Alpina

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Alpina Burkard Bovensiepen GmbH & Co. KG
Private, GmbH & Co. KG
Industry Automotive
Founded 1965
Headquarters Buchloe, Germany
Key people
Burkard Bovensiepen
Products Automobiles
Website alpina-automobile.de

Alpina Burkard Bovensiepen GmbH & Co. KG is an automobile manufacturing company based in Buchloe, in the Ostallgäu district of Bavaria, Germany that develops and sells high-performance versions of BMW cars.

Alpina works closely with BMW and their processes are integrated into BMW's production lines, thus Alpina is recognized by the German Ministry of Transport as an automobile manufacturer, in contrast to other performance specialists which are aftermarket tuners. For instance, the Alpina B7 is produced at the same assembly line in Dingolfing, Germany, as BMW's own 7 Series. The B7's twin-turbo 4.4-litre V8 is assembled by hand at Alpina's facility in Buchloe, Germany, before being shipped to BMW for installation, and the assembled vehicle is then sent back to Alpina for finishing touches.[1][2]

The firm was founded in 1965 by Burkard Bovensiepen, a member of the Bovensiepen family of industrialists.

History[edit]

BMW Alpina 3.0 CSL (1974), driven by Helmut Koinigg

Alpina's story began in 1962 when Burkard Bovensiepen developed a Weber dual carburetor for the BMW 1500. This carburetor was well received by the automotive press, as well as BMW's own sales boss Paul G. Hahnemann. In 1964, BMW certified the quality of this Alpina product by awarding BMW vehicles fitted with the Alpina system the full factory guarantee.

Alpina Burkard Bovensiepen KG was established on 1 of January, 1965 in Kaufbeuren, Bavaria. The company had eight employees.

Although Alpina started by producing typewriters, the original Alpina ceased to exist at the end of the 1960s in their attempt to move into the textile industry. In 1965, Burkard established a BMW tuning business, following his success with investments in the stock market. He started the tuning business in an outbuilding of the original Alpina typewriter factory. The company worked on carburetors and revised cylinder heads. By 1970, with seventy employees, the original facility changed locations from Kaufbeuren to Buchloe.

In its first years, Alpina established its core competency tuning carburetors and crankshafts to extract more power from BMW engines, elements that eventually defined the company's logo, which came into being in 1967.

Between 1968 and 1977, Alpina cars did very well in competition. The highlight was in 1970, when the team's cars won the European Touring Car Championship, the German Hillclimb Championship, rally and track racing championships and the prestigious Spa 24 Hours.

Alpina officially withdrew from racing in 1988 because of capacity limitations and restrictions. Tied to this was the decision to begin production of a new set of BMW Alpina automobiles.[3]

Brand distinctions[edit]

Since 1983 Alpina has been recognized by the German Federal Ministry of Transport as an automobile manufacturer, thus Alpina-built cars are branded and registered as Alpina instead of BMW, although an Alpina can be bought and serviced at some BMW dealerships, and covered if there is a warranty issue.

Distinctive features of Alpina vehicles are 20-spoke alloy wheels, "Alpina Blue" patented metallic paint, in addition to expensive interior materials used to fabricate the exclusive interior appointments. A typical blue and green pattern is often used on interior parts such as stitchings on leather and different fabrics used in the upholstery. A thin, pinstriped style outside body decor set in gold or silver is also a hallmark of Alpina cars. A metal plate inside also proves the heritage and the serial number of the car.

Compared to cars from BMW's in-house performance subsidiary, BMW M, Alpina's vehicles have more emphasis on luxury, higher torque, and have automatic transmissions instead of manual or semi-automatic transmissions.[4] For instance, regarding the high performance variants of the BMW E60 5 Series, the B5 offers a different take on performance and how to accomplish it. Unlike BMW M's own M5 which has a naturally aspirated, high-revving 5.0L V10, the Alpina B5 uses a supercharged 4.4L V8 which produces similar horsepower and greater torque at lower rpm.

