)

  • Varathunga Pandyan

(1588–1612)

  • Varakunarama Pandyan

(1613–1618)

  • Kollankondan

(1618–1650)

Chera dynasty (c. 600 BCE – 1530 CE)[edit]

Ancient Chera (c. 600 BCE – 400 CE)[edit]

(c.600–550 BCE)

  • Antuvan Chera

(c.550–500 BCE)

(c.450–410 BCE)

(c.410–375 BCE)

  • Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan

(c.375–345 BCE)

  • Poraiyan Kadungo

(c.345–300 BCE)

  • Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral

(c.300–260 BCE)

  • Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan

(c.260–225 BCE)

  • Selvak-Kadungo

(c.225–200 BCE)

  • Adukotpattu Cheralatan

(c.200–178 BCE)

(c.178–185 BCE)

(c.185–145 BCE)

(201–241 CE)

  • Ilamcheral Irumporai

(241–257 CE)

(257–287 CE)

  • Ilamkadungo

(287–317 CE)

  • Kanaikal Irumporai

(367–400 CE)

Kongu Cheras (Karur) (c. 400 – 844 CE)[edit]

  • Ravi Kotha
  • Kantan Ravi
  • Vira Kotha
  • Vira Narayana
  • Vira Chola
  • Vira Kerala
  • Amara Bhujanga Deva
  • Kerala Kesari Adhirajaraja Deva

Kodungallur Cheras (c. 844 – 1122 CE)[edit]

(The Perumals, formerly Kulasekharas)

Venadu Cheras (Kulasekhara) (c. 1090 – 1539 CE)[edit]

  • Rama Kulasekhara (1090–1102)
  • Kotha Varma Marthandam (1102–1125)
  • Vira Kerala Varma I (1125–1145)
  • Kodai Kerala Varma (1145–1150)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1145–1150)
  • Vira Kerala Varma II (1164–1167)
  • Vira Aditya Varma (1167–1173)
  • Vira Udaya Martanda Varma (1173–1192)
  • Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III (1192–1195)
  • Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi (1195- ?)
  • Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1209–1214)
  • Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1214–1240)
  • Vira Padmanabha Martanda Varma Tiruvadi (1240–1252)
  • Ravi Varma (1299–1313)
  • Vira Udaya Martanda Varma (1313–1333)
  • Aditya Varma Tiruvadi (1333–1335)
  • Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi (1335–1342)
  • Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1342–1363)
  • Vira Martanda Varma III (1363–1366)
  • Vira Rama Martanda Varma (1366–1382)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1383–1416)
  • Vira Ravi Ravi Varma (1416–1417)
  • Vira Kerala Martanda Varma (1383)
  • Chera Udaya Martanda Varma (1383–1444)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1444–1458)
  • Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma (1458–1468)
  • Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma (1468–1484
  • Vira Ravi Ravi Varma (1484–1503)
  • Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal (1503–1504)
  • Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal (1504–1530)

Chola dynasty (c. 1100 BCE – 1280 CE)[edit]

Ancient Cholas[edit]

  • Eri Oliyan Vaendhi (11th Century BCE)
  • Maandhuvaazhi (10th Century BCE)
  • El Mei Nannan (10th Century BCE)
  • Keezhai Kinjuvan (9th Century BCE)
  • Vazhisai Nannan (9th Century BCE)
  • Mei Kiyagusi Aerru (9th Century BCE)
  • Aai Kuzhi Agusi Aerru (8th Century BCE)
  • Thizhagan Maandhi (8th Century BCE) BCE
  • Maandhi Vaelan (8th Century BCE)
  • Aai Adumban (7th Century BCE)

Early Cholas[edit]

(c. 600–550 BCE)

(c. 550–500 BCE)

(c.500–455 BCE)

(c.455–410 BCE)

(c.410–375 BCE )

(c.375–345 BCE)

(c.345–305 BCE)

Imperial Cholas (c. 848 – 1280 CE)[edit]

Kingdom of Tambapanni (c. 543 – 437 BCE)[edit]

House of Vijaya (c. 543 – 437 BCE)[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Marriages Claim
Vijaya Vijaya ?
Sinhapura
son of Sinhabahu, and Sinhasivali
505 BC
Tambapanni
543 BC 505 BC Kuveni
two children Pandu Princess
Founded Kingdom
Marriage to Kuveni
Upatissa
(regent)
- - 505 BC 504 BC Prince Vijaya's Chief Minister
Panduvasdeva - - 504 BC 474 BC Nephew of Vijaya
Abhaya - - 474 BC 454 BC Son of Panduvasdeva
Tissa
(regent)
- - 454 BC 437 BC Younger brother of Abhaya

Kalinga Empire[edit]

First Kalinga dynasty (c. 1700 – 700 BCE)[edit]

According to Mahabharata and some Puranas, the prince Kalinga founded the kingdom of Kalinga, in the current day region of coastal Odisha, including the North Sircars.[5][6] The Mahabharata also mentions one Srutayudha as the king of the Kalinga kingdom, who joined the Kaurava camp.[7] In the Buddhist text, Mahagovinda Suttanta, Kalinga and its ruler, Sattabhu, have been mentioned.[8]

Second Kalinga dynasty (c. 700 – 550 BCE)[edit]

This dynasty is mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka. The first king Kalinga I is said to have broken away from the Danda kingdom along with the kings of Asmaka and Vidarbha as its feudal states.

Unknown dynasty mentioned in Dathavamsha (c. 550 – 410 BCE)[edit]

  • Brahmadatta (c. 5th century BCE)
  • Kasiraja
  • Sunanda
  • Guhasiva

Solar dynasty of Kalinga (c. 410 – 380 BCE)[edit]

  • Brahmaadittiya (c. 4th century BC)

His son, Prince Soorudasaruna-Adeettiya was exiled and as per Maldivian history, established the first kingdom Dheeva Maari and laid the foundation of the Adeetta dynasty.[9]

Gonanda Kingdom of Kashmir[edit]

Gonanda dynasty I (c. 1700 – 1182 BCE)[edit]

Kalhana mentions that Gonanda I ascended the throne in 653 Kali calendar era. According to Jogesh Chander Dutt's calculation, this year corresponds between 1800 BCE – 1700 BCE.[10]

  • Gonanda I
  • Damodara I
  • Yashovati
  • Gonanda II
  • 35 kings (names lost)
  • Lava
  • Kusheshaya
  • Khagendra
  • Surendra
  • Godhara
  • Suvarna
  • Janaka
  • Shachinara
  • Ashoka (Gonandiya)
  • Jalauka
  • Damodara II
  • Abhimanyu I

Gonanditya dynasty (c. 1182 – 246 BCE)[edit]

The Gonanditya dynasty ruled Kashmir for 1002 years.[11]

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Gonanda III 35 years 1182 BCE Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. (I.191) He belonged to Rama's lineage, and restored the Nāga rites
Vibhishana I 53 years, 6 months 1147 BCE
Indrajit 35 years 1094 BCE
Ravana 30 years, 6 months A Shivalinga attributed to Ravana could still be seen at the time of Kalhana.
Vibhishana II 35 years, 6 months 1058 BCE
Nara I (Kinnara) 40 years, 9 months 1023 BCE His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. He tried to abduct a Nāga woman, who was the wife of a Brahmin. Because of this, the Nāga chief burnt down the king's city, and the king died in the fire.
Siddha 60 years 983 BCE Siddha, the son of Nara, was saved from Nāga's fury, because he was away from the capital at the time. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle.
Utpalaksha 30 years, 6 months 923 BCE Son of Siddha
Hiranyaksha 37 years, 7 months 893 BCE Son of Utpalaksha
Hiranyakula 60 years 855 BCE Son of Hiranyaksha
Vasukula (Mukula) 60 years 795 BCE Son of Hiranyakula. During his reign, the Mlechchhas (possibly Hunas) overran Kashmir.
Mihirakula 70 years 735 BCE According to historical evidence, Mihirakula's predecessor was Toramana. Kalhana mentions a king called Toramana, but places him much later, in Book 3.[13] According to Kalhana, Mihirakula was a cruel ruler who ordered killings of a large number of people, including children, women and elders. He invaded the Sinhala Kingdom, and replaced their king with a cruel man. As he passed through Chola, Karnata and other kingdoms on his way back to Kashmir, the rulers of these kingdoms fled their capitals and returned only after he had gone away. On his return to Kashmir, he ordered killings of 100 elephants, who had been startled by the cries of a fallen elephant. Once, Mihirakula dreamt that a particular stone could be moved only by a chaste woman. He put this to test: the women who were unable to move the stone were killed, along with their husbands, sons and brothers. He was supported by some immoral Brahmins. In his old age, the king committed self-immolation.
Vaka (Baka) 63 years, 18 days 665 BCE A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons.
Kshitinanda 30 years 602 BCE The only surviving child of Vaka
Vasunanda 52 years, 2 months 572 BCE "Originator of the science of love"
Nara II 60 years 520 BCE Son of Vasunanda
Aksha 60 years 460 BCE Son of Nara II
Gopaditya 60 years, 6 days 400 BCE Son of Aksha. Gave lands to Brahmins. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-Sattvic diet); in their place, he brought others from foreign countries.
Gokarna 57 years, 11 months 340 BCE Son of Gopaditya
Narendraditya I (Khingkhila) 36 years, 3 months, 10 days 282 BCE Son of Gokarna
Yudhisthira I 34 years, 5 months, 1 day 246 BCE Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. In later years of his reign, he started patronizing unwise persons, and the wise courtiers deserted him. He was deposed by rebellious ministers, and granted asylum by a neighboring king. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule.

Kashmir Chiefs of Ujjani Kingdom (c. 246 BCE – 25 CE )[edit]

No kings mentioned in this book have been traced in any other historical source.[13] These kings ruled Kashmir for 192 years.[12]

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Pratapaditya I 32 years 167 BCE Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6).
Jalauka 32 years 135 BCE Son of Pratapaditya
Tungjina I 36 years 103 BCE Shared the administration with his queen. The couple sheltered their citizens in the royal palace during a severe famine resulting from heavy frost. After his death, the queen committed sati. The couple died childless.
Vijaya 8 years 67 BCE From a different dynasty than Tungjina.
Jayendra 37 years 59 BCE Son of Vijaya: his "long arms reached to his knees". His flatters instigated him against his minister Sandhimati. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10 years. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death.
Sandhimati 47 years 22 BCE Sandhimati was selected by the citizens as the new ruler. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru Ishana. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. He filled his court with rishis (sages), and spent his time in forest retreats. Therefore, his ministers replaced him with Meghavahana, a descendant of Yudhishthira I. He willingly gave up the throne.

Gonanda dynasty II (c. 25 – 561 CE)[edit]

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Meghavahana 34 years 25 CE
Possible coinage of Meghavahana. Obverse: Shiva Pashupati ("Lord of the Beasts"), making a mudra gesture with right hand and holding filleted trident; behind, a lioness or tiger. Trace of legend Meghana... in Brahmi. Reverse: Goddess seated facing on lotus, holding lotus in both hand, Kidara monogram to left, Jaya in Brahmi to right. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[14]
Meghavahana was the son of Yudhisthira I's great grandson, who had been granted asylum by Gopaditya, the king of Gandhara. Meghavahana had been selected the husband of a Vaishnavite princess at a Swayamvara in another kingdom. The ministers of Kashmir brought him to Kashmir after Sandhimati proved to be an unwilling king. Meghavahana banned animal slaughter and compensated those who earned their living through hunting. He patrnozed Brahmins, and set up a monastery. His queens built Buddhist viharas and monasteries. He subdued kings in regions as far as Sinhala Kingdom, forcing them to abandon animal slaughter.
Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II) 30 years 59 CE Son of Meghavahana
Hiranya 30 years, 2 months 89 CE Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Toramana's son Pravarasena, who had been brought up in secrecy by his mother Anjana, freed him. Hiranya died childless. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. This king is identified by some with Huna ruler Toramana, although his successor Mihirakula is placed much earlier by Kalhana.[13]
Matrigupta 4 years, 9 months, 1 day 120 CE According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas, and made his friend and poet Matrigupta the ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Vardhana Emperor Harsha (c. 606–47 CE).[15] The latter is identified with Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account. However, according to M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Vikramaditya is another Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account: a king of Malwa around 580 CE.[16]
Pravarasena II 60 years 125 CE
Coinage of Pravarasena, supposed founder of Srinagar. Obverse: Standing king with two figured seated below. Name "Pravarasena". Reverse: goddess seated on a lion. Legend "Kidāra". Circa 6th-early 7th century CE.[14]
Historical evidence suggests that a king named Pravarasena ruled Kashmir in the 6th century CE.[13] According to Kalhana, Pravarasena subdued many other kings, in lands as far as Saurashtra. He restored the rule of Vikramaditya's son Pratapshila (alias Shiladitya), who had been expelled from Ujjain by his enemies. Pratapshila agreed to be a vassal of Pravarasena after initial resistance. He founded a city called Pravarapura, which is identified by later historians as the modern city of Srinagar on the basis topographical details.[17]
Yudhishthira II 39 years, 8 months 185 CE Son of Pravarasena
Narendraditya I (Lakshmana) 13 years 206 CE Son of Yudhishthira II and Padmavati
Ranaditya I (Tungjina III) 300 years 219 CE
Sri Tujina. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[14]
Younger brother of Narendraditya. His queen Ranarambha was an incarnation of Bhramaravasini. The Chola king Ratisena had found her among the waves, during an ocean worship ritual.
Vikramaditya 42 years 519 CE Son of Ranaditya
Baladitya 36 years, 8 months 561 CE Younger brother of Vikramaditya. He subdued several enemies. An astrologer prophesied that his son-in-law would succeed him as the king. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama Kayastha caste.

Kuru Kingdom (c. 1500–345 BCE)[edit]

Rulers from (c. 1500–1200 BCE)[edit]

  • Kuru II (King of Puru dynasty after whom the dynasty was named Kuruvansha and the kingdom was renamed from Paurava Kingdom to Kuru Kingdom. He had three sons, namely Vidhuratha I who became the ruler of Pratisthana, Vyushitaswa who died at a very young age, and Sudhanva, who became the ruler of Magadha. So Vidhuratha I became the king of Hastinapura.)
  • Vidhuratha I
  • Jahnu
  • Suratha
  • Vidhuratha II
  • Sarvabhauma II
  • Jayasena
  • Radhika
  • Ayutayu
  • Akrodhana II
  • Devaththi II
  • Riksha III
  • Dilipa
  • Anaswan II
  • Parikshit II
  • Janamejaya III
  • Bheemasena
  • Prathishravas
  • Pratipa
  • Shantanu

(Bhishma was the youngest son of Shantanu and Ganga. Chitrāngada and Vichitravirya were the sons of Shantanu and Satyavati.)

(Dhritarashtra II, Pandu and Vidura were the sons of Vichitravirya)

(The Pandava were the five sons of Pandu and the Kaurava were the 100 sons of Dhritarashtra and Gandhari.)