Current lineup[edit]

Grey estate
Alpina B5 BiTurbo Touring
Blue SUV
Alpina XD4
  • Alpina D3 Bi-Turbo saloon / Touring: based on the BMW F30/F31 3 Series - featuring a 3 L straight-six bi-turbo Diesel engine, delivering 350 PS (257 kW) 700 N⋅m (516 lb⋅ft)[5]
  • Alpina B3 S Bi-Turbo saloon / Touring: based on the BMW F30/F31 3 Series - featuring a 3 L straight-six bi-turbo engine, delivering 440 PS (324 kW) 660 N⋅m (487 lb⋅ft)[6]
  • Alpina XD3: based on the BMW G01 X3 - featuring a 3 L straight-six Diesel engine:
    • a quad-turbo version delivering 388 PS (285 kW) 770 N⋅m (568 lb⋅ft) (right-hand drive)
    • a bi-turbo version delivering 333 PS (245 kW) 700 N⋅m (516 lb⋅ft) (left-hand drive)
  • Alpina D4 Bi-Turbo Coupé / Cabrio: based on the BMW F32/F33 4 Series - featuring a 3 L straight-six bi-turbo Diesel engine, delivering 350 PS (257 kW) 700 N⋅m (516 lb⋅ft)[7]
  • Alpina B4 S Bi-Turbo Coupé / Cabrio: based on the BMW F32/F33 4 Series - featuring a 3 L straight-six bi-turbo engine, delivering 440 PS (324 kW) 660 N⋅m (487 lb⋅ft)[8]
  • Alpina XD4: based on the BMW G02 X4 - featuring a 3 L quad-turbo straight-six Diesel engine delivering 388 PS (285 kW) 770 N⋅m (568 lb⋅ft) (right-hand drive only)
  • Alpina D5 S saloon / Touring : based on the BMW G30/G31 5 Series - featuring a 3 L straight-six bi-turbo Diesel engine :
  • Alpina B5 saloon / Touring: based on the BMW G30/G31 5 Series - featuring a 4.4 L V8 bi-turbo engine. 608 PS (447 kW; 600 hp) / 800 N⋅m (590 lb⋅ft)[9]
  • Alpina B6 Bi-Turbo Coupé/Convertible/Gran Coupé: based on the BMW F06/F12/F13[10] 6 Series - featuring a 4.4 L V8 bi-turbo engine. 600 PS (441 kW; 592 hp) / 800 N⋅m (590 lb⋅ft)[11]
  • Alpina B7 Bi-Turbo: based on the BMW G12 7 Series - featuring a 4.4 L V8 bi-turbo engine. 608 PS (447 kW; 600 hp) / 800 N⋅m (590 lb⋅ft)[12][13]

Alpina B6 Gran Coupé[edit]

Alpina B6 Gran Coupé at the Tokyo Motor Show in 2015.

The high performance Alpina B6 Gran Coupé xDrive was launched in 2014. This model is conceived by Alpina and based on the 650i. This model is sold by BMW only in the United States and in Canada (but Alpina also independently offers it in other countries). The Alpina B6 Gran Coupé shares the 540 hp, 730 N.m 4.4-litre twin-turbo V8 of the Alpina B5 BiTurbo and B6 BiTurbo coupé which are not sold in North America. Specification includes a more luxurious interior, 20-inch Alpina light-alloy wheels, aerodynamic elements and exclusive Alpina trims and paints. The Alpina B6 can go from 0–100 km/h in only 3.9s and has a top speed of 318 km/h.[14]

Alpina B7[edit]

The Alpina B7 is one of the two Alpina cars offered in the USA, the other one being the Alpina B6.[15] The B7 is produced at the same assembly line in Dingolfing, Germany, along with BMW's own 7 Series.

BMW permitted Alpina to produce a high-performance version of its flagship 7 Series, however they did not want it to be a high-revving, BMW M version (which would have been known as a "BMW M7" under the current nomenclature). It has also been suggested that there was no market for an M7 that would have featured the BMW M's trademark high-rev engine and twin-clutch automated manual transmission, and most customers who desired a performance option in the 7 Series would have gone for the V12-engined BMW 760Li.[16]

Competitors include the Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG and Audi S8.[13]

F01/F02 B7[edit]

2013 Alpina B7, based on the F02 model BMW. Lightly facelifted for 2013.

The F01 B7 will be offered again for the 2011 model year in the USA, with approximately 500 vehicles (half of the annual production of the B7) with a choice of rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive and/or a standard or long wheelbase (the B7, B7 L (long wheelbase), B7 xDrive (all-wheel drive), and B7 L xDrive), otherwise all configurations have the same equipment.[17][18] Roughly 80 models will be sold in Canada, all of the xDrive variety due to that country's winter weather.[16]

The B7's twin-turbo 4.4-litre V8 is assembled by hand at Alpina's facility in Buchloe, Germany, before being shipped to BMW for installation, and the assembled vehicle is then sent back to Alpina for finishing touches.[1][2] It is based upon BMW's twin-turbo V8 but produces considerable more torque and horsepower, albeit with some turbo lag due to the larger turbos, yet more measured throttle mapping makes the B7 smoother than a stock BMW 750i.[19]

While BMW uses run-flat tires for its 7 Series, the B7 comes with non-reinforced tires with a tire repair kit for emergencies. By using conventional, softer-sidewalled tires, compared to the reinforced sidewalls of run-flats, Alpina engineers were able to stiffen the B7's suspension for better handling and still improve the ride quality over that of a stock BMW 750i.[16]

For the 2013 model year, the Alpina B7 received similar updates to the rest of the 7 Series lineup, including an 8-speed automatic transmission, while its engine adds Valvetronic and now produces 540 hp and 538 pound-feet of torque, which is good for a 0 to 100 km time of just 4.3 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h. Compared to BMW M's version of the 4.4L twin-turbo engine (such as found in the F10 BMW M5), Alpina's engine has 20 hp less but more maximum torque which is also available at a lower rpm.[16]

In a comparison of the 2013 BMW 7 series and the Alpina B7, Motor Trend stated the B7 handled better than the BMW 760iL, but not as well as the 750iL.[20]

Previous models[edit]

Petrol-engined[edit]