Rulers from (c. 1200–345 BCE)[edit]

(Yaudheya was the son of Yudhishthira and Devika. Ghatotkacha was the son of Bhima and Hidimbi, Abhimanyu was the son of Arjuna and Subhadra. Babruvahana was the son of Arjuna and Chitrāngadā. Iravan was the son of Arjuna and Ulupi. Niramitra was the son of Nakula and Karenumati. Suhotra was the son of Sahadeva and Queen Vijaya. Upapandava were the 5 sons of Pandava and Draupadi)

  • Parikshit III (was the son of Abhimanyu.)
  • Janamejaya III
  • Satanika
  • Ashwamedhatta
  • Dwiteeyram
  • Chatramal
  • Chitrarath
  • Dushtshailya
  • Ugrasena
  • Shoorsen
  • Bhuvanpati
  • Ranjeet
  • Rikchak
  • Sukdeva
  • Narharidev
  • Suchirath
  • Shoorsen II
  • Parvatsen
  • Mehavi
  • Soncheer
  • Bheemdev
  • Nriharidev
  • Pooranmal
  • Kardavi
  • Alammik
  • Udaipal
  • Duvanmal
  • Damat
  • Bheempal
  • Chemak (He was the last Kuru King dethroned by Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE.)[18][19]

Satavahana dynasty (c. 230 BCE – 220 CE)[edit]

The beginning of the Satavahana rule is dated variously from 230 BCE to 220 CE.[20] Satavahanas dominated the Deccan region from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE.[21] It lasted till the early 3rd century CE. The following Satavahana kings are historically attested by epigraphic records, although the Puranas name several more kings (see Satavahana dynasty#List of rulers):

Mahameghavahana dynasty (c. 225 BCE – 300 CE)[edit]

Mahamegha Vahana was the founder of the Kalingan Chedi or Cheti Dynasty.[22][23] The names of Sobhanaraja, Chandraja, Ksemaraja also appear in context.[24] But, Kharavela is the most well known among them. The exact relation between Mahamegha Vahana and Kharavela is not known.[22]

  • Maharaja Vasu
  • King Mahamegha Vahana
  • Sobhanaraja
  • Chandraja
  • Ksemaraja
  • Vakradeva (or) Virdhharaja
  • Kharavela (c. 193 BCE–155 BCE)
  • Kudepasiri Vakradeva ll
  • Vaduka
  • Galaveya
  • Mana-Sada
  • Siri-Sada
  • Maha-Sada
  • Sivamaka-Sada
  • Asaka-Sada[25][26]

Kingdom of Kangleipak (Manipur) (c. 200 BCE –1950 CE)[edit]

The Meitei people are made up of seven major clans, known as Salai Taret The clans include–

  1. Mangang
  2. Khuman Salai
  3. Luwang
  4. Angom
  5. Moilang
  6. Khaba Nganba
  7. Salai Leishangthem

Ancient dynasty of Kangleipak (c. 200 BCE −33 CE)[edit]

Khapa-Nganpa Salai[edit]

  • Taang-chaa Leela Pakhangpa (200 BCE)
  • Kangba
  • Maliya Fampalcha (150 BCE)
  • Kaksu Tonkonpa
  • Koilou Nongtailen Pakhangpa
  • Samlungpha (44–34 BCE)
  • Chingkhong Poireiton (34–18 BCE )
  • Singtabung (18–8 BCE)
  • Paangminnaba (8–1 BCE)

Luwang Salai[edit]

  • Luwang Khunthipa (1–5 CE)
  • Luwang Punshipa (5–33 CE)

Ningthouja or Mangang dynasty (c. 33–1074 CE)[edit]

  • Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa (33–154 CE)
  • Khuiyoi Tompok (154–264 CE)
  • Taothingmang (264–364 CE)
  • Khui Ningonba (364–379 CE)
  • Pengsipa (379–394 CE)
  • Kaokhangpa (394–411 CE)
  • Naokhampa (411–428 CE)
  • Naophangpa (428–518 CE)
  • Sameilang (518–568 CE)
  • Urakonthoupa (568–658 CE)
  • Naothingkhon (663–763 CE)
  • Khongtekcha (763–773 CE)
  • Keilencha (784–799 CE)
  • Yalaba (799–821 CE)
  • Ayangpa (821–910 CE)
  • Ningthoucheng (910–949 CE)
  • Chenglei-Ipan-Lanthapa (949–969 CE)
  • Keiphaba Yanglon (969–984 CE)
  • Irengba (984–1074 CE)

Kangleipak dynasty (c. 1074–1819 CE)[edit]

  1. Loiyumpa (1074–1112)
  2. Loitongpa (1112–1150)
  3. Atom Yoilempa (1150–1163)
  4. Iyanthapa (1163–1195)
  5. Thayanthapa (1195–1231)
  6. Chingthang Lanthapa (1231–1242)
  7. Thingpai Shelhongpa (1242–1247)
  8. Pulanthapa (1247–1263)
  9. Khumompa (1263–1278)
  10. Moilampa (1278–1302)
  11. Thangpi Lanthapa (1302–1324)
  12. Kongyampa (1324–1335)
  13. Telheipa (1335–1355)
  14. Tonapa (1355–1359)
  15. Tapungpa (1359–1394)
  16. Lailenpa (1394–1399)
  17. Punsipa (1404–1432)
  18. Ningthoukhompa (1432–1467)
  19. Senpi Kiyampa (1467–1508)
  20. Koilempa (1508–1512)
  21. Lamkhyampa (1512–1523)
  22. Nonginphapa (1523–1524)
  23. Kapompa (1524–1542)
  24. Tangchampa (1542–1545)
  25. Chalampa (1545–1562)
  26. Mungyampa (1562–1597)
  27. Khaki Ngampa(1597–1652)
  28. Khunchaopa (1652–1666)
  29. Paikhompa (1666–1697)
  30. Charairongba (1697–1709)
  31. Gharib Nawaz (Ningthem Pamheipa) (1709–1754), (adoption of the name Manipur)
  32. Chit Sain (1754–1756)
  33. Gaurisiam (1756–1763)
  34. Ching-Thang Khomba (Bhagya Chandra) (1764–1798)
  35. Rohinchandra (Harshachandra Singh) (1798–1801)
  36. Maduchandra Singh (1801–1806)
  37. Charajit Singh (1806–1812)
  38. Marjit Singh (1812–1819)

(Came to power with Burmese support).

Burmese rule (c. 1819–1825 CE)[edit]

Princely State (c. 1825–1947 CE)[edit]

(Restored after the First Anglo-Burmese War)

Foreign (Assimilated) Kingdoms in Indian Subcontinent[edit]

These empires were vast, centered in Persia or the Mediterranean; their satrapies (provinces) in India were at their outskirts.

Indo-Scythian – Saka ( c. 12 BCE–395 CE)[edit]

Aprācas (c. 12 BCE −45 CE )[edit]

(12 BCE −15 CE)

(c. 20 CE)

Northwestern Scythian rulers (c. 90 BCE–10 CE)[edit]

Pāratas (c. 125–300 CE)[edit]

  • Yolamira (c. 125–150)
  • Bagamira (c. 150)
  • Arjuna (c. 150–160)
  • Hvaramira (c. 160–175)
  • Mirahvara (c. 175–185)
  • Miratakhma (c. 185–200)
  • Kozana (c. 200–220)
  • Bhimarjuna (c. 220–235)
  • Koziya (c. 235–265)
  • Datarvharna (c. 265–280)
  • Datayola II (c. 280–300)

Northern Satraps (Mathura area) (c. 20 BCE – 20 CE)[edit]

  • Hagamasha (satrap)
  • Hagana (satrap)
  • Rajuvula (Great Satrap) (c. 10 CE)
  • Sodasa

Minor local rulers[edit]

Western Satraps (Western Saka) (c. 119–395 CE)[edit]

Kushana dynasty (c. 1–375 CE)[edit]

Ruler Reign Notes
Heraios Heraios profile.jpg 1–30 King or clan chief of the Kushans. Founder of the dynasty.
Kujula Kadphises KujulaKadphisesCoinAugustusImitation.jpg 30–80 United the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century, and became the first Kushan emperor.
Vima Takto Soter Megas Coin of Kushan King Vima Takto.jpg 80–90 Alias The Great Saviour. His empire covered northwestern Gandhara and greater Bactria towards China, where Kushan presence has been asserted in the Tarim Basin. Under his reign, embassies were also sent to the Chinese court.
Vima Kadphises WimaKadphises.JPG 90–127 The first great Kushan emperor. He introduced gold coinage, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage. Most of the gold seems to have been obtained through trade with the Roman Empire.
Kanishka I the Great KanishkaCoin3.JPG 127–144 Came to rule an empire in Bactria extending to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. His conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and in the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China.
Huvishka KushanCoinage2.jpg 144–191 His rule was a period of retrenchment and consolidation for the Empire.
Vasudeva I Coin of the Kushan king Vasudeva I.jpg 191–232 He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sassanians as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sassanians or Kushanshahs from around 240.
Kanishka II KanishkaIIObverse.JPG 232–245 It is likely he lost part of his empire to the Kushano-Sassanians.
Vashishka Vasishka.jpg 245–250
Kanishka III Dinar of Kanishka III or Vashishka LACMA M.77.56.18 (2 of 2).jpg 250–275
Vasudeva II Coin of VasudevaII.jpg 275–310
Chhu 310–325
Vasudeva III c.300? Kings whose existence is uncertain.
Vasudeva IV
Vasudeva V
Shaka Kushan/Shaka I KushanCoinage.jpg 325–350
Kipunada Kipunada.jpg 350–375 May have been a subject of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire.

Indo-Parthian – Pahalava (c. 21–100 CE)[edit]

Alchon Huns -Huna (c. 400–670 CE)[edit]


Nagvanshis of Chotanagpur (c. 64–1952 CE)[edit]

Following is the list of Nagvanshi rulers according to Nagpuri poem "Nagvanshavali" written by Beniram Mehta and book "Nagvansh" written by Lal Pradumn Singh. The list of Kings and chronology varies in these books. 57th Nagvanshi king Dripnath Shah (c.1762–1790 CE) submitted list of Nagvanshi kings to Governor general of India in 1787.[29]

Raja[edit]

  • Raja Phani Mukut Rai (c. 64 – 162 CE)
  • Raja Mukut Rai (c. 162 – 221 CE)
  • Raja Ghat Rai (c. 221 – 278 CE)
  • Raja Madan Rai (c. 278 – 307 CE)
  • Raja Pratap Rai (c. 307 – 334 CE)
  • Raja Kandrap Rai (c. 334 – 365 CE)
  • Raja Udaimani Rai (c. 365 – 403 CE)
  • Raja Jaimani Rai (c. 403 – 452 CE)
  • Raja Srimani Rai (c. 452 – 476 CE)
  • Raja Phani Rai (c. 476 – 493 CE)
  • Raja Gendu Rai (c. 493 – 535 CE)
  • Raja Hari Rai (c. 535 – 560 CE)
  • Raja Gajraj Rai (c. 560 – 606 CE)
  • Raja Sundar Rai (c. 606 – 643 CE)
  • Raja Mukund Rai (c. 643 – 694 CE)
  • Raja Udai Rai (c. 694 – 736 CE)
  • Raja Kanchan Rai (c. 736 – 757 CE)
  • Raja Magan Rai (c. 757 – 798 CE)
  • Raja Jagan Rai (c. 798 – 837 CE)
  • Raja Mohan Rai (c. 837 – 901 CE)
  • Raja Gajdant Rai (c. 901 – 931 CE)
  • Raja Gajghant Rai (c. 931 – 964 CE)
  • Raja Chandan Rai (c. 964 – 992 CE)
  • Raja Anand Rai (c. 992 – 1002 CE)
  • Raja Sripati Rai (c. 1002 – 1055 CE)
  • Raja Jaganand Rai (c. 1055 – 1074 CE)
  • Raja Nripendra Rai (c. 1074 -1084 CE)
  • Raja Gandharva Rai (c. 1084 -1098 CE)
  • Raja Bhim Karn (c.1098 -c.1132)
  • Raja Jash Karn (c.1132-c.1180)
  • Raja Jai Karn (c.1180-c.1218)
  • Raja Go Karn (c.1218-c.1236)
  • Raja Hari Karn (c.1236-c.1276)
  • Raja Shiv Karn (c.1276-c.1299)
  • Raja Benu Karn (c.1299-c.1360)
  • Raja Phenu Karn
  • Raja Tihuli Karn
  • Raja Shivdas Karn (c.1367-c.1389)
  • Raja Udai Karn (c.1389-c.1427)
  • Raja Pritvi Karn (c.1427-c.1451)
  • Raja Pratap Karn (c.1451-c.1469)
  • Raja Chhatra Karn (c.1469 – c.1515)
  • Raja Virat Karn (c.1515 – c.1522)
  • Raja Sindhu Karn (c.1522 – c.1535)
  • Raja Madhu Karn Shah (c. 1584 -c.1599)
  • Raja Bairisal (c. 1599 -c.1614)
  • Raja Durjan Sal (c. 1614–1615)(c.1627 -c.1640)
  • Raja Deo Shah
  • Raja Raghunath Shah (1640–1690)
  • Raja Ram Shah (1690–1715)
  • Raja Yadunath Shah (1715–1724)
  • Raja Shivnath Shah (1724–1733)
  • Raja Udainath Shah (1733–1740)
  • Raja Shyamsundar Nath Shah (1740–1745)
  • Raja Balram Nath Shah (1745–1748)
  • Raja Maninath Shah (1748–1762)
  • Raja Dhripnath Shah (1762–1790)
  • Raja Deo Nath Shah (1790–1806)

Maharaja[edit]

Bharshiva dynasty (Nagas of Padmavati) (c. 170–350 CE)[edit]

  • Vrisha-naga

(Possibly ruled at Vidisha in the late 2nd Century).

  • Vrishabha or Vrisha-bhava

(May also be the name of a distinct king who succeeded Vrisha-naga).

  • Bhima-naga (210–230 CE)

(Probably the first king to rule from Padmavati)

  • Skanda-naga
  • Vasu-naga
  • Brihaspati-naga
  • Vibhu-naga
  • Ravi-naga
  • Bhava-naga
  • Prabhakara-naga
  • Deva-naga
  • Vyaghra-naga
  • Ganapati-naga

Chandra Kingdom (c. 202–1050 CE)[edit]

List of Chandra dynasty Rulers
# King Period Reign (CE)
1 Chandrodaya 27 202–229
2 Annaveta 5 229–234
3 ?? 77 234–311
4 Rimbhiappa 23 311–334
5 Kuverami (Queen) 7 334–341
6 Umavira (Queen) 20 341–361
7 Jugna 7 361–368
8 Lanki 2 368–370
9 Dvenchandra 55 370–425
10 Rajachandra 20 425–445
11 Kalachandra 9 445–454
12 Devachandra 22 454–476
13 Yajnachandra 7 476–483
14 Chandrabandu 6 483–489
15 Bhumichandra 7 489–496
16 Bhutichandra 24 496–520
17 Nitichandra (Queen) 55 520–575
18 Virachandra 3 575–578
19 Pritichandra (Queen) 12 578-90
20 Prithvichandra 7 590–597
21 Dhirtichandra 3 597–600
22 Mahavira 12 600-12
23 Virayajap 12 612-24
24 Sevinren 12 624-36
25 Dharmasura 13 636-49
26 Vajrashakti 16 649-65
27 Dharmavijaya 36 665–701
28 Narendravijaya 2 yr 9 months 701–703
29 Dharmachandra 16 703–720
30 Anandachandra 9+ 720-729+
Harikela Dynasty
1 Traillokyachandra 30 900–930
2 Srichandra 45 930–975
3 Kalyanachandra 25 975–1000
4 Ladahachandra 20 1000–1020
5 Govindachandra 30 1020–1050

[30][31]

Gupta Empire (c. 240–550 CE)[edit]

Ruler Reign Notes
Sri-Gupta I Maharaja Sri Gupta inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg 240–290 Founder of the dynasty.
Ghatotkacha Maharaja Sri Ghatotkacha inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg 290–320
Chandra-Gupta I Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I on a coin.jpg 320–325 His title Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings") suggests that he was the first emperor of the dynasty. It is not certain how he turned his small ancestral kingdom into an empire, although a widely accepted theory among modern historians is that his marriage to the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi helped him extend his political power.
Samudra-Gupta SamudraguptaCoin.jpg 325–375 Defeated several kings of northern India, and annexed their territories to his empire. He also marched along the south-eastern coast of India, advancing as far as the Pallava kingdom. In addition, he subjugated several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies. His empire extended from Ravi River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to central India in the south-west; several rulers along the south-eastern coast were his tributaries.
Kacha Kachagupta of the Gupta Empire circa AD 335.jpg 4th-century Rival brother/king, possibly an usurper, there are coins who attest him as ruler; possibly identical with Samudra-Gupta.
Rama-Gupta 375–380
Chandra-Gupta II Vikramaditya ChandraguptaIIOnHorse.jpg 380–415 Continued the expansionist policy of his father Samudragupta: historical evidence suggests that he defeated the Western Kshatrapas, and extended the Gupta empire from the Indus River in the west to the Bengal region in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the Narmada River in the south.
Kumara-Gupta I KumaraguptaFightingLion.jpg 415–455 He seems to have maintained control of his inherited territory, which extended from Gujarat in the west to Bengal region in the east.
Skanda-Gupta Skandagupta Circa 455-480 CE.jpg 455–467 It is stated that he restored the fallen fortunes of the Gupta family, which has led to suggestions that during his predecessor's last years, the Empire may have suffered reverses, possibly against the Pushyamitras or the Hunas. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors.
Puru-Gupta 467–472
Kumara-Gupta II Kramaditya Kumaragupta II Kramaditya Circa 530-540 CE.jpg 472–479
Buddha-Gupta Budhagupta in Malwa Circa 476-495 CE.jpg 479–496 He had close ties with the rulers of Kannauj and together they sought to run the Alchon Huns (Hunas) out of the fertile plains of Northern India.
Narasimha-Gupta Baladitya Narasinhagupta I Circa 414-455 AD.jpg 496–530
Kumara-Gupta III 530–540
Vishnu-Gupta Candraditya Vishnugupta Candraditya Circa 540-550 CE.jpg 540–550
Bhanu-Gupta ? A lesser-known king with uncertain position in the list.