Alpina Previous Models (Petrol engines)[21][22]
Alpina model BMW donor model Alpina Engine Power Torque Production
A1/3 E21 320 A1/3 90 kW (122 PS; 121 bhp) @ 5800 170 N⋅m (130 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1975–1977
A2/3 E21 320 A2/3 112 kW (152 PS; 150 bhp) @ 6900 173 N⋅m (128 ft⋅lbf) @ 5500 1975–1977
A4/3 E21 320i A4/3 119 kW (162 PS; 160 bhp) @ 6700 180 N⋅m (130 ft⋅lbf) @ 5500 1976–1977
A4S/3 E21 320i A4S/3 125 kW (170 PS; 168 bhp) @ 6700 180 N⋅m (130 ft⋅lbf) @ 5500 1976–1977
C1 2,3 E21 323i C1 125 kW (170 PS; 168 bhp) @ 6000 210 N⋅m (150 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 1980–1983
B6 2,8 E21 323i B6 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) @ 6200 248 N⋅m (183 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 1978–1981
B6 2,8 E21 323i B6 160 kW (218 PS; 215 bhp) @ 6000 265 N⋅m (195 ft⋅lbf) @ 5000 1981–1983
C1 2,3 / 1 E30 323i C1/1 125 kW (170 PS; 168 bhp) @ 6000 225 N⋅m (166 ft⋅lbf) @ 5000 1983–1985
C2 2,5 E30 325i C2 136 kW (185 PS; 182 bhp) @ 5800 246 N⋅m (181 ft⋅lbf) @ 4800 1985-1986
C1 2,5 E30 325i C2/3 140 kW (190 PS; 188 bhp) @ 5800 235 N⋅m (173 ft⋅lbf) @ 5000 1986–1987
C2 2,7 E30 325i C2/1 154 kW (209 PS; 207 bhp) @ 5800 267 N⋅m (197 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 1986–1987
C2 2,7 E30 325i C2/2 149 kW (203 PS; 200 bhp) @ 6000 265 N⋅m (195 ft⋅lbf) @ 4800 1987-1987
B3 2,7 E30 325i C2/2 150 kW (204 PS; 201 bhp) @ 6000 265 N⋅m (195 ft⋅lbf) @ 4800 1987–1992
B6 2,8 / 1 E30 323i/325i B6/2 154 kW (209 PS; 207 bhp) @ 6100 270 N⋅m (200 ft⋅lbf) @ 5000 1984–1986
B6 3,5 E30 323i/325i B10/2 192 kW (261 PS; 257 bhp) @ 6000 346 N⋅m (255 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1985–1987
B6 3,5 E30 325i B10/3 187 kW (254 PS; 251 bhp) @ 5900 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1986–1987
B6 3,5 E30 325i B10/5 187 kW (254 PS; 251 bhp) @ 5900 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1987–1990
B6 3,5 S E30 M3 B10/5 187 kW (254 PS; 251 bhp) @ 5900 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1987–1990
B6 2,8 E36 325i E1 177 kW (241 PS; 237 bhp) @ 5900 293 N⋅m (216 ft⋅lbf) @ 4700 1992–1993
B3 3,0 E36 325i E3 184 kW (250 PS; 247 bhp) @ 5700 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4400 1993–1996
B3 3,2 E36 328i E4 195 kW (265 PS; 261 bhp) @ 5800 330 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4400 1996–1999
B8 4,6 E36 328i F2/1 245 kW (333 PS; 329 bhp) @ 5700 470 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) @ 3900 1995–1998
B3 3,3 E46 328i E4/4 206 kW (280 PS; 276 bhp) @ 6200 335 N⋅m (247 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 1999–2002
B3 3,3 ALLRAD E46 330ix E4/8 206 kW (280 PS; 276 bhp) @ 6200 335 N⋅m (247 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 2001–2005
B3 S E46 330i E5/1 224 kW (305 PS; 300 bhp) @ 6300 362 N⋅m (267 ft⋅lbf) @ 4800 2002–2006
B3 Bi-Turbo E90/E91/E92/E93 335i K2 265 kW (360 PS; 355 bhp) @ 5500 500 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) @ 3800 2007–2010
B3 Bi-Turbo Allrad E90/E91/E92 335xi K2 265 kW (360 PS; 355 bhp) @ 5500 500 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) @ 3800 2008–2010
B7 Turbo E12 528i B7 221 kW (300 PS; 296 bhp) @ 6000 462 N⋅m (341 ft⋅lbf) @ 3000 1978–1982
B7 S Turbo E12 528i B7S 243 kW (330 PS; 326 bhp) @ 5800 500 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) @ 3000 1981–1982
B9 3,5 E28 528i B9 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) @ 5700 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1981–1983
B9 3,5 / 1 E28 528i B9/1 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) @ 5700 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1983–1985
B7 Turbo / 1 E28 528i/535i B7/1 221 kW (300 PS; 296 bhp) @ 5800 501 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) @ 3000 1984–1987
B10 3,5 E28 535i B10 192 kW (261 PS; 257 bhp) @ 5800 346 N⋅m (255 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1985–1987
B7 Turbo / 1 E28 535i B7/3 235 kW (320 PS; 315 bhp) @ 5700 520 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) @ 2400 1986–1987
B10 3,5 / 1 E34 535i B11/3 187 kW (254 PS; 251 bhp) @ 6000 325 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1988–1992
B10 Bi-Turbo E34 535i B7/5 265 kW (360 PS; 355 bhp) @ 6000 520 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1989–1994
B10 3,0 ALLRAD E34 525ix E3/1 170 kW (231 PS; 228 bhp) @ 5800 312 N⋅m (230 ft⋅lbf) @ 4200 1993–1996
B10 4,0 E34 540i F1 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) @ 5800 410 N⋅m (300 ft⋅lbf) @ 4600 1993–1996
B10 4,6 E34 540i F2 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) @ 5700 480 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) @ 3900 1994–1996
B10 3,2 E39 528i E4/3 191 kW (260 PS; 256 bhp) @ 5900 330 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4300 1997–1998
B10 3,3 E39 528i E4/5 206 kW (280 PS; 276 bhp) @ 6200 335 N⋅m (247 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 1999–2003
B10 V8 E39 540i F3 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) @ 5700 470 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) @ 3900 1997–1998
B10 V8 E39 540i F4 255 kW (347 PS; 342 bhp) @ 5700 480 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) @ 3700 1998–2002
B10 V8 S E39 540i F5 276 kW (375 PS; 370 bhp) @ 5800 510 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) @ 3800 2002–2004
B5 E60/E61 545i H1 368 kW (500 PS; 493 bhp) @ 5500 700 N⋅m (520 ft⋅lbf) @ 4250 2005–2007
B5S E60/E61 550i H2 390 kW (530 PS; 523 bhp) @ 5500 725 N⋅m (535 ft⋅lbf) @ 4750 2007–2010
B7 Turbo Coupé E24 630CSi B7 221 kW (300 PS; 296 bhp) @ 6000 462 N⋅m (341 ft⋅lbf) @ 2500 1978–1982
B7 S Turbo Coupé E24 635CSi B7S 243 kW (330 PS; 326 bhp) @ 5800 500 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) @ 3000 1982-1982
B9 3,5 Coupé E24 635CSi B9 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) @ 5700 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1982-1982
B9 3,5 Coupé / 1 E24 635CSi B9/1 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) @ 5700 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1982–1985
B7 Turbo Coupé / 1 E24 635CSi B7/2 243 kW (330 PS; 326 bhp) @ 5700 512 N⋅m (378 ft⋅lbf) @ 2400 1984–1987
B10 3,5 Coupé E24 635CSi B10 192 kW (261 PS; 257 bhp) @ 6000 346 N⋅m (255 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1985–1987
B7 Turbo Coupé / 1 E24 635CSi B7/3 235 kW (320 PS; 315 bhp) @ 5700 520 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) @ 2400 1986–1988
B6 E63/E64 650i H1 368 kW (500 PS; 493 bhp) @ 5500 700 N⋅m (520 ft⋅lbf) @ 4250 2006–2008
B11 3,5 E32 735i B11 184 kW (250 PS; 247 bhp) @ 5700 330 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1987-1987
B11 3,5 E32 735i B11/1 176 kW (239 PS; 236 bhp) @ 5700 310 N⋅m (230 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 1987-1987
B11 3,5 E32 735i B11/3 187 kW (254 PS; 251 bhp) @ 6000 325 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1987–1993
B11 4,0 E32 740i F1 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) @ 5800 410 N⋅m (300 ft⋅lbf) @ 4600 1993–1994
B12 5,0 E32 750i D1 257 kW (349 PS; 345 bhp) @ 5300 470 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1988–1994
B12 5,7 E-KAT E38 750i D3 285 kW (387 PS; 382 bhp) @ 5200 560 N⋅m (410 ft⋅lbf) @ 4100 1995–1998
B12 6,0 E-KAT E38 750i D3/2 316 kW (430 PS; 424 bhp) @ 5400 600 N⋅m (440 ft⋅lbf) @ 4200 1999–2001
B7 E65/E66 745i H1 368 kW (500 PS; 493 bhp) @ 5500 700 N⋅m (520 ft⋅lbf) @ 4250 2003–2008
B12 5,0 Coupé E31 850i/850Ci D1/1 257 kW (349 PS; 345 bhp) @ 5300 470 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1990–1994
B12 5,7 Coupé E31 850CSi D2 306 kW (416 PS; 410 bhp) @ 5400 570 N⋅m (420 ft⋅lbf) @ 4000 1992–1996
Roadster Limited Edition Z1 C2/6 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) @ 6000 261 N⋅m (193 ft⋅lbf) @ 4900 1990–1991
Roadster V8 Limited Edition E52 Z8 F5 280 kW (381 PS; 375 bhp) @ 5800 520 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) @ 3800 2002–2003
Roadster S E85 Z4 E5/2 221 kW (300 PS; 296 bhp) @ 6300 362 N⋅m (267 ft⋅lbf) @ 4800 2003–2005

Diesel-engined[edit]

Alpina Previous Models (Diesel engines)
Alpina model BMW donor model Alpina Engine Power Torque Production
D10 BITURBO E39 530d G1 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) @ 4200 500 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) @ 3500 2000–2003
D3 E90/E91 320d M47 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) @ 4000 410 N⋅m (300 ft⋅lbf) @ 2000 2005–2008
D3 Bi-Turbo [23] E90/E91 3 series (engine from BMW 123d) N1 157 kW (213 PS; 211 bhp) @ RPM 450 N⋅m (330 ft⋅lbf) @ 2000-2500 2008-2013

Alpina XD3 Bi-Turbo: based on the BMW F25 X3 - featuring a 3 L straight-six bi-turbo Diesel engine, delivering 350 PS (257 kW) 700 N⋅m (516 lb⋅ft)[24]

3 Series based Alpinas[edit]

Alpina C1[edit]

Alpina C1

The Alpina C1 was based on the E21 323i and was among their most popular early models, providing superior performance over the unmodified car. The C1 2.3 made 125 kW / 170 hp and 225 Nm of torque. 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) is achieved in 7.8 seconds. Top speed was 213 km/h.[25] The extra power is due to special Mahle pistons, and a special exhaust and ignition system. It also received dry-sump lubrication and a short-ratio five-speed gearbox.[25] Only 35 C1 cars were built, making it one of the rarest Alpina models. As BMW released the 325i, Alpina responded with the C2 2.5, and later the 2.7 models, providing between 190-210 horsepower. The brakes and suspension were also upgraded.