Vakataka dynasty (c. 250–500 CE)[edit]

The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch[edit]

The Vatsagulma branch[edit]

Pallava dynasty (c. 275–901 CE)[edit]

Early Pallavas (c. 275–355 CE)[edit]

  • Simha Varman I (King) (275–300 or 315–345)
  • Skanda Varman I (Queen) (345–355)
  • Singh Vishnu / Vappdev

Middle Pallavas (c. 355–537 CE)[edit]

  • Vishnugopa (350–355)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355–370)
  • Skanda Varman II (370–385)
  • Vira Varman (385–400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400–438)
  • Simha Varman II (438–460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460–480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480–500)
  • Kumaravishnu II (c. 500–510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510–520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520–530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530–537)

Later Pallavas (c. 537–901 CE)[edit]

Kadamba kingdom (c. 345–1347 CE)[edit]

Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi (c. 345–525 CE)[edit]

  • Mayurasharma (Varma) (345–365)
  • Kangavarma (365–390)
  • Bagitarha (390–415)
  • Raghu (415–435)
  • Kakusthavarma (435–455)
  • Santivarma (455–460)
  • Mrigeshavarma (460–480)
  • Shivamandhativarma (480–485)
  • Ravivarma (485–519)
  • Harivarma (519–525)

Kadambas of Goa (until 1345)[edit]

Kadambas of Hangal (until 1347)[edit]

Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad (c. 350–1024 CE)[edit]

  • Konganivarma Madhava (350–370)
  • Madhava II (370–390)
  • Harivarman (390–410)
  • Vishnugopa (410–430)
  • Tadangala Madhava (430–466)
  • Avinita (466–495)
  • Durvinita (495–535)
  • Mushkara (535–585)
  • Srivikrama (585–635)
  • Bhuvikarma (635–679)
  • Shivamara I (679–725)
  • Sripurusha (725–788)
  • Shivamara II (788–816)
  • Rajamalla I (817–853)
  • Nitimarga Ereganga (853–869)
  • Rajamalla II (870–907)
  • Ereyappa Nitimarga II (907–919)
  • Narasimhadeva (919–925)
  • Rajamalla III (925–935)
  • Butuga II (935–960)
  • Takkolam in (949)
  • Maruladeva (960–963)
  • Marasimha III (963–974)
  • Rajamalla IV (974–985)
  • Rakkasa Ganga (985–1024)

Vishnukundina Empire (c. 420–624 CE)[edit]

  • Madhava Varma I (420–455)
  • Indra Varma (455–461)
  • Madhava Verma II (461–508)
  • Vikramendra Varma I (451–528)
  • Indra Bhattaraka Varma (528–555/580)
  • Janssraya Madhava Varma IV (580–624)[32][33]

Maitraka dynasty of Vallabhi (c. 475–776 CE)[edit]

  • Bhatarka (c. 475–492)
  • Dharasena I (c. 493–499)
  • Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500–520)
  • Dhruvasena I (c. 520–550)
  • Dharapatta (c. 550–556)
  • Guhasena (c. 556–570)
  • Dharasena II (c. 570–595)
  • Siladitya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595–615)
  • Kharagraha I (c. 615–626)
  • Dharasena III (c. 626–640)
  • Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640–644)
  • Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644–651)
  • Dhruvasena III (c. 651–656)
  • Kharagraha II (c. 656–662)
  • Siladitya II
  • Siladitya III
  • Siladitya IV
  • Siladitya V
  • Siladitya VI
  • Siladitya VII (c. 766 CE)[34]

Rai dynasty (c. 489–632 CE)[edit]

Later Gupta dynasty (c. 490–750 CE)[edit]

The known Later Gupta rulers included:[35][36][37]

  • Nrpa Shri Krishna-gupta (490–505 CE)
  • Deva Shri Harsha-gupta (505–525 CE)
  • Nrpa Shri Jivita-gupta I (525–550 CE)
  • Nrpa Shri Kumara-gupta (550–560 CE)
  • Nrpa Shri Damodara-gupta (560–562 CE)
  • Nrpa Shri Mahasena-gupta (562–601 CE)
  • Nrpa Shri Madhava-gupta (601–655 CE)
  • Maharajadhiraja Aditya-sena (655–680 CE)
  • Maharajadhiraja Deva-gupta (680–700 CE)
  • Maharajadhiraja Vishnu-gupta (700–725 CE)
  • Maharajadhiraja Jivita-gupta II (725–750 CE)

Chahamana or Chauhan dynasty (500–1315 CE)[edit]

The ruling dynasties belonging to the Chauhan clan included:-

Chahamanas of Shakambhari (500–1194)[edit]

Following is a list of Chahamana rulers of Shakambhari and Ajmer, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:[41]

Chahamanas of Naddula (c. 950–1197)[edit]

Following is a list of Chahmana rulers of Naddula, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:

Chahamanas of Jalor (1160–1311)[edit]

The Chahamana rulers of the Jalor branch, with their estimated periods of reign, are as follows:[42]

Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura (1192–1301)[edit]

Chalukya dynasty (500–1200)[edit]

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Jayasimha I 500–520 Badami Founder of the dynasty. He ruled the area around modern Bijapur in the early 6th century.
Ranaraga 520–540 Badami
Pulakeshin I 540–567 Badami He ruled parts of the present-day Maharashtra and Karnataka states in the western Deccan region of India.
Kirtivarman I 567–592 Badami He expanded the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the Nalas, the Mauryas of Konkana, the Kadambas, the Alupas, and the Gangas of Talakad.
Mangalesha 6th century Kannada inscription in cave temple number 3 at Badami.jpg 592–610 Badami Brother of Kirtivarman. Expanded the Chalukya power in present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra after defeating the Kalachuri king Buddharaja. He also consolidated his rule in the Konkan coastal region of Maharashtra and Goa after conquering Revati-dvipa from the rebel Chalukya governor Svamiraja. His reign ended when he lost a war of succession to his nephew Pulakeshin II, a son of Kirttivarman I.
Pulakeshin II Pulikesin II, the Chalukhaya, receives envoys from Persia (1).jpg 610–642 Badami Son of Kirtivarman I, he overthrew his uncle Mangalesha to gain control of the throne. Suppressed a rebellion by Appayika and Govinda, and decisively defeated the Kadambas of Banavasi in the south. Consolidated the Chalukya control over the western coast by subjugating the Mauryas of Konkana. He was victorious against the

powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana. He also achieved some successes against the Pallavas in the south, but was ultimately defeated, and probably killed, during an invasion by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I.

Kubja Vishnu-Vardhana I 615/24–641 Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Pulakeshin II. Ruled under him as viceroy in Vengi, and then declared independence in 624.
Jayasimha II 641–673 Vengi (Eastern)
Adityavarman 642–645 Badami First son of Pulakeshin II. Probably ruled under the Pallavas.
Abhinavaditya 645–646 Badami Son of the predecessor.
Chandraditya 646–649 Badami Second son of Pulakeshin II.
Vijaya-Bhattarika (regent) 649–655 Badami Regent for her minor son. She was deposed by her brother-in-law.
A son of Chandraditya Badami
Vikramaditya I 655–680 Badami He restored order in the fractured kingdom and made the Pallavas retreat from the capital.
Indra Bhattaraka 673 Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Jayasimha II. Ruled for a week.
Vishnu-Vardhana II 673–682 Vengi (Eastern)
Vinayaditya 680–696 Badami He carried campaigns against the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Haihayas, Vilas, Cholas, Pandyas, Gangas and many more.
Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya I 696–733 Badami His long reign was marked by general peace and prosperity. Vijayaditya also built a number of temples. He fought against the Pallavas and extracted tributes from Parameshwar Varma V.
Jayasimha III 706–718 Vengi (Eastern)
Kokkli 718–719 Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnu-Vardhana III 719–755 Vengi (Eastern)
Vikramaditya II 8th century Kannada inscription on victory pillar at Pattadakal.jpg 733–746 Badami Conducted successful military campaigns against their enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram, in three occasions: the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II.
Kirtivarman II Rahappa 746- 757 Badami His reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and Pandyas. He finallt succumbed to the Rashtrakutas, who ended the power of the family in Badami.
Vijayaditya II 755–772 Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnu-Vardhana IV 755–808 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya III 808–847 Vengi (Eastern) His first military victories against the Rashtrakutas made the path for the independence of the dynasty from this occupant.
Kali Vishnu-Vardhana V 847–849 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya IV 849–892 Vengi (Eastern) Brothers, ruled together.
Vikramaditya III Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla I Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima I 892–921 Vengi (Eastern) During his rule, Vengi could claim some independence as capital from the Rashtrakutas.
Vijayaditya V 921 Vengi (Eastern)
Amma I 921–927 Vengi (Eastern) Probably brothers, ruled jointly.
Vishnu-Vardhana VI Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya VI 927 Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for fifteen days.
Tadapa 927 Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for a month.
Vikramaditya IV 927–928 Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima II 928–929 Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla II 929–935 Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima III 935–947 Vengi (Eastern)
Amma II 947–970 Vengi (Eastern)
Danarnava 970–973 Vengi (Eastern) Deposed by Jata Choda Bhima. Sought for help within the Chola Empire.
Tailapa II Ahvamalla Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 913 (c.991 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Ahvamalla Tailapa II.JPG 973–997 Kalyani (Western) 6th great-grandson of Vijayaditya I. Ousted the Rashtrakutas in the West and recovered the power once held by his family.
Jata Choda Bhima 973–999 Vengi (Eastern)
Satyashraya 997–1008 Kalyani (Western)
Shaktivarman I 999–1011 Vengi (Eastern) First son of Danarnava. Returned from exile and recovered his throne. Now free from the usurper, however Eastern Vengi dynasty lost some of the independence they have gained some generations ago. Begin of the growing Chola influence in Vengi kingdom.
Vikramaditya V 1008–1015 Kalyani (Western) Nephew of Satyahraya, as son of his brother, Dashavarman.
Vimaladitya 1011–1018 Vengi (Eastern) Second son of Danarnava. In his exile period with his father and brother, he was married to Kundavai, daughter of Rajaraja I from the Chola Empire.
Jayasimha III Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 957 (c.1035 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Jayasimha II.JPG 1015–1043 Kalyani (Western) He had to fight on many fronts, against the Cholas of Tanjore in the south and the Paramara dynasty in the north, to protect his kingdom. His rule however was an important period of development of Kannada literature. He saw his cousins in Vengi fall firmly into the hands of the Cholas who would use their marital relations with the Eastern Chalukyas and their over lordship over Vengi to frustrate and threaten the Western Chalukyas from two fronts, from the east and from the South. But, at the same time, he consolidated more firmly the Western Chalukya power in the Deccan.
Rajaraja Narendra King Rajaraja Narendra founder of rajahmundry city.jpg 1018–1061 Vengi (Eastern) Son of Vimaladitya, had support in the throne from the Cholas, whose influence grew significantly. He supported Cholas against his cousins, the Western Chalukyas. His own son managed to succeed in the Chola Empire, in 1070, as Kulottunga I, beginning the Later Cholas period, in which the Chola Empire was ruled by a branch of the Eastern Chalukyas renamed Chola.
Someshvara I Trilokyamalla Western Chalukyas of Kalyana King Somesvara I Trailokyamalla 1043-1068.jpg 1042–1068 Kalyani (Western) His several military successes in Central India made him a formidable ruler of a vast empire. During his rule, the Chalukyan empire extended to Gujarat and Central India in the north.
Shaktivarman II 1061–1062 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya VII 1062–1075 Vengi (Eastern) Also son of Vimaladitya, but half-brother of Rajaraja Narendra. Ascended to the throne with support from Western Chalukyas.
Someshvara II Bhuvanaikamalla Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 990 (c.1068 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Bhuvanaikamalla Someshvara II.JPG 1068–1076 Kalyani (Western) First son of Someshvara I, deposed by his younger brother, Vikramaditya.
Rajaraja 1075–1079 Vengi (Eastern)
Vikramaditya VI Tribhuvanamalla Old Kannada inscription (c.1108 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI.jpg 1076–1126 Kalyani (Western) Second son of Someshvara I. Under his reign, the Western Chalukya Empire reached its zenith. He is noted for his patronage of art and letters. His court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. Intervened in Chola politics, sitting his brother-in-law, Athirajendra Chola, on the Chola Empire throne.
Vishnu-Vardhana VII 1079–1102 Vengi (Eastern) Last known Chalukya ruler of Vengi.
Someshvara III Old Kannada inscription (1129 AD) at Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi.JPG 1126–1138 Kalyani (Western) He was a noted historian, scholar, and poet, and authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music: making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th- and 12th-century India.
Jagadhekamalla II Old Kannada inscription (c.1148 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II.JPG 1138–1151 Kalyani (Western) His rule saw the slow decline of the Chalukya empire with the loss of Vengi entirely, though he was still able to control the Hoysalas in the south and the Seuna and Paramara in the north.
Tailapa III 1151–1164 Kalyani (Western) Faced many feudatory risings against Chalukya rule.
Jagadhekamalla III 1164–1183 Kalyani (Western) His rule was completely overshowded by the emergence of the Southern Kalachuris under Bijjala II who took control of Kalyani. He had to escape to the Banavasi region.
Someshvara IV Chalukyas of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas) Possibly King Somesvara IV Chalukya. 1181-4 1189.jpg 1183–1200 Kalyani (Western) Recovered his capital, by defeating the Kalachuris, but failed to prevent his old allies, Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasty, who, after deposing Someshvara by 1200, divided his empire among themselves.

Shahi Kingdom (500–1026 CE)[edit]

In Kabul Shahi Kingdom two Dynasties ruled (both were Hindu dynasties) from:

Turk Shahi dynasty (500–850)[edit]

Hindu Shahi dynasty (850–1026)[edit]

Pushyabhuti dynasty (500–647)[edit]

  • Pushyabhuti (Puṣyabhuti), possibly mythical
  • Naravardhana (500–525 CE)
  • Rajyavardana I (525–555 CE)
  • Adityavardhana (Ādityvardhana or Ādityasena) (555–580 CE)
  • Prabhakara-vardhana (Prabhākaravardhana) (580–605 CE)
  • Rajya-vardhana (Rājyavardhana II) (605–606 CE)
  • Harsha-vardhana (Harṣavardhana) (606–647 CE)

Unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India.