The C1 2.5 and early C2 / 2.6* models used the M20B23 (2,3L) engine, but bore and stroke were increased to achieve a displacement of 2552 cm3. Alpina reworked the head which was ported and polished, installed harder valve springs and a hotter cam. The intake manifold was also reworked, and Alpina used a larger throttle body. Max power was 136 kW / 185 bhp, with 246 Nm of torque. Alpina claimed 0–100 km/h acceleration in 7.1 seconds. Top speed was 220 km/h. Only 74 cars were built.

Alpina C2[edit]

Alpina C2 2.7 Allrad, based on the all-wheel drive BMW 325ix

An interesting variant of the M20 engine was Alpina's C2. The first C2 combined the wider bore of the M20B25 with the slightly larger 76.8 mm (3.02 in) crankshaft of an M20B23, to create a torquier engine of 2552 cc. This version put out 185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) and 265 N⋅m (195 lb⋅ft), 74 units were built between 1985 and November 1986.[26][27] After the C2 2.7 appeared in the spring of 1986, the 2.5 was slightly upgraded and gained five horsepower. However, to indicate its "little brother" position in the lineup, the name was changed to C1 2.5. When the September 1987 facelift model of the E30 was introduced, the 2.5 litre C1 was discontinued, although a few cars were finished into 1988.

Alpina C2 2.7 Cabriolet

The larger yet 2.7 litre unit was introduced in February 1986 in uncatalyzed C2/1 form.[27] This engine, sharing the dimensions of the M20B27, develops 210 PS (154 kW) at 5800 rpm and shows what the engine was really capable of.[28] Originally installed in the E30-based Alpina C2 2.7, with available four-wheel drive, the catalyzed C2/2 appeared in the interim C2 2.7 Kat in March 1987. This was then renamed "B3 2.7" five months later, by which time the "C2" labelled cars were discontinued. The B3 2.7 continued to be available until June 1992, in all body variants and drivetrain configurations (excepting automatics) in which the E30 was offered.[27] Around 1988, 26 "B6"-labelled C2-engined E30s were built for export to Japan, where the B6 3.5 had a hard time passing emissions regulations.

Later C2 2.5 models (C2 /3 2.5) were based on the 325i. Alpina used the M20B25 engine with very few modifications compared to earlier models. Again the cylinder head was decked to increase compression ratio, and it was ported and polished. The ECU was also remapped. Max power is 140 Kw / 190 bhp, with 235 Nm of torque. 0–100 km/h was achieved in 7.2 seconds. Top speed is 220 km/h. Only 50 cars were built.

The C2 /1 2.7 used the 325e eta model engine block, crank and rods, but with custom flat head pistons provided by MAHLE. Originally Alpina modified the "200" casting number cylinder head specific to the 325e with bigger intake valves, larger air intake ports, and redesigned the valve chamber for better flow. A more aggressive camshaft was used, with higher lift and duration, and harder valve springs were installed. Compression ratio was increased to 10.2:1. The C2/1 2.7 made 210 bhp with 267 Nm of torque and was the fastest E30 available at the time (227 km/h top speed). 108 cars were built.

Later C2 /2 2.7 (and early 1987 B3 2.7) used the M20B25 block with ETA (325e) crank and rods. The intake manifold was also redesigned for better flow. The head was decked to improve compression ratio (10.1:1 for models with the 731 head, 9.6:1 for later "885" head models with catalytic converter) and matched with custom pistons - flat MAHLE pistons for engines equipped with the 731 head, and domed KS pistons for engines equipped with the 885 head. Larger throttle bodies were installed (the C2/2 version uses the same throttle body as the M20B25 325i). A total of 309 cars were built between 1986 and 1987. The C2/2 2.7 makes 204 bhp and 266 Nm of torque. Top speed is 224 km/h and 0-100 kp/h is achieved in 7.5 seconds.