Eastern Ganga Empire (c. 505–1950 CE)[edit]

Eastern Ganga dynasty (c. 505–1434 CE)[edit]

Indravarman I is earliest known Independent king of the dynasty. He is known from the Jirjingi copper plate grant.[32][33]

  • Mittavarman (c. 505–520)

(Eastern Ganga king, feudal under Vakataka rule)

(Real founder of dynasty)

  • Samantavarman (c. 537–562)
  • Hastivarman (c. 562–578)
  • Indravarman II (c. 578–589)
  • Danarnava (c. 589–652)
  • Indravarman III (c. 652–682)
  • Gunarnava (c. 682–730)
  • Devendravarman I (c. 730–780)
  • Anantavarman III (c. 780–812)
  • Rajendravarman II (c. 812–840)
  • Devendravarman V (c. 840–895)
  • Gunamaharnava I (c. 895–910)
  • Vajrahasta II (or Anangabhimadeva I) (c. 910–939)
  • Gundama – (c. 939–942)
  • Kamarnava I (c. 942–977)
  • Vinayaditya (c. 977–980)
  • Vajrahasta IV (c. 980–1015)
  • Kamarnava II (c. 1015–6 months after)
  • Gundama II (c. 1015–1038)
  • Vajrahasta V (c. 1038–1070)
  • Rajaraja Deva I (c. 1070–1077)
  • Anantavarman Chodaganga (c. 1077–1147)
  • Jatesvaradeva (c. 1147–1156)
  • Raghava Deva (c. 1156–1170)
  • Rajaraja Deva II (c. 1170–1190)
  • Anangabhima Deva II (c. 1190–1198)
  • Rajraja Deva III (c. 1198–1211)
  • Anangabhima Deva III (c. 1211–1238)
  • Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
  • Bhanu Deva I (1264–1278)
  • Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
  • Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  • Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  • Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  • Narasimha Deva IV (1378–1414)
  • Bhanu Deva IV (1414–1434)

Gudari Kataka Ganga State[edit]

According to Gangavansucharitam written in sixteenth or seventeenth century, Bhanu Deva IV also known as Kajjala Bhanu founded a new small princedom in southern Odisha at Gudari in modern Rayagada district after he was toppled from power by his general Kapilendra Deva.[45]

  • Kajjala Bhanu (or Bhanu Deva IV)
  • Svarna Bhanu
  • Kalasandha Deva
  • Chudanga Deva
  • Harimani Deva
  • Narasimha Deva
  • Ananta Deva
  • Padmanabha Deva
  • Pitambara Deva
  • Vasudeva
  • Purrushottama Anangabhima Deva (or Bhima Deva)

Chikiti Ganga State (c. 881–1950 CE)[edit]

Historians conclude that the rulers of Chikiti were from the line of Ganga ruler Hastivarman.[46][47]

  • Kesaba Rautara (or Bira Karddama Singha Rautara)

(881–940)

  • Balabhadra Rautara

(941–997)

  • Madhaba Rautara

(998–1059)

  • Languli Rautara

(1060–1094)

  • Mohana Rautara

(1095–1143)

  • Balarama Rautara

(1144–1197)

  • Biswanatha Rautara

(1198–1249)

  • Harisarana Rautara

(1250–1272)

  • Raghunatha Rautara

(1273–1313)

  • Dinabandhu Rautara

(1314–1364)

  • Gopinatha Rautara

(1365–1417)

  • Ramachandra Rautara

(1418–1464)

  • Narayana Rautara

(1465–1530)

  • Narasingha Rautara

(1531–1583)

  • Lokanatha Rautara

(1584–1633)

  • Jadumani Rautara

(1634–1691)

  • Madhusudana Rajendra Deba (1692–1736)
  • Kulamani Rajendra Deba

(1737–1769)

  • Krusnachandra Rajendra Deba (1770–1790)
  • Pitambara Rajendra Deba (1791–1819)
  • Gobindachandra Rajendra Deba (1820–1831)
  • Kulamani Rajendra Deba

(1832–1835)

  • Brundabanachandra Rajendra Deba (1835–1846)
  • Jagannatha Rajendra Deba (1847–1855)
  • Biswambhara Rajendra Deba (1856–1885)
  • Kisorachandra Rajendra Deba (1885–1903)
  • Radhamohana Rajendra Deba (1903–1923)
  • Gaurachandra Rajendra Deba

(1923–1934)

  • Sachhidananda Rajendra Deba

(1934–1950)

Parlakhemundi Ganga State (c. 1309–1950)[edit]

Parlakhemundi state rulers were the direct descendants of the Eastern Ganga dynasty rulers of Odisha.[48][49]

  • Narasingha Deba (1309–1320)
  • Madanrudra Deba (1320–1339)
  • Narayana Rudra Deba (1339–1353)
  • Ananda Rudra Deba (1353–1354)
  • Ananda Rudra Deba (1354–1367)
  • Jayarudra Deba (1367–1399)
  • Lakhsmi Narasingha Deba (1399–1418)
  • Madhukarna Gajapati (1418–1441)
  • Murtunjaya Bhanu Deba (1441–1467)
  • Madhaba Bhanu Deba (1467–1495)
  • Chandra Betal Bhanu Deba (1495–1520)
  • Subarnalinga Bhanu Deba (1520–1550)
  • Sibalinga Narayan Bhanudeo (1550–1568)
  • Subarna Kesari Govinda Gajapati Narayan Deo (1568–1599)
  • Mukunda Rudra Gajapati Narayan Deo (1599–1619)
  • Mukunda Deo (1619–1638)
  • Ananta Padmanabh Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1638–1648)
  • Sarbajgan Jagannatha Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1648–1664)
  • Narahari Narayan Deo (1664–1691)
  • Bira Padmanabh Narayan Deo II (1691–1706)
  • Prataprudra Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1706–1736)
  • Jagannatha Gajapati Narayana Deo II (1736–1771)
  • Goura Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1771–1803)
  • Purushottam Gajapati Narayan Deo (1803–1806)
  • Jagannath Gajapati Narayan Deo III (1806–1850)
  • Prataprudra Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1850–1885)
  • Goura Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1885–1904)
  • Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo

(1913–1950)

Titular Rulers[edit]

(1950 – 25 May 1974)

(25 May 1974 – 10 January 2020)

(10 January 2020–present)

Jaintia Kingdom (c. 515–1835 CE)[edit]

Old dynasty[edit]

  1. Urmi Rani (?-550)
  2. Krishak Pator (550–570)
  3. Hatak (570–600)
  4. Guhak (600–630)

Partitioned Jaintia[edit]

  1. Jayanta (630–660)
  2. Joymalla (660-?)
  3. Mahabal (?)
  4. Bancharu (?-1100)
  5. Kamadeva (1100–1120)
  6. Bhimbal (1120)

Brahmin dynasty[edit]

  1. Kedareshwar Rai (1120–1130)
  2. Dhaneshwar Rai (1130–1150)
  3. Kandarpa Rai (1150–1170)
  4. Manik Rai (1170–1193)
  5. Jayanta Rai (1193–1210)
  6. Jayanti Devi
  7. Bara Gossain

New dynasty[edit]

  1. Prabhat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1500–1516)
  2. Majha Gosain Syiem Sutnga (1516–1532)
  3. Burha Parbat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1532–1548)
  4. Bar Gosain Syiem Sutnga I (1548–1564)
  5. Bijay Manik Syiem Sutnga (1564–1580)
  6. Pratap Ray Syiem Sutnga (1580–1596)
  7. Dhan Manik Syiem Sutnga (1596–1612)
  8. Jasa Manik Syiem Sutnga (1612–1625)
  9. Sundar Ray Syiem Sutnga (1625–1636)
  10. Chota Parbat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1636–1647)
  11. Jasamanta Ray Syiem Sutnga (1647–1660)
  12. Ban Singh Syiem Sutnga (1660–1669)
  13. Pratap Singh Syiem Sutnga (1669–1678)
  14. Lakshmi Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1678–1694)
  15. Ram Singh Syiem Sutnga I (1694–1708)
  16. Jay Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1708–1731)
  17. Bar Gosain Syiem Sutnga II (1731–1770)
  18. Chattra Singh Syiem Sutnga (1770–1780)
  19. Yatra Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1780–1785)
  20. Bijay Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1785–1786)
  21. Lakshmi Singh Syiem Sutnga (1786–1790)
  22. Ram Singh Syiem Sutnga II (1790–1832)
  23. Rajendra Singh Syiem Sutnga (1832–1835)[50][51]

Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (c. 550–1036 CE)[edit]

Mandor Branch (c. 550–880 CE)[edit]

  • Harishchandra Pratihara, (535–560 or 550–575)
  • Rajjila Pratihara, (575–600)
  • Nerabhatta Pratihara, (600–625)
  • Naggabhatta Pratihara, (625–650)
  • Tate Pratihara, (650–675)
  • Yashovardhan Pratihara, (675–700)
  • Chanduka Pratihara, (700–725)
  • Shiluka Pratihara, (725–750)
  • Jhotta Pratihara, (750–775)
  • Bhilladhai Pratihara, (775–800)
  • Kake Pratihara, (800–825)
  • Baauka Pratihara, (825–850)
  • Kakkuka Pratihara, (850–880)

Baddoch Branch (c. 600–700 CE)[edit]

  • Dhaddha 1 (600–627)
  • Dhaddha 2 (627–655)
  • Jaibhatta (655–700)

Bhinmala Branch (c. 725–1036 CE)[edit]

Rajogarh Branch[edit]

NOTE: Badegujar were rulers of Rajogarh

Kingdom of Mewar (c. 550–1947 CE)[edit]

In the 6th century, three different Guhila dynasties are known to have ruled in present-day Rajasthan:

Guhila dynasty (c. 550–1303 CE)[edit]

  • Bappaka (550–566)
  • Guhaditya / Guhlia (566–580) (Real founder of the dynasty)
  • Bhoja (580–602)
  • Mahendra (I) (602–616)
  • Nāga (616–646)
  • Śiladitya (646–661 )
  • Aparājita (661–697 )
  • Mahendra (II) (697–728)
  • Bappa Rawal / Kālabhoja (728–753)
  • Khommāṇa (I) (753–773)
  • Mattaṭa (773–790)
  • Bhartṛipaṭṭa (I) (790–813)
  • Rawalsiṃha (813–820)
  • Khommāṇa (II) (820–853)
  • Mahāyaka (853–900)
  • Khommāṇa (III) (900–942)
  • Bhartṛipaṭṭa (II) (942–943 CE)
  • Allaṭa (943–953 )
  • Naravāhana (953–971 )
  • Śalivāhana (971–977 )
  • Śaktikumāra (977–993 )
  • Āmraprasāda (993–998)
  • Śuchivarman (998–1010)
  • Naravarman (1010–1035)
  • Kīrtivarman (1035–1050)
  • Yogarāja (1050–1075)
  • Vairaṭa (1075–1090)
  • Vaṃśapāla (1090–1100)
  • Vairisiṃha (1100–1122)
  • Vijayasiṃha (1122–1130)
  • Vairisiṃha (II) (1130–1136)
  • Arisiṃha (1136–1145)
  • Choḍa (1145–1151)
  • Vikramasiṃha (1151–1158)
  • Raṇasiṃha (1158–1165 )[52][53][54]

Branching of Guhil Dynasty[edit]

  • Ranasingh (1158 CE) During his reign, the Guhil dynasty got divided into two branches.
  • First (Rawal Branch)—Kṣemasiṃha, son of Raṇasiṃha, ruled over Mewar by building Rawal Branch.
  • Second (Rana Branch)—Rahapa, the second son of Raṇasiṃha started the Rana Branch by establishing Sisoda bases. Due to his stay in Rana Sisoda hideout, he was later called Sisodia.[55][54]

Post-split Rawal branch (c. 1165–1303 CE)[edit]

Rana branch (c. 1160–1326 CE)[edit]

Rahapa, a son of Ranasimha alias Karna, established the Rana branch. According to the 1652 Eklingji inscription, Rahapa's successors were:

  • Rahapa/Karna (1160)
  • Narapati (1185)
  • Dinakara (1200)
  • Jasakarna (1218)
  • Nagapala (1238)
  • Karnapala (1266)
  • Bhuvanasimha (1280)
  • Bhimasimha (1297)
  • Jayasimha (1312)
  • Lakhanasimha (1318)
  • Arisimha (Arasi) (1322)
  • Hammir Singh (1326)[58]

Sisodia dynasty (c. 1326–1947 CE)[edit]

Titular Maharanas[edit]

Gauda Kingdom (c. 590–626 CE)[edit]

Brahman dynasty of Sindh (c. 632–724 CE)[edit]

The known rulers of the Brahman dynasty are:[60]

Karkota Empire of Kashmir (c. 625–855 CE)[edit]

  • Durlabhavardhana (625–662), (founder of the dynasty)
  • Durlabhaka or Pratipaditya (662–712)
  • Chandrapeeda or Varnaditya (712–720)
  • Tarapida or Udayaditya (720–724)
  • Lalitaditya Muktapida (724–760), (built the famous Martand Sun Temple in Kashmir)
  • Kuvalayaditya (760–761)
  • Vajraditya or Bapyayika or Lalitapida (761–768)
  • Prithivyapida I (768–772)
  • Sangramapida (772–779)
  • Jayapida (also Pandit and poet) (779–813)
  • Lalitapida (813–825)
  • Sangramapida II (825–832)
  • Chipyata-Jayapida (832–885), (last ruler of dynasty)
Other puppet rulers under Utpala dynasty are
  • Ajitapida
  • Anangapida
  • Utpalapida
  • Sukhavarma

Mallabhum (Bishnupur) kingdom (c. 694–1947 CE)[edit]

Mallabhum kingdom or Bishnupur kingdom was the kingdom ruled by the Malla kings of Bishnupur, primarily in the present Bankura district in Indian state of West Bengal.[61] (also known as Mallabhoom,[62]

Name of the king[63][64] Reign Notes
Adi Malla 694–710
Jay Malla 710–720
Benu Malla 720–733
Kinu Malla 733–742
Indra Malla 742–757
Kanu Malla 757–764
Dha (Jhau) Malla 764–775
Shur Malla 775–795
Kanak Malla 795–807
Kandarpa Malla 807–828
Sanatan Malla 828–841
Kharga Malla 841–862
Durjan (Durjay) Malla 862–906
Yadav Malla 906–919
Jagannath Malla 919–931
Birat Malla 931–946
Mahadev Malla 946–977
Durgadas Malla 977–994
Jagat Malla 994–1007
Ananta Malla 1007–1015
Rup Malla 1015=1029
Sundar Malla 1029–1053
Kumud Malla 1053–1074
Krishna Malla 1074–1084
Rup II (Jhap) Malla 1084–1097
Prakash Malla 1097–1102
Pratap Malla 1102–1113
Sindur Malla 1113–1129
Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla 1129–1142
Banamali Malla 1142–1156
Yadu/Jadu Malla 1156–1167
Jiban Malla 1167–1185
Ram Malla 1185=1209
Gobinda Malla 1209–1240
Bhim Malla 1240–1263
Katar(Khattar) Malla 1263–1295
Prithwi Malla 1295 -1319
Tapa Malla 1319–1334
Dinabandhu Malla 1334–1345
Kinu/Kanu II Malla 1345–1358
Shur Malla II 1358–1370
Shiv Singh Malla 1370–1407
Madan Malla 1407–1420
Durjan II (Durjay) Malla 1420–1437
Uday Malla 1437–1460
Chandra Malla 1460–1501
Bir Malla 1501–1554
Dhari Malla 1554–1565
Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir) 1565–1620
Dhari Hambir Malla Dev 1620–1626
Raghunath Singha Dev 1626–1656
Bir Singha Dev 1656–1682
Durjan Singha Dev 1682–1702
Raghunath Singha Dev II 1702–1712
Gopal Singha Dev 1712–1748
Chaitanya Singha Dev 1748–1801
Madhav Singha Dev 1801–1809
Gopal Singha Dev II 1809–1876
Ramkrishna Singha Dev 1876–1885
Dwhaja Moni Devi 1885–1889
Nilmoni Singha Dev 1889–1903
Churamoni Devi (Regency) 1903–1930
Kalipada Singha Thakur 1930–1947

Varman dynasty of Kannauj (c. 725–770 CE)[edit]

Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyaketha (c. 735–982 CE)[edit]

Tomar dynasty of Delhi (736–1151)[edit]

Various historical texts provide different lists of the Tomara kings:[66]

  • Khadag Rai's history of Gwalior (Gopācala ākhyāna) names 18 Tomara kings, plus Prithvi Pala (who is probably the Chahamana king Prithviraja III). According to Khadag Rai, Delhi was originally ruled by the legendary king Vikramaditya. It was deserted for 792 years after his death, until Bilan Dev [Veer Mahadev or Birmaha] of Tomara dynasty re-established the city (in 736 CE).
  • The Kumaon-Garhwal manuscript names only 15 rulers of "Toar" dynasty, and dates the beginning of their rule to 789 CE (846 Vikram Samvat).
  • Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari (Bikaner manuscript, edited by Syed Ahmad Khan) names 19 Tomara kings. It places the first Tomara king in 372 CE (429 Vikram Samvat). It might be possible that the era mentioned in the original source used by Abul Fazl was Gupta era, which starts from 318 to 319 CE; Abul Fazl might have mistaken this era to be Vikrama Samvat. If this is true, then the first Tomara king can be dated to 747 CE (429+318), which is better aligned with the other sources.