The B3 2.7 is similar to late C2/2 2.7 cars. It uses the M20B25 block with M20B27 crank and custom rods. The 885 head is exclusively used for the B3 model. The head is decked ~ 1mm to improve CR to 9.6:1 and matched with custom domed KS or MAHLE pistons. Intake and cylinder head are ported and polished. Custom ECU mapping is used. Engine management is Bosch Motronic 1.3. The B3 2.7 is equipped with a catalytic converter to conform to emission standard of the time. Performance numbers are similar to the later C2/2 2.7 cars. 254 cars were built from 1987 to 1992.

Alpina B6 2.8

Alpina B6[edit]

Alpina B6 3.5

The Alpina B6 2.8 is based on the 323i, but uses the same B6/2 engine used in the B6 E21. The car makes 210 bhp and 270 Nm of torque. Top speed is 230 km/h. 0-100 is achieved in 7.2 seconds. 259 cars were made from 1983 to 1986.

The Alpina B6 3.5 is based on the 325i chassis, but uses the M30 "big six" 3430 cm3 engine, upgraded to 261 bhp (192 Kw) and a whopping 346 Nm of torque. 0–100 km/h is achieved in 6.4 seconds. The engine uses custom MAHLE pistons and rods. The cylinder head was ported and polished, and a hotter cam was used. Top speed is 250 km/h. Suspension and brakes were upgraded. Bigger ventilated disks and progressive springs were installed at the front. Only 210 cars were made from 1986 to 1990.

The Alpina B6 3.5 S uses the M3 chassis. The 3.5s like the 3.5 uses the B10/2 M30 "big six" which makes 261 bhp and 346 Nm of torque. Displacement is 3430 cm3. 0–100 km/h is achieved in 6.4 seconds. Top speed is 250 km/h. The gearbox used is the Getrag 260/6 sport, known as a Dog-leg gearbox. Only 62 cars were made from 1987 to 1990.

Alpina B3 GT3[edit]

To celebrate Alpina's victory in the 2011 ADAC GT Masters with an Alpina B6 GT3, Alpina decided to produce a limited run of the Alpina B3 S Bi-Turbo, called the Alpina B3 GT3.[29] Modifications on the exhaust system (especially developed in collaboration with Akrapovic) increased power to 300 kW (408 PS; 402 bhp). The brake system and suspension were upgraded and designed for intensive usage.

Alpina B6 3.5s, based on the E30 M3

But the most noticeable was the exterior: The B3 GT3 sports a carbon fibre rear wing, a special front splitter and 19" lightweight Alpina GT3 Classic wheels, painted in Himalaya Grey. The B3 GT3 was available in Black Sapphire metallic, Mineral White metallic, Alpina Blue metallic or with a full body vinyl wrap in the official GT3 design. The car could be ordered with an extra set of lightweight wheels (also 19" Alpina GT3 Classic, but equipped with Michelin Pilot Sport Cup+ tires) for use on the track.

Only 99 units were produced.

5 Series based Alpinas[edit]

E28 B9[edit]

Alpina B9, based on the BMW E28

The Alpina B9 was built in a small series from November 1981 to December 1985 on the basis of the BMW E28. About 500 copies were produced.[30]

Changes[edit]

The B9 is based on the 528i, whose M30-2.8-liter BMW engine was replaced by a 3.45-liter Alpina tuned motor. The motor is based on the 3.5-liter version of the M30, but has been extensively modified. Alpina replaced the cylinder head, pistons, camshaft and modified the Bosch Motronic ECU. The engine transmits its power to the rear wheels via a 5-speed gearbox, an automatic transmission was also available. The suspension of the E28 has been modified with Bilstein gas dampers, as standard the B9 was delivered with 16-inch wheels (see picture). Alpina also modified the interior with among other things, Recaro seats, a new shifter and a modified instrument cluster.[30]

Technical specifications[edit]

B9 3,5 B9 3,5 / 1
Production period 11/1981 – 08/1983 01/1983 – 12/1985
Motor type B9
Design Inline-six
Displacement 3453 cm3 3430 cm3
Power 180 kW (241 hp) @ 5700 RPM
Torque 320 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) @ 4500 RPM
Acceleration 0–100 km/h 6,7 s
Top speed 240 km/h (149 mph)
Source [31]

E28 B10[edit]

In 1985, Alpina launched the B10 3.5, based on the BMW 535i (E28).