As stated earlier, the historians doubt the claim that the Tomaras established Delhi in 736 CE.[67]

List of Tomara rulers according to various sources[68][69]
# Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari / Bikaner manuscript Gwalior manuscript of Khadag Rai Kumaon-Garhwal manuscript Ascension year in CE (according to Gwalior manuscript) Length of reign
Years Months Days
1 Ananga Pāla Bilan Dev 736 18 0 0
2 Vasu Deva 754 19 1 18
3 Gangya Ganggeva 773 21 3 28
4 Prithivi Pāla (or Prithivi Malla) Prathama Mahi Pāla 794 19 6 19
5 Jaya Deva Saha Deva Jadu Pāla 814 20 7 28
6 Nīra Pāla or Hira Pāla Indrajita (I) Nai Pāla 834 14 4 9
7 Udiraj (or Adereh) Nara Pāla Jaya Deva Pāla 849 26 7 11
8 Vijaya (or Vacha) Indrajita (II) Chamra Pāla 875 21 2 13
9 Biksha (or Anek) Vacha Raja Bibasa Pāla 897 22 3 16
10 Rīksha Pāla Vira Pāla Sukla Pāla 919 21 6 5
11 Sukh Pāla (or Nek Pāla) Go-Pāla Teja Pāla 940 20 4 4
12 Go-Pāla Tillan Dev Mahi Pāla 961 18 3 15
13 Sallakshana Pāla Suvari Sursen 979 25 10 10
14 Jaya Pāla Osa Pāla Jaik Pāla 1005 16 4 3
15 Kunwar Pāla Kumara Pāla 1021 29 9 18
16 Ananga Pāla (or Anek Pāla) Ananga Pāla Anek Pāla 1051 29 6 18
17 Vijaya Pāla (or Vijaya Sah) Teja Pāla Teja Pāla 1081 24 1 6
18 Mahi Pāla (or Mahatsal) Mahi Pāla Jyūn Pāla 1105 25 2 23
19 Akr Pāla (or Akhsal) Mukund Pāla Ane Pāla 1130 21 2 15
Prithivi Raja (Chahamana) Prithvi Pala 1151

Pala Empire (c. 750–1174)[edit]

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[70] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[71]

RC Majumdar (1971)[72] AM Chowdhury (1967)[73] BP Sinha (1977)[74][failed verification] DC Sircar (1975–76)[75] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[70]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750–774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774–806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806–845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845–860
Shurapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 850–858 860–872
Vigrahapala I 858–60 872–873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873–927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927–959
Gopala II 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959–976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976–977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977–1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027–1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070–1071
Shurapala 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071–1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072–1126
Kumarapala 1130–1125 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala III 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1155–1159 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200

Note:[71]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Ayudha dynasty of Kannauj (c. 770–810 CE)[edit]

  • Vajrayudha (770–783), founder of dynasty
  • Indrayudha
  • Chakrayudha (till 810)[76][77]

Chandela dynasty of Jejakabhukti (c. 831–1315 CE)[edit]

The Chandelas of Jejakabhukti were a dynasty in Central India. They ruled much of the Bundelkhand region (then called Jejakabhukti) between the 9th and the 13th centuries.

Based on epigraphic records, the historians have come up with the following list of Chandela rulers of Jejākabhukti (IAST names in brackets):[78][79]

Seuna (Yadava) dynasty of Devagiri (c. 850–1334 CE)[edit]

  • Dridhaprahara
  • Seunachandra (850–874)
  • Dhadiyappa (874–900)
  • Bhillama I (900–925)
  • Vadugi (Vaddiga) (950–974)
  • Dhadiyappa II (974–975)
  • Bhillama II (975–1005)
  • Vesugi I (1005–1020)
  • Bhillama III (1020–1055)
  • Vesugi II (1055–1068)
  • Bhillama III (1068)
  • Seunachandra II (1068–1085)
  • Airamadeva (1085–1115)
  • Singhana I (1115–1145)
  • Mallugi I (1145–1150)
  • Amaragangeyya (1150–1160)
  • Govindaraja (1160)
  • Amara Mallugi II (1160–1165)
  • Kaliya Ballala (1165–1173)
  • Bhillama V (1173–1192), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Jaitugi I (1192–1200)
  • Singhana II (1200–1247)
  • Kannara (1247–1261)
  • Mahadeva (1261–1271)
  • Amana (1271)
  • Ramachandra (1271–1312)
  • Singhana III (1312–1313)
  • Harapaladeva (1313–1318)
  • Mallugi III (1318–1334)

Paramara dynasty of Malwa (c. 8th century to 1305)[edit]

According to historial Kailash Chand Jain, "Knowledge of the early Paramara rulers from Upendra to Vairisimha is scanty; there are no records, and they are known only from later sources."[81] The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:

Paramara dynasty of Chandravati (Abu) (c. 910–1220 CE)[edit]

  • Utpala-raja Utpalarāja c. 910–930
  • Arnno-raja, or Aranya-raja c. 930–950
  • Krishna-raja Kṛṣṇarāja c. 950–979
  • Dhara-varaha or Dharani-varaha c.970–990
  • Dhurbhata Dhūrbhaṭa c. 990–1000
  • Mahi-pala Mahīpāla c. 1000–1020 son of Dharavaraha
  • Dhandhuka Dhaṃdhuka c. 1020–1040
  • Punya-pala or Purna-pala c. 1040–1050
  • Danti-varmman Daṃtivarmman c. 1050–1060 son of Dhandhuka
  • Krishna-deva, or Krishna-raja II c. 1060–1090 son of Dhandhuka
  • Kakkala-deva, or Kakala-deva c. 1090–1115
  • Vikrama-simha Vikramāsiṃha c. 1115–1145
  • Yasho-dhavala Yaśodhavala c. 1145–1160 great-grandson of Dantivarman through Yogaraja and Ramadeva
  • Rana-simha Raṇāsiṃha ? son of Vikramasimha; possibly a regent for Dharavarsha
  • Dhara-varsha Dhāravarṣa c. 1160–1220 son of Yashodhavala

Kingdom of Ladakh (c. 930–1842 CE)[edit]

Maryul dynasty of Ngari (c. 930–1460 CE)[edit]

Known Maryul rulers were:

Namgyal dynasty (Gyalpo of Ladakh) (c. 1460–1842 CE)[edit]

The kings of the Namgyal dynasty along with their periods of reign are as follows:[103][104][105]

  1. Lhachen Bhagan (c. 1460-1485)
  2. Unknown (c. 1485-1510)
  3. Lata Jughdan (c. 1510-1535)
  4. Kunga Namgyal I (c. 1535-1555)
  5. Tashi Namgyal ('BKra‐śis‐rnam‐rgyal, c. 1555-1575) son[106]
  6. Tsewang Namgyal I (Ts'e-dbaṅ‐rnam‐rgyal, c. 1575–1595) nephew[107]
  7. Namgyal Gonpo (rNam-rgyal-mgon-po, c. 1595–1600) brother
  8. Jamyang Namgyal (Jams-dbyang-rnam-rgyal, c. 1595–1616) brother[108]
  9. Sengge Namgyal (Seng-ge-rnam-rgyal, first time, 1616–1623) son[109]
  10. Norbu Namgyal (1623–1624) brother
  11. Sengge Namgyal (second time, 1624–1642)
  12. Deldan Namgyal (Bde-ldan-rnam-rgyal, 1642–1694) son
  13. Delek Namgyal  (Bde-legs-rnam-rgyal, c. 1680–1691) son
  14. Nyima Namgyal  (Ñi-ma-rnam-rgyal, 1694–1729) son
  15. Deskyong Namgyal (Bde‐skyoṅ‐rnam‐rgyal, 1729–1739) son
  16. Phuntsog Namgyal (P'un‐ts'ogs‐rnam‐rgyal, 1739–1753) son
  17. Tsewang Namgyal II (Ts'e‐dbaṅ-rnam‐rgyal, 1753–1782) son
  18. Tseten Namgyal  (Ts'e‐brtan‐rnam‐rgyal, 1782–1802) son
  19. Tsepal Dondup Namgyal (Ts'e‐dpal‐don‐grub‐rnam‐rgyal, 1802–1837, 1839–1840) brother
  20. Kunga Namgyal II (Kun‐dga'‐rnam‐rgyal, 1840–1842) grandson

Solanki dynasty (Chalukyas of Gujarat) (c. 940–1244 CE)[edit]

The Chalukya rulers of Gujarat, with approximate dates of reign, are as follows:[110][111]

Kachchhapaghata dynasty (950–1150)[edit]

Simhapaniya (Sihoniya) and Gopadri (Gwalior) branch[edit]

  • Lakshmana (r. c. 950–975)
  • Vajradaman (r. c. 975–1000)
  • Mangalaraja (r. c. 1000–1015)
  • Kirtiraja (r. c. 1015–1035)
  • Muladeva (r. c. 1035–1055)
  • Devapala (r. c. 1055–1085)
  • Padmapala (r. c. 1085–1090)
  • Mahipala (r. c. 1090–1105)
  • Ratnapala (r. c. 1105–1130)
  • Ajayapala (r. c. 1192–1194)
  • Sulakshanapala (r. c. 1196)

Dubkund (Dobha) branch[edit]

  • Yuvaraja (r. c. 1000)
  • Arjuna (r. c. 1015–1035)
  • Abhimanyu (r. c. 1035–1045)
  • Vijayapala (r. c. 1045–1070)
  • Vikramasimha (r. c. 1070–1100)

Nalapura (Narwar) branch[edit]

  • Gaganasimha (r. c. 1075–1090)
  • Sharadasimha (r. c. 1090–1105)
  • Virasimha (r. c. 1105–1125)
  • Tejaskarana (r. c. 1125–1150)[112][113]

Kachwaha dynasty (c. 966–1949 CE)[edit]

Kachwahas King Sorha Dev and Dulha Rao defeated Meena of Dhundhar kingdom & established Kachwaha dynasty, which ruled for more than 1000 years & still ruling in Jaipur district of Rajasthan.[114][115]

Rulers[edit]

  • 27 Dec 966 – 15 Dec 1006 'Sorha Dev' (d. 1006)
  • 15 Dec 1006 – 28 Nov 1036 'Dulha Rao' (d. 1036)
  • 28 Nov 1036 – 20 Apr 1039 'Kakil' (d. 1039)
  • 21 Apr 1039 – 28 Oct 1053 'Hanu' (d. 1053)
  • 28 Oct 1053 – 21 Mar 1070 'Janddeo' (d. 1070)
  • 22 Mar 1070 – 20 May 1094 'Pajjun Rai' (d. 1094)
  • 20 May 1094 – 15 Feb 1146 'Malayasi' (d. 1146)
  • 15 Feb 1146 – 25 Jul 1179 'Vijaldeo' (d. 1179)
  • 25 Jul 1179 – 16 Dec 1216 'Rajdeo' (d. 1216)
  • 16 Dec 1216 – 18 Oct 1276 'Kilhan' (d. 1276)
  • 18 Oct 1276 – 23 Jan 1317 'Kuntal' (d. 1317)
  • 23 Jan 1317 – 6 Nov 1366 'Jonsi' (d. 1366)
  • 6 Nov 1366 – 11 Feb 1388 'Udaikarn' (d. 1388)
  • 11 Feb 1388 – 16 Aug 1428 'Narsingh' (d. 1428)
  • 16 Aug 1428 – 20 Sep 1439 'Banbir' (d. 1439)
  • 20 Sep 1439 – 10 Dec 1467 'Udharn' (d. 1467)
  • 10 Dec 1467 – 17 Jan 1503 'Chandrasen' (d. 1503)
  • 17 Jan 1503 – 4 Nov 1527 'Prithviraj Singh I' (d. 1527)
  • 4 Nov 1527 – 19 Jan 1534 'Puranmal' (d. 1534)
  • 19 Jan 1534 – 22 Jul 1537 'Bhim Singh' (d. 1537)
  • 22 Jul 1537 – 15 May 1548 'Ratan Singh' (d. 1548)
  • 15 May 1548 – 1 June 1548 'Askaran' (d. 1599)
  • 1 June 1548 – 27 Jan 1574 'Bharmal' (d. 1574)
  • 27 Jan 1574 – 4 Dec 1589 'Bhagwant Das' (b. 1527 – d. 1589)
  • 4 Dec 1589 – 6 Jul 1614 'Man Singh' (b. 1550 – d. 1614)
  • 6 Jul 1614 – 13 Dec 1621 'Bhau Singh' (d. 1621)
  • 13 Dec 1621 – 28 Aug 1667 'Jai Singh I' (b. 1611 – d. 1667)
  • 10 Sep 1667 – 30 Apr 1688: 'Ram Singh I' (b. 1640 – d. 1688)
  • 30 Apr 1688 – 19 Dec 1699: 'Bishan Singh' (b. 1672 – d. 1699)
  • 19 Dec 1699 – 21 Sep 1743: 'Jai Singh II' (b. 1688 – d. 1743)
  • 1743 – 12 Dec 1750: 'Ishwari Singh' (b. 1721 – d. 1750)
  • 1750 – 5 Mar 1768: 'Madho Singh I' (b. 1728 – d. 1768)
  • 1768 – 13 Apr 1778: 'Prithvi Singh II' (b. c. 1762 – d. 1778)
  • 1778 – 1803: 'Pratap Singh' (b. 1764 – d. 1803)
  • 1803 – 21 Nov 1818: 'Jagat Singh II' (b. ... – d. 1818)
  • 22 Dec 1818 – 25 Apr 1819: 'Mohan Singh' (regent) (b. 1809 – d. ...)
  • 25 Apr 1819 – 6 Feb 1835: 'Jai Singh III' (b. 1819 – d. 1835)
  • Feb 1835 – 18 Sep 1880: 'Ram Singh II' (b. 1835 – d. 1880)
  • 18 Sep 1880 – 7 Sep 1922: 'Madho Singh II' (b. 1861 – d. 1922)
  • 7 Sep 1922 – 15 Aug 1947 (subsidiary): 'Sawai Man Singh II' (b. 1912 – d. 1970)
  • 15 Aug 1947 – 7 Apr 1949 (independent): 'Sawai Man Singh II' (b. 1912 – d. 1970)

He was the last ruler of Kachawa dynasty, he annexed Jaipur State with Union of India in 1949 CE.[116][117][118][119][120]

Titular rulers[edit]

Titles were abolished in 1971 according to the 26th amendment to the Indian Constitution.

Hoysala Empire (c. 1000–1343 CE)[edit]

  • Nripa Kama (1000–1045)
Hoysala Kings (1026–1343)
Nripa Kama II (1026–1047)
Vinayaditya (1047–1098)
Ereyanga (1098–1102)
Veera Ballala I (1102–1108)
Vishnuvardhana (1108–1152)
Narasimha I (1152–1173)
Veera Ballala II (1173–1220)
Vira Narasimha II (1220–1235)
Vira Someshwara (1235–1263)
Narasimha III (1263–1292)
Veera Ballala III (1292–1343)
Harihara Raya
(Vijayanagara Empire)
(1342–1355)


Sena dynasty (1070–1230)[edit]

  • Hemanta Sen (1070–1096)
  • Vijay Sen (1096–1159)
  • Ballal Sen (1159–1179)
  • Lakshman Sen (1179–1206)
  • Vishwarup Sen (1206–1225)
  • Keshab Sen (1225–1230)

Kakatiya dynasty (1083–1323)[edit]

  • Beta I (1000–1030)
  • Prola I (1030–1075)
  • Beta II (1075–1110)
  • Prola II (1110–1158)
  • Prataparudra I/Rudradeva I (1158–1195)
  • Mahadeva (1195–1198). Brother of King Rudradeva
  • Ganapathi deva (1199–1261)
  • Rudrama Devi (1262–1296)
  • Prataparudra II/ Rudradeva II (1296–1323). Grandson of Queen Rudrama

Gahadavala dynasty (1089–1197)[edit]

Zamorin kingdom of Calicut (1124–1806 CE)[edit]

First dynasty[edit]

The original seat of the aristocratic clan was Nediyiruppu and the head of the house was known as Nediyiruppu Mutta Eradi, a title enjoyed by the fifth in rank from the Zamorin. Under the Kodungallur Chera rulers the Mutta Eradi governed Ernad with the title of "Ernad Utaiyar". Later the clan abandoned its ancestral house and transferred its residence to the present day Kozhikode.[125]

No. of Zamorin Name Reign Important events
1 Mana Vikrama (Manikkan) N/A The legendary founder of the ruling family.
27 8 years Kozhikode city is established
65 1339–1347 Ibn Battuta at Kozhikode (1342–1347)
73 1402–1410 Ma Huan at Kozhikode (1403)
78 1442–1450 The visits of Abdur Razzak (1442) and Niccolò de' Conti (1444)
81 Mana Vikrama the Great 1466–1474 Athanasius Nikitin (1468–1474) visits Kozhikode.
82 Mana Veda 1474–1482
84 1495–1500 The arrival of Vasco da Gama (1498)
85 1500–1513 The occupations of Kochi (1503–1504)
86 1513–1522 Treaty with Portuguese (1513), and the erection of the Portuguese fort at Calicut (1514)
87 1522–1529 The expulsion of Portuguese from Calicut
88 1529–1531 The building of Portuguese fort at Chaliyam (1531)
89 1531–1540 Battles with the Portuguese
90 1540–1548 Treaty with Portuguese (1540)
91 1548–1560 Adoption of the chief of Bardela (150) and the battles with the Portuguese.
92 Viraraya 1560–1562
93 Mana Vikrama 1572–1574 The expulsion of the Portuguese from Chaliyam (1571)
94 1574–1578 Battles with the Portuguese
95 1578–1588 The Portuguese allowed a factory at Ponnani (1584)
96 1588–1597 The settlement of the Portuguese at Calicut (1591)
97 1597–1599 Battles with Marakkar (1598–1599)
98 1599–1604 Capture of Marakkar's stronghold (1600)
99 1604–1617 Siege of Cannanore (1604–1617) and treaties with the Dutch (1604 and 1608) and the English (1615)
100 Mana Vikrama 1617–1627
101 1627–1630
102 1630–1637
103 Mana Vikrama (Saktan Tampuran) 1637–1648 The uncle of the author of the Krishnanatakam
104 Tiruvonam Tirunal 1648–1655
105 Mana Veda 1655–1658 The author of the Krishnanatakam
106 Asvati Tirunal 1658–1662 The expulsion of the Portuguese from Kodungallur (1662)
107 Puratam Tirunal 16621666 The expulsion of Portuguese from Kochi (1663)
108 1666–1668 Battles with the Dutch
109 1668–1671 The destruction of the Cheraman Sword
110 Uttrattati Tirunal 1671–1684 Cession of Chetwai to the Dutch
111 Bharani Tirunal Mana Vikrama[126] 1684–1705 The terror of the Dutch. Two Mamankams (1694 and 1695)
112 Nileswaram Tirunal 1705–1711 Adoptions from Nileswaram (1706 and 1707)
113 1711–1729 The Dutch War (1715–1718)
114 Mana Vikrama 1729–1741

Note: Italic names only indicate the asterism under which the Zamorin is born

Second Dynasty[edit]

It seems that the original ruling family came to an end with the 114th Zamorin of Calicut. The 115th Zamorin, the first of the second ruling family, was the oldest of the princes adopted from Nileshwaram in 1706.[125]

No. of Zamorin Name Reign Important events
115 Zamorin from Kilakke Kovilakam 1741–1746
116 Putiya Kovilakam 1746–1758 The Dutch War (1753–1758)
117 Kilakke Kovilakam 1758–1766 Battles with Travancore and the invasion of Mysore, committed suicide. Annexed by Mysore.
118 Putiya Kovilakam 1766–1788
119 Kerala Varma Vikrama[126] (Putiya Kovilakam) 1788–1798 Treaty of Seringapatam (1792)
120 Krishna Varma[126] (Putiya Kovilakam) 1798–1806 Agreement of 1806 with EIC (died in 1816)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1130–1184)[edit]

  • Bijjala II (1130–1167), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukyas in 1162
  • Sovideva (1168–1176)
  • Mallugi → overthrown by his brother Sankama
  • Sankama (1176–1180)
  • Ahavamalla (1180–83)
  • Singhana (1183–84)

Bhati kingdom of Jaisalmer (c. 1153–1947 CE)[edit]

Rawals[edit]

(1153–1168), founder of kingdom

  • Rawal Shalivahan Singh II (1168–1200)
  • Rawal Baijal Singh (1200–1200)
  • Rawal Kailan Singh (1200–1219)
  • Rawal Chachak Deo Singh (1219–1241)
  • Rawal Karan Singh I (1241–1271)
  • Rawal Lakhan Sen (1271–1275)
  • Rawal Punpal Singh (1275–1276)
  • Rawal Jaitsi Singh I (1276–1294)
  • Rawal Mulraj Singh I (1294–1295)
  • Rawal Durjan Sal (Duda) (1295–1306)
  • Rawal Gharsi Singh (1306–1335)
  • Rawal Kehar Singh II (1335–1402)
  • Rawal Lachhman Singh (1402–1436)
  • Rawal Bersi Singh (1436–1448)
  • Rawal Chachak Deo Singh II (1448–1457)
  • Rawal Devidas Singh (1457–1497)
  • Rawal Jaitsi Singh II (1497–1530)
  • Rawal Karan Singh II (1530–1530)
  • Rawal Lunkaran Singh (1530–1551)
  • Rawal Maldev Singh (1551–1562)
  • Rawal Harraj Singh (1562–1578)
  • Rawal Bhim Singh (1578–1624)
  • Rawal Kalyan Singh (1624–1634)
  • Rawal Manohar Das Singh (1634–1648)
  • Rawal Ram-Chandra Singh (1648–1651)
  • Rawal Sabal Singh (1651–1661)

Maharawals[edit]

  • Maharawal Amar Singh of Jaisalmer (1661–1702)
  • Maharawal Jaswant Singh of Jaisalmer (1702–1708)
  • Maharawal Budh Singh (1708–1722)
  • Maharawal Akhi Singh (1722–1762)
  • Maharawal Mulraj II (1762–1820)
  • Maharawal Gaj Singh (1820–1846)
  • Maharawal Ranjit Singh of Jaisalmer (1846–1864)
  • Maharawal Bairi Sal (1864–1891)
  • Maharawal Shalivahan Singh III (1891 –1914)
  • Maharawal Jawahir Singh (1914–1947)

Titular Kings[edit]

  • Girdhar Singh (1949–1950)
  • Raghunath Singh (1950–1982)
  • Brijraj Singh (1982–2020)
  • Chaitanya Raj Singh (2020–Till Present)[127][128]

Chero dynasty (1174–1813)[edit]

  • Ghughulia
  • Raja Ramchandar Rai
  • Raja Sita Ram Rai
  • Raja Salabahim
  • Raja Phulchand
  • Raja Maharata Rai
  • Raja Kumkum Chand Rai
  • Raja Sambhal Rai
  • Raja Bhagwant Rai (1585–1605)
  • Raja Anant Rai (1605–1612)
  • Raja Shambhal Rai (1612–1627)
  • Raja Bhupal Rai (1637–1657)
  • Maharaja Medini Rai (1658–1674)
  • Raja Pratap Rai
  • Raja Rudra Rai (1674–1680)
  • Raja Dikpal Rai (1680–1697)
  • Raja Saheb Rai (1697–1716)
  • Raja Ranjit Rai (1716–1722)
  • Raja Devi Batesh Rai
  • Raja Jai Kishan Rai (1722–1770)
  • Raja Chitrajeet Rai (1771–1771)
  • Raja Gopal Rai (1771–1776)
  • Raja Gajraj Rai (1777–1780)
  • Raja Basant Rai (1780–1783)
  • Raja Churaman Rai (1783–1813)

[129][29][130]

Chutia Kingdom of Assam (1187–1524)[edit]

  • Birpal (1187–1224)
  • Ratnadhwajpal (1224–1250)
  • Vijayadhwajpal (1250–1278)
  • Vikramadhwajpal (1278–1302)
  • Gauradhwajpal (1302–1322)
  • Sankhadhwajpal (1322–1343)
  • Mayuradhwajpal (1343–1361)
  • Jayadhwajpal (1361–1383)
  • Karmadhwajpal (1383–1401)
  • Satyanarayan (1401–1421)
  • Laksminarayan (1421–1439)
  • Dharmanarayan (1439–1458)
  • Pratyashnarayan (1458–1480)
  • Purnadhabnarayan (1480–1502)
  • Dharmadhajpal (1502–1522)
  • Nitypal (1522–1524)

Bana dynasty ruled over Magadaimandalam (c. 1190–1260)[edit]

Kadava dynasty (c. 1216–1279)[edit]

  • Kopperunchinga I (c. 1216–1242)
  • Kopperunchinga II (c. 1243–1279)

Kingdom of Marwar (1226–1950)[edit]

Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur[edit]

Rulers from Pali & Mandore (1226–1438)[edit]

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Siha He conquered Pali and became the first rao of the Rathore dynasty in Marwar. He died in the battle of Lakha Jhawar (1273) against Sultan Ghaus ud-din Balban. 1226 1273
2 Rao Asthan Conquered Kher from the Gohils and Idar from the Bhils. He died in battle against Jalaludin Khilji. 1273 1292
3 Rao Doohad He conquered more than 140 villages. He was killed in battle against the Parihars. 1292 1309
4 Rao Raipal He avenged his father by killing the ruler of the Parihars. During a famine in Marwar he distributed his own personal grains to the people. 1309 1313
5 Rao Kanhapal He suffered raids from the Turko-Afgan tribes and was killed in action defending his lands. 1313 1323
6 Rao Jalansi He defeated the Sodhas. He took the turban of the Sodha chief to mark his supremacy in the region. 1323 1328
7 Rao Chado 1328 1344
8 Rao Tida He was killed in battle against the sultan of Delhi. 1344 1357
9 Rao Kanha Dev 1357 1374
10 Rao Viram Dev He died in battle against the Johiyas. 1374 1383
11 Rao Chandra He conquered Mandore from the Turks in 1406. He further conquered the areas of Nagaur, Sambhar, Khatu, Nadol and Ajmer. He was killed in battle against Salim Shah of Multhan. 1383 1424
12 Rao Kanha Fought battles with his brothers. Died young in Mandore. 1424 1427
13 Rao Ranmal He consolidated his rule with the help of the Sisodiyas of Mewar. He was later assassinated on the orders of Rana Kumbha. 1427 1438

Rulers from Jodhpur (1459–1950)[edit]

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Jodha Fought Rana Kumbha and reclaimed his lands. He later founded the city of Jodhpur and made it his capital. He subjugated the states of Jalore and Bundi and annexed Ajmer, Sambhar and Mohilavati. 12 May 1438 6 April 1489
2 Rao Satal Died from wounds after saving 140 women from Afghan raiders. 6 April 1489 March 1492
3 Rao Suja March 1492 2 October 1515
4 Rao Biram Singh Son of Bagha 2 October 1515 8 November 1515
5 Rao Ganga Assisted Rana Sanga in his campaigns against the Sultans of India. 8 November 1515 9 May 1532
6 Rao Maldeo Successfully repelled the invasions of Sher Shah Suri. Called as one of the most potent rulers of Hindustan by Ferishta. 9 May 1532 7 November 1562
7 Rao Chandra Sen He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire. 7 November 1562 1581
8 Raja Udai Singh Mota Raja He was the father in law of Jahangir and got married his daughter Mani Bai married to him, later on who became parents of Shah Jahan[131] 4 August 1583 11 July 1595
9 Sawai Raja Suraj-Mal 11 July 1595 7 September 1619
10 Maharaja Gaj Singh I The first to take the title Maharaja by himself 7 September 1619 6 May 1638
11 Maharaja Jaswant Singh He fought Aurangzeb in the Battle of Dharmatpur. 6 May 1638 28 November 1678?
12 Maharaja Ajit Singh Became Maharaja of Marwar after 25 years of war with Aurangzeb. Durgadas Rathore played a key role in the war. 19 February 1679 24 June 1724
13 Raja Indra Singh Installed in opposition to Maharaja Ajit Singh by Emperor Aurangzeb but unpopular with people of Marwar 9 June 1679 4 August 1679
14 Maharaja Abhai Singh Defeated Sarbuland Khan and occupied all of Gujarat for a short time. 24 June 1724 18 June 1749
15 Maharaja Ram Singh First reign 18 June 1749 July 1751
16 Maharaja Bakht Singh He was the general of the Marwari forces against Sarbuland Khan and defeated him. In the Battle of Gangwana he defeated a combined army of Mughals and Kachwahas. July 1751 21 September 1752
17 Maharaja Vijay Singh First reign 21 September 1752 31 January 1753
18 Maharaja Ram Singh Second reign 31 January 1753 September 1772
19 Maharaja Vijay Singh Second reign – Was defeated by Mahadji Scindia and forced to surrender the fort and city of Ajmer. September 1772 17 July 1793
20 Maharaja Bhim Singh 17 July 1793 19 October 1803
21 Maharaja Man Singh Entered into treaty relations with the British on 6 January 1818. 19 October 1803 4 September 1843
22 Maharaja Sir Takht Singh Not in the direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh. Formerly Regent of Ahmednagar. 4 September 1843 13 February 1873
23 Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II Kaisar-i-Hind 13 February 1873 11 October 1895
24 Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 11 October 1895 20 March 1911
25 Maharaja Sir Sumair Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 20 March 1911 3 October 1918
26 Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh Lieutenant-General in the British Indian Army 3 October 1918 9 June 1947
27 Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh Ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur) until accession to the Union of India in 1949; died on 26 January 1952 9 June 1947 7 April 1949
28 (titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh II of Jodhpur Became head of the House on 26 January 1952 26 January 1952 Present

[132]

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)[edit]

Mamluk dynasty of Delhi (1206–1290)[edit]

Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)[edit]

Tughlaq dynasty (1321–1414)[edit]

After the invasion of Timur in 1398, the governor of Multan, Khizr Khan abolished the Tughluq dynasty in 1414.

Jaunpur Sultanate (1394–1479)[edit]

  • Malik Sarwar 1394–1399 C.E.
  • Mubarak Shah Malik Qaranfal 1399–1402
  • Shams-ud-Din Ibrahim Shah Ibrahim Khan 1402–1440
  • Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Mahmud Khan 1440–1457
  • Muhammad Shah Bhi Khan 1457–1458
  • Hussain Shah Hussain Khan 1458–1479

Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451)[edit]

Lodi dynasty (1451–1526)[edit]

Vaghela dynasty (c. 1244–1304 CE)[edit]

The sovereign Vaghela rulers include:

  • Visala-deva (1244–1262), founder of the dynasty
  • Arjuna-deva (1262–1275), son of Pratapamalla
  • Rama (1275), son of Arjunadeva
  • Saranga-deva (1275–1296), son of Arjunadeva
  • Karna-deva (1296–1304), son of Rama; also called Karna II to distinguish him from Karna Chaulukya.

Jaffna Kingdom (Aryacakravarti dynasty) (c. 1277–1619 CE)[edit]

Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527)[edit]

  • Ala-ud-Din Bahman Mohamed bin Laden Shah (1347–1358)
  • Muhammad Shah I (1358–1375)
  • Ala ud din Mujahid Shah (1375–1378)
  • Daud Shah I (1378)
  • Muhammad Shah II (1378–1397)
  • Ghiyas ud din Tahmatan Shah (1397)
  • Shams ud din Daud Shah II (1397)
  • Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah (1397–1422)
  • Ahmad Shah I Wali (1422–1435), established his capital at Bidar
  • Ala ud din Ahmad Shah II (1436–1458)
  • Ala ud din Humayun Shah (1458–1461)
  • Nizam-Ud-Din Ahmad III (1461–1463)
  • Muhammad Shah III Lashkari (1463–1482)
  • Mahmood Shah Bahmani II(1482–1518)
  • Ahmad Shah IV (1518–1521)
  • Ala ud din Shah (1521–1522)
  • Waliullah Shah (1522–1524)
  • Kalimullah Shah (1524–1527)

Malwa Sultanate (1392–1562)[edit]

Ghoris (1390–1436)[edit]

  • Dilavar Khan Husain (1390–1405)
  • Alp Khan Hushang (1405–1435)
  • Ghazni Khan Muhammad (1435–1436)
  • Masud Khan (1436)

Khaljis (1436–1535)[edit]

Under Gujarat (1530–1534)[edit]

  • Amit parsagandites (1534–1535)

Tomara dynasty of Gwalior (1375–1523)[edit]

The Tomara rulers of Gwalior include the following.[134][135]

Name in dynasty's inscriptions (IAST) Reign Names in Muslim chronicles and vernacular literature
Vīrasiṃha-deva c. 1375-1400 (c. 1394-1400 in Gwalior) Virsingh Dev, Bir Singh Tomar, Bar Singh (in Yahya's writings), Har Singh (in Badauni's writings), Nar Singh (in Firishta's and Nizamuddin's writings).[136]
Uddharaṇa-deva c. 1400–1402 Uddharan Dev, Usaran or Adharan (in Khadagrai's writings)[137]
Virāma-deva c. 1402–1423 Viram Dev, Biram Deo (in Yahya's writings), Baram Deo (in Firishta's writings)
Gaṇapati-deva 1423–1425 Ganpati Dev
Dungarendra-deva alias Dungara-siṃha 1425–1459 Dungar Singh, Dungar Sen
Kirtisiṃha-deva 1459–1480 Kirti Singh Tomar
Kalyāṇamalla 1480–1486 Kalyanmal, Kalyan Singh
Māna-siṃha 1486–1516 Mana Sahi, Man Singh
Vikramāditya 1516–1523 Vikram Sahi, Vikramjit

Shahi dynasties (1490–1686)[edit]

Barid Shahi dynasty (1490–1619)[edit]

Imad Shahi dynasty (1490–1572)[edit]

Adil Shahi dynasty (1490–1686)[edit]

Nizam Shahi dynasty (1490–1636)[edit]

Qadirid (1535–1555)[edit]

Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518–1686)[edit]

Ahom dynasty of Assam (1228–1826)[edit]

Manikya dynasty (c. 1400–1949)[edit]

Baro-Bhuyan (1576–1632)[edit]

Nayaka Kingdoms (c. 1325–1815 CE)[edit]

Musunuri Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1325–1368 CE)[edit]

There were two Musunuri Nayak:

Recherla Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1368–1435 CE)[edit]

Known rulers are:

  • Anapota Nayaka

Gandikota Kingdom (Pemmasani Nayaks) (c. 1441–1685 CE)[edit]

This is the list of Pemmasani Kings:

  • Pemmasani Kumara Veera Timma Nayaka (1441–1462)
  • Pemmasani Chenna vibhudu (1462–1505)
  • Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayaka (1505–1540)
  • Pemmasani Bangaru Timma Nayaka (1540–1565)
  • Pemmasani Narasimha Nayaka (1565–1598)
  • Pemmasani Timma Nayaka (1598–1623)
  • Pemmasani Chinna Timma Nayaka (1623–1652)
  • Pemmasani Veera Kumara Timma Nayaka (1652–1685)

Keladi Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1499–1763 CE)[edit]

  • Chauda Gowda, (1499–1530)
  • Sadashiva Nayaka (1530–1566)
  • Sankanna Nayaka (1566–1570)
  • Chikka Sankanna Nayaka (1570–1580)
  • Rama Raja Nayaka (1580–1586)
  • Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka (1586–1629)
  • Virabhadra Nayaka (1629–1645)
  • Shivappa Nayaka (1645–1660)
  • Chikka Venkatappa Nayaka (1660–1662)
  • Bhadrappa Nayaka (1662–1664)
  • Somashekara Nayaka I (1664–1672)
  • Keladi Chennamma (1672–1697)
  • Basavappa Nayaka (1697–1714)
  • Somashekara Nayaka II (1714–1739)
  • Kiriya Basavappa Nayaka (1739–1754)
  • Chenna Basappa Nayaka (1754–1757)
  • Queen Virammaji (1757–1763)

Gingee (Senji) Nayak Kingdom (c. 1509–1649 CE)[edit]

Some of the Nayakas in the Gingee line were:

  • Krishnappa Nayaka (1509–1521)
  • Chennappa Nayaka
  • Gangama Nayaka
  • Venkata Krishnappa Nayaka
  • Venkata Rama Bhupaala Nayaka
  • Thriyambamka Krishnappa Nayaka
  • Varadappa Nayaka
  • Ramalinga Nayani vaaru
  • Venkata Perumal Naidu
  • Periya Ramabhadra Naidu
  • Ramakrishnappa Naidu (- 1649)

Srinivasachari takes chronicles mentioned in copper plate grants into account and mentions the following Nayakas in the Gingee line, noting governorship of Gingee began in Saka era 1386 / CE 1464:

  • 1490 – Vaiyappa Nayak
  • 1490–1520 – Tubaki Krishnappa Nayaka (originally Bala / Vala Krishnappa who became Tubbaki / Dubakki / Dubala Krishnappa in local legends).
  • 1520–1540 – Achyuta Vijaya Ramachandra Nayak
  • 1540–1550 – Muthialu Nayak
  • 1570–1600 – Venkatappa Nayak
  • 1600–1620 – Varadappa Nayak
  • Appa Nayak – up to Muslim conquest.

Madurai Nayak Kingdom (c. 1529–1736 CE)[edit]

  • Viswanatha Nayak (1529–1563)
  • Kumara Krishnappa Nayak (1563–1573)
  • Joint Rulers Group I (1573–1595)
  • Joint Rulers Group II (1595–1602)
  • Muttu Krishnappa Nayak (1602–1609)
  • Muttu Virappa Nayak (1609–1623)
  • Tirumala Nayak (1623–1659)
  • Muthu Alakadri Nayak (1659–1662)
  • Chokkanatha Nayak (1662–1682)
  • Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayaka (1682–1689)
  • Rani Mangammal (1689–1704)
  • Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayak (1704–1731)
  • Queen Meenakshi (1731–1736)

Thanjavur Nayak kingdom (c. 1532–1673 CE)[edit]

  • Chevvappa Nayak a.k.a. Sevappa Nayak (1532–1580)
  • Achuthappa Nayak (1560–1614)
  • Raghunatha Nayak (1600–1634)
  • Vijaya Raghava Nayak (1634–1673)

Vellore Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1540–1601 CE)[edit]

The list of nayaks are unclear. Some of the Nayaks are:

  • Chinna Bommi Reddy
  • Thimma Reddy Nayak
  • Lingama Nayak

Chitradurga Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1588–1779 CE)[edit]

  • Timmanna Nayaka (1568–1589)
  • Obanna Nayaka I (1588–1602)
  • Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka I (1602–1652)
  • Madakari Nayaka II (1652–1674)
  • Obanna Nayaka II (1674–1675)
  • Shoora Kantha Nayaka (1675–1676)
  • Chikkanna Nayaka (1676–1686)
  • Madakari Nayaka III (1686–1688)
  • Donne Rangappa Nayaka (1688–1689)
  • Bharamanna Nayaka of Bilichodu (1689–1721)
  • Madakari Nayaka IV (1721–1748)
  • Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II (1748–1758),
  • Madakari Nayaka (1758–1779)

Kandy Nayak Kingdom (c. 1739–1815 CE)[edit]

  • Sri Vijaya Rajasinha (1739–1747)
  • Kirti Sri Rajasinha (1747–1782)
  • Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha (1782–1798)
  • Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1798–1815)[138][139]

Other Nayaka kingdoms[edit]

Reddy dynasty (1325–1548)[edit]

  • Prolaya Vema Reddy (1325–1335)
  • Anavota Reddy (1335–1364)
  • Anavema Reddy (1364–1386)
  • Kumaragiri Reddy (1386–1402)
  • Kataya Vema Reddy (1395–1414)
  • Allada Reddy (1414–1423)
  • Veerabhadra Reddy (1423–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)[edit]

Sangama dynasty (1336–1487)[edit]

Saluva dynasty (1490–1567)[edit]

  • Narasimha (1490–1503)
  • Narasa (Vira Narasimha) (1503–1509)
  • Achyuta (1530–1542)
  • Sadasiva (1542–1567)

Tuluva dynasty (1491–1570)[edit]

Aravidu Dynasty (1542–1646)[edit]

  • Aliya Rama Raya (1542–1565), regent
  • Tirumala Deva Raya (1570–1572)
  • Sriranga I (1572–1586)
  • Venkata II (1586–1614)
  • Sriranga II (1614)
  • Venkata III (1630–1642)
  • Sriranga III (1642–1646)

Gatti Mudalis (15th–17th century)[edit]

  • Vanagamudi Gatti
  • Immudi Gatti
  • Gatti Mudali

Kingdom of Mysore (1371–1950)[edit]

Wodeyar dynasty (first rule, 1371–1761)[edit]

  • Yaduraya Wodeyar or Raja Vijaya Raj Wodeyar (1371–1423)
  • Hiriya Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar I (1423–1459)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar I (1459–1478)
  • Hiriya Chamaraja Wodeyar II (1478–1513)
  • Hiriya bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar III (1513–1553)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar II (1553–1572)
  • Bola Chamaraja Wodeyar IV (1572–1576)
  • Bettada Devaraja Wodeyar (1576–1578)
  • Raja Wodeyar I (1578–1617)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar V (1617–1637)
  • Raja Wodeyar II (1637–1638)
  • (Ranadhira) Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar I (1638–1659)
  • Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar (1659–1673)
  • Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704)
  • Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704–1714)
  • Dodda Krishnaraja Wodeyar I (1714–1732)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar VI (1732–1734)
  • (Immadi) Krishnaraja Wodeyar II (1734–1766), ruled under Hyder Ali from 1761
  • Nanajaraja Wodeyar (1766–1772), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar VII (1772–1776), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Khasa Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII (1776–1796), ruled under Hyder Ali until 1782, then under Tipu Sultan until his deposition in 1796

The reign of the Kings of Mysore (Wodeyar line) was interrupted from 1761 to 1799.

Hyder Ali's dynasty of Mysore (1761–1799)[edit]

Wodeyar dynasty (second rule, 1799–1950)[edit]

Gajapati Empire (1434–1541)[edit]

Rathore dynasty of Bikaner (1472–1950)[edit]

Name Reign Began Reign Ended
1 Rao Bika 1472 1504
2 Rao Narayan Singh 1504 1505
3 Rao Luna Karana Lon-Karan 1505 1526
4 Rao Jait Singh Jetasi 1526 1542
5 Rao Kalyan MalAcknowledged the suzerainty of Emperor Akbar at Nagaur in November 1570 1542 1574
6 Rao Rai Singh I Rai Rai SinghImportant General in the Mughal army Similar to Raja Man Singh I of Amber. 1574 1612
7 Rai Dalpat Singh Dalip 1612 1613
8 Rai Surat Singh Bhuratiya 1613 1631
9 Rao Karan Singh Jangalpat BadhshahDeposed by Emperor Aurangzeb for dereliction of duty at Attock, 11 January 1667. Exiled to his betel gardens at Karanpura, in the Deccan 1631 1667
10 Maharaja Rao Anup SinghTo be the first to be granted the title 'Maharaja' by Emperor Aurangzeb. Served in the Deccan campaign at Salher in 1672, Bijapur in 1675, and the siege of Golconda in 1687. He was administrator of Aurangabad 1677–1678, Hakim of Adoni, 1678, Imtiazgarh, Adoni 1689–1693, and of Nusratabad, Sukkar 1693–1698. 1669 1698
11 Maharaja Rao Sarup SinghHe died from smallpox, at Adoni, in the Deccan, 15 December 1700. 1698 1700
12 Maharaja Rao Sujan SinghOrdered to attend Emperor Aurangzeb in the Deccan, where he remained for ten years. Faced invasions from Maharaja Abhai Singh of Jodhpur and Maharaja Bakht Singh of Nagaur, but successfully repulsed both. 1700 1735
13 Maharaja Rao Zorawar Singh 1735 1746
14 Maharaja Rao Gaj Singh the first of his line granted permission to mint his own coinage by Emperor Alamgir II 1746 1787
15 Maharaja Rao Rai Singh II Raj Singh 1787 1787
16 Maharaja Rao Pratap SinghReigned under the Regency of his uncle Surat Singh who poisoned him to assume the throne 1787 1787
17 Maharaja Rao Surat SinghHe incurred huge debts due to his military adventures which had reduced his state to near anarchy. Entered the protection of the East India Company with a subsidiary alliance on 9 March 1818. 1787 1828
18 Narendra Maharaja Rao Ratan Singhreceived the hereditary title of Narendra Maharaja from Emperor Akbar Shah II and assisted the British by furnishing them with supplies during the First Afghan War of 1841. 1828 1851
19 Narendra Maharaja Rao Sardar SinghAssisted the British during the Indian Uprising of 1857 and served in person during many of the battles. Removed the name of the Mughal Emperor from his coinage, replacing the words with "Aurang Arya Hind wa Queen Victoria". 1851 1872
20 Narendra Maharaja Rao Dungar SinghAssisted the British during the Second Afghan War. 1872 1887
21 General Narendra Maharaja Sir Rao Ganga SinghMember of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Bikaner, 1952–1977. On 28 December 1971, India amended its Constitution to remove the position of the rulers of princely states and their right to receive privy-purse payments, thus making him the last ruler of Bikaner. Imperial Conferences and at the League of Nations. 1887 1943
22 Lieutenant-General Narendra Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul SinghSigned the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India on 7 August 1947. Merged his state into the present state of Rajasthan, India on 30 March 1949. 1943 1950
23 Rao Karni Singh 1950 1971

[142]

Kingdom of Cochin (c. 1503–1948 CE)[edit]

Veerakerala Varma, nephew of Cheraman Perumal Nayanar, is supposed to have been the first king of Cochin around the 7th century. But the records we have start in 1503.[citation needed]

  1. Unniraman Koyikal I (?–1503)
  2. Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537)
  3. Veera Kerala Varma (1537–1565)
  4. Keshava Rama Varma (1565–1601)
  5. Veera Kerala Varma (1601–1615)
  6. Ravi Varma I (1615–1624)
  7. Veera Kerala Varma (1624–1637)
  8. Godavarma (1637–1645)
  9. Veerarayira Varma (1645–1646)
  10. Veera Kerala Varma (1646–1650)
  11. Rama Varma I (1650–1656)
  12. Rani Gangadharalakshmi (1656–1658)
  13. Rama Varma II (1658–1662)
  14. Goda Varma (1662–1663)
  15. Veera Kerala Varma (1663–1687)
  16. Rama Varma III (1687–1693)
  17. Ravi Varma II (1693–1697)
  18. Rama Varma IV (1697–1701)
  19. Rama Varma V (1701–1721)
  20. Ravi Varma III (1721–1731)
  21. Rama Varma VI (1731–1746)
  22. Veera Kerala Varma I (1746–1749)
  23. Rama Varma VII (1749–1760)
  24. Veera Kerala Varma II (1760–1775)
  25. Rama Varma VIII (1775–1790)
  26. Shaktan Thampuran (Rama Varma IX) (1790–1805)
  27. Rama Varma X (1805–1809), Vellarapalli-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  28. Veera Kerala Varma III (1809–1828), Karkidaka Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month (Kollam Era))
  29. Rama Varma XI (1828–1837), Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  30. Rama Varma XII (1837–1844), Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  31. Rama Varma XIII (1844–1851), Thrishur-il Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  32. Veera Kerala Varma IV (1851–1853), Kashi-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  33. Ravi Varma IV (1853–1864), Makara Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  34. Rama Varma XIV (1864–1888), Mithuna Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  35. Kerala Varma V (1888–1895), Chingam Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  36. Rama Varma XV (1895–1914), a.k.a. Rajarshi, abdicated (d. in 1932)
  37. Rama Varma XVI (1915–1932), Madrasil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  38. Rama Varma XVII (1932–1941), Dhaarmika Chakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  39. Kerala Varma VI (1941–1943), Midukkan (syn: Smart, expert, great) Thampuran
  40. Ravi Varma V (1943–1946), Kunjappan Thampuran (Brother of Midukkan Thampuran)
  41. Kerala Varma VII (1946–1948), Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran
  42. Rama Varma XVIII (1948–1964), Pareekshit Thampuran

Koch kingdom (c. 1515–1949 CE)[edit]

Rulers of undivided Koch kingdom (c. 1515–1586)[edit]

Rulers of Koch Bihar (c. 1586–1949)[edit]

Rulers of Koch Hajo (c. 1581–1616 CE)[edit]

  • Raghudev (son of Chilarai, nephew of Nara Narayan)
  • Parikshit Narayan

Rulers of Darrang[edit]

Parikshit Narayana was attacked by the Mughals stationed at Dhaka in alliance with Lakshmi Narayan of Koch Bihar in 1612. His kingdom Koch Hajo, bounded by Sankosh River in the west and Barnadi river in the east, was occupied by the end of that year. Parikshit Narayan was sent to Delhi for an audience with the Mughal Emperor, but his brother Balinarayan escaped and took refuge in the Ahom kingdom. The region to the east of Barnadi and up to the Bharali river was under the control of some Baro-Bhuyan chieftains, but they were soon removed by the Mughals. In 1615 the Mughals, under Syed Hakim and Syed Aba Bakr, attacked the Ahoms but were repelled back to the Barnadi river. The Ahom king, Prataap Singha, then established Balinarayan as a vassal in the newly acquired region between Barnadi and Bharali rivers, and called it Darrang. Balinarayan's descendants continued to rule the region till it was annexed by the British in 1826.[144]

  • Balinarayan (brother of Parikshit Narayan)
  • Mahendra Narayan
  • Chandra Narayan
  • Surya Narayan

Rulers of Beltola[edit]

  • Gaj Narayan Dev (brother of Parikshit Narayan, ruler of Koch Hajo, brother of Balinarayan, first Koch ruler of Darrang).
  • Shivendra Narayan Dev (Son of Gaj Narayan)
  • Gandharva Narayan Dev (Son of Shivendra Narayan)
  • Uttam Narayan Dev (Son of Gandharva Narayan Dev)
  • Dhwaja Narayan Dev (Son of Uttam Narayan Dev)
  • Jay Narayan Dev (Son of Dhwaja Narayan Dev)
  • Lambodar Narayan Dev (Son of Jay Narayan Dev)
  • Lokpal Narayan Dev (Son of Lambodar Narayan Dev)
  • Amrit Narayan Dev (Son of Lokpal Narayan Dev)
  • Chandra Narayan Dev (Son of Lokpal Narayan Dev) (died 1910 CE)
  • Rajendra Narayan Dev (Son of Chandra Narayan Dev) (died 1937 CE)
  • Lakshmipriya Devi (wife of Rajendra Narayan Dev) (reign:1937–1947 CE died: 1991 CE)

Rulers of Bijni[edit]

The Bijni rulers reigned between the Sankosh and the Manas rivers, the region immediately to the east of Koch Bihar.

  • Chandra Narayan (son of Parikshit Narayan)
  • Joy Narayan
  • Shiv Narayan
  • Bijoy Narayan
  • Mukunda Narayan
  • Haridev Narayan
  • Balit Narayan
  • Indra Narayan
  • Amrit Narayan
  • Kumud Narayan
  • Jogendra Narayan
  • Bhairabendra Narayan

Rulers of Khaspur[edit]

The Barak valley was obtained by Chilarai in 1562[145] from the Twipra kingdom during his expedition when he subjugated most of the major rulers in Northeast India and established the Khaspur state with a garrison at Brahmapur, that eventually came to be called Khaspur (Brahmapur→Kochpur→Khaspur). The Koch rule began with the appointment of Kamal Narayan (step-brother of Chilarai and Naranarayan) as the Dewan a couple of years after the establishment of the garrison.[146] Kamalnarayan established eighteen clans of Koch families that took hereditary roles in the state of Khaspur and who came to be known as Dheyans (after Dewan).[147] The independent rule of the Khaspur rulers ended in 1745 when it merged with the Kachari kingdom.[145]

The rulers of the Koch kingdom at Khaspur were:[145]

  • Kamal Narayan (Gohain Kamal, son of Biswa Singha, governor of Khaspur)
  • Udita Narayan (declared independence of Khaspur in 1590)
  • Vijay Narayana
  • Dhir Narayana
  • Mahendra Narayana
  • Ranjit
  • Nara Singha
  • Bhim Singha (his only issue, daughter Kanchani, married a prince of Kachari kingdom, and Khaspur merged with the Kachari kingdom)

Mughal Empire (1526–1857)[edit]

Suri dynasty (1540–1555)[edit]

Chogyal rulers of Sikkim (1642–1975)[edit]

  • Phuntsog Namgyal (1642–1670): Ascended the throne and was consecrated as the first Chogyal of Sikkim. Made the capital in Yuksom.
  • Tensung Namgyal (1670–1700): Shifted capital to Rabdentse from Yuksom.
  • Chakdor Namgyal (1700–1717): His half-sister Pendiongmu tried to dethrone Chakdor, who fled to Lhasa, but was reinstated as king with the help of Tibetans.
  • Gyurmed Namgyal (1717–1733): Sikkim was attacked by Nepalis.
  • Phuntsog Namgyal II (1733–1780): Nepalis raided Rabdentse, the then capital of Sikkim.
  • Tenzing Namgyal (1780–1793): Chogyal fled to Tibet, and later died there in exile.
  • Tsugphud Namgyal (1793–1863): The longest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim. Shifted the capital from Rabdentse to Tumlong. Treaty of Titalia in 1817 between Sikkim and British India was signed in which territories lost to Nepal were appropriated to Sikkim. Darjeeling was gifted to British India in 1835. Two Britons, Dr. Arthur Campbell and Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker were captured by the Sikkimese in 1849. Hostilities between British India and Sikkim continued and led to a treaty signed, in which Darjeeling was ceded to the British Raj.
  • Sidkeong Namgyal (1863–1874)
  • Thutob Namgyal (1874–1914): John Claude White appointed as the first political officer in Sikkim in 1889. Capital shifted from Tumlong to Gangtok in 1894.
  • Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal (1914): The shortest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim, ruled from 10 February to 5 December 1914. Died of heart failure, aged 35, in most suspicious circumstances.
  • Tashi Namgyal (1914–1963): Treaty between India and Sikkim was signed in 1950, giving India suzerainty over Sikkim.
  • Palden Thondup Namgyal (1963–1975): The last Chogyal of Sikkim.

Maratha Empire (1674–1950)[edit]

Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj era[edit]

  • Shivaji (born on 19 February 1630, crowned on 6 June 1674; and died on 3 April 1680)
  • Sambhaji (1680–1689), elder son of Shivaji
  • Rajaram Chhatrapati (1689–1700), younger son of Shivaji
  • Tarabai, regent (1700–1707), widow of Chhatrapati Rajaram
  • Shivaji II (b. 1696, ruled 1700–14); first of the Kolhapur Chhatrapatis

The Empire was divided between two branches of the family c. 1707–10; and the division was formalized in 1731.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Kolhapur (1700–1947)[edit]

  • Shivaji II (b. 1696, ruled 1700–14)
  • Sambhaji II of Kolhapur (b. 1698, r. 1714–60)
  • Rajmata Jijibai of Kolhapur|Rajmata Jijibai, regent (1760–73), senior widow of Sambhaji II
  • Rajmata Durgabai of Kolhapur|Rajmata Durgabai, regent (1773–79), junior widow of Sambhaji II
  • Shahu Shivaji II of Kolhapur (r. 1762–1813); adopted by Jijibai, his predecessor's senior widow
  • Sambhaji III of Kolhapur (b. 1801, r. 1813–21)
  • Shivaji III of Kolhapur (b. 1816, r. 1821–22) (council of regency)
  • Shahaji I of Kolhapur (b. 1802, r. 1822–38)
  • Shivaji IV of Kolhapur (b. 1830, r. 1838–66)
  • Rajaram I of Kolhapur (r. 1866–70)
  • Council of regency (1870–94)
  • Shivaji V of Kolhapur (b. 1863, r. 1871–83); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Rajarshi Shahu IV of Kolhapur (b. 1874, r. 1884–1922); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Rajaram II of Kolhapur (b. 1897 r. 1922–40)
  • Indumati Tarabai of Kolhapur, regent (1940–47), widow of Rajaram II
  • Shivaji VI of Kolhapur (b. 1941, r. 1941–46); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Shahaji II of Kolhapur (b. 1910, r. 1947, d. 1983); formerly Maharaja of Dewas Senior; adopted by Indumati Tarabai, widow of Rajaram II

The state acceded unto the Dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Satara (1707–1839)[edit]

  • Shahu I (1708–1749). Son of Sambhaji I.
  • Ramaraja (1749–1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.
  • Shahu II of Satara (1777–1808). Son of Ramaraja.
  • Pratapsinh (1808–1839)
  • Shahaji III (1839–1848)
  • Pratapsinh I (adopted)
  • Rajaram III
  • Pratapsinh II
  • Raja Shahu III (1918–1950)

The Peshwas (1713–1858)[edit]

Technically they were not monarchs, but hereditary prime ministers, though in fact they ruled instead of the Chhatrapati (Maratha emperor) after death of Chattrapati Shahu, and were hegemon of the Maratha confederation.

  • Balaji Vishwanath (1713–2 April 1720) (b. 1660, died 2 April 1720)
  • Peshwa Bajirao I (17 April 1720 – 28 April 1740) (b. 18 August 1700, died 28 April 1740)
  • Balaji Bajirao (4 July 1740 – 23 June 1761) (b. 8 December 1721, d. 23 June 1761)
  • Madhavrao Ballal (1761–18 November 1772) (b. 16 February 1745, d. 18 November 1772)
  • Narayanrao Bajirao (13 Dec 1772 – 30 August 1773) (b. 10 August 1755, d. 30 August 1773)
  • Raghunath Rao Bajirao (5 Dec 1773–1774) (b. 18 August 1734, d. 11 December 1783)
  • Sawai Madhavrao (1774–27 October 1795) (b. 18 April 1774, d. 27 October 1795)
  • Baji Rao II (6 Dec 1796 – 3 June 1818) (d. 28 January 1851)
  • Nana Sahib (1 July 1857 – 1858) (b. 19 May 1825, d. 24 September 1859)

Bhosale Maharajas of Thanjavur (1674–1855)[edit]

Descended from a brother of Shivaji; ruled independently and had no formal relationship with the Maratha Empire.

The state was annexed by the British in 1855.

Bhosale Maharajas of Nagpur (1799–1881)[edit]

Holkar rulers of Indore (1731–1948)[edit]

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India. The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.

Scindia of Gwalior (1731–1947)[edit]

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.

Gaekwad dynasty of Baroda (1721–1947)[edit]

The Muslim vassals of the Mughal/British Paramountcy (1707–1856)[edit]

Nawabs of Bengal (1707–1770)[edit]

Nawabs of Oudh (1719–1858)[edit]

Nizams of Hyderabad (1720–1948)[edit]

Kingdom of Travancore (1729–1949)[edit]

Sikh Empire (1801–1849)[edit]

The British Empire annexed the Punjab c. 1845–49; after the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars

Dogra dynasty of Jammu and Kashmir (1846–1952)[edit]

Ruler Reign Notes
Gulab Singh Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir.jpg 1846–1856 Founder of Dogra dynasty and the first Maharaja of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state under the British Raj, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the British to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Jammu and Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore.
Ranbir Singh Maharajah Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir.jpg 1856–1885 Ascended the throne in 1856 after Gulab Singh's abdication due to poor health. He allied with the British during the Sepoy Mutiny. Unlike European women and children, Indian mutineers were not allowed to take refuge in his state. He also sent his troops to help the British to besiege Delhi. He was subsequently rewarded for his behaviour during the mutiny. He went on to annex Gilgit which had previously witnessed a rebellion against the state. He also established a modern judicial system. Civil and criminal laws were compiled into the Ranbir Penal Code during his reign.
Pratap Singh Maharaja Partab Singh (1848 - 1925).jpg 1885–1925 Reigned for 40 years from 1885 to 1925, the longest of all the Dogra rulers. Out of the four Dogra rulers, Maharaja Pratap Singh's era was a period of enlightenment for his subjects, particularly for Kashmiris. He established local self governing bodies, democratic processes, educational systems, health care and hygiene and infrastructure development during his reign. A beginning was made in local self-government by establishing municipalities at Jammu, Srinagar, Sopore and Baramulla. By 1925, then Kashmir, particularly Srinagar had undergone significant social and cultural transformation.
Hari Singh Maharaja hari singh ji.jpg 1925–1952 Ascended the throne following the death of his uncle, Maharaja Pratap Singh in 1925. He made primary education compulsory in the state, introduced laws prohibiting child marriage, and opened places of worship to the low castes. He signed the Instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to the Union of India on 26 October 1947, through which the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir became a part of the Dominion of India. He remained the titular Maharaja of the state until 1952, when the monarchy was abolished by Government of India under Jawaharlal Nehru.
Karan Singh
(Prince Regent)
Dr-Karan-Singh-sept2009.jpg 1949–1952 Appointed as Prince Regent of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949, at age of eighteen and served till the monarchy's abolition in 1952. He was appointed 'Sadr-e-Riyasat' ('Head of State') in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964.

Emperors/Empresses of India (1857–1947)[edit]

Dominion of India (1947–1950)[edit]

Dominion of Pakistan (1947–1956)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The title "Emperor of India" did not disappear with Indian independence from Great Britain in 1947, but in 1947, as when India became the Dominion of India (1947–1950) after independence in 1947, George VI retained the title "Emperor of India" until 22 June 1948, and thereafter he remained monarch of India until it became the Republic of India in 1950.[149]

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