The 3.5 liter six-cylinder engine from the B6 3.5 was fitted to replace the B9's 3.45 liter. The output was 192 kW (261 PS; 257 hp). Only 77 copies of the B10 3.5 were produced.

Technical specifications[edit]

Model B10 3,5 [32]
Platform BMW 535i E28
Production period 7/1985–12/1987
Displacement 3430 cm³
Engine architecture Inline-six
Power 192 kW (261 PS) @ 5700 RPM
Torque 346 Nm @ 4000 RPM
Transmission 5-speed manual transmission, or a 4-speed automatic transmission (optional)
Acceleration,
0–100 km/h
6,4 s
Top speed 250 km/h (automatic: 245 km/h)
Production 77[33]

E34 B10[edit]

Alpina B10

B10 3.5[edit]

The B10 3.5 was the first Alpina based on the BMW E34, With production beginning in April 1988 at launch it was the only available B10. The 3.5-liter BMW M30 inline-six cylinder engine of the BMW 535i was reworked with Mahle pistons, a modified cylinder-head, and a new camshaft increasing power from 155 kW (208 hp) to 187 kW (251 hp). In 1992 production was stopped after 572 cars were made.[34]

B10 4.0[edit]

In 1993 the BMW M30 ended production forcing Alpina to discontinue the B10 3.5 and B10 BiTurbo. In April 1993 Alpina launched their replacement, the first B10 with an eight-cylinder engine. The BMW M60 engine of the BMW 540i was modified with higher-compression Mahle pistons and a modified air intake. Power was increased from 210 kW (286 hp) to 232 kW (315 hp). 49 examples were built.[35]

B10 3.0 Allrad[edit]

The B10 3.0 Allrad was based on the all-wheel drive BMW 525ix, launched in October 1993. The displacement of the six-cylinder single-VANOS and four-valve engine was increased from 2.5 liters to 3.0 liters and the performance was increased from 141 kW (189 hp) to 170 kW (228 hp). 64 sedans and 70 tourings were produced.

B10 4.6[edit]

The B10 4.6 replaced the B10 biturbo from March 1994 onwards. The engine block of the BMW 540i was bored to reach a displacement of 4.6 liters. With 250 kW (340 hp), the power was just below the B10 Bi-Turbo. 27 vehicles were produced.

Technical specifications[edit]

Model B10 3.5 [36] B10 Biturbo [36] B10 3.0 Allrad / Touring [36] B10 4.0 / Touring [36] B10 4.6 / Touring [36]
Platform BMW 535i E34 BMW 525ix E34 BMW 540i E34
Production period 4/1988–12/1992 8/1989–3/1994 10/1993–5/1996 4/1993–8/1995 3/1994–4/1996
Displacement 3430 cm³ 2997 cm³ 3982 cm³ 4619 cm³
Engine architecture Inline six V8
Power 187 kW (251 hp) 265 kW (355 hp) 170 kW (228 hp) 232 kW (311 hp) 250 kW (335 hp)
Torque 325 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf) 520 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) 312 N⋅m (230 ft⋅lbf) 410 N⋅m (300 ft⋅lbf) 480 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf)
Acceleration,
0–100 km/h
6.4 s 5.6 s 7.9 / 8.4 s 6.5 / 6.7 s 6.1 / 6.2 s
Top speed 250 km/h over 290 km/h 235 / 230 km/h 268 / 263 km/h over 275 / 270 km/h

E34 B10 BiTurbo[edit]

Alpina B10 BiTurbo.

The B10 BiTurbo is a high performance version of the BMW 5 Series E34. Beginning production in 1989, the B10 BiTurbo was based on the 535i and received several upgrades by Alpina, being the fastest production saloon in the world at the time of its introduction, as tested by Road & Track.[37] Production ended in 1994 with 507 examples produced. The B10 Biturbo became the best-selling single model in Alpina history up until that point.

E39 B10[edit]

Alpina B10 V8

The B10 was built as a sedan and touring based on the BMW E39 from January 1997 to May 2004.[38]

In February 2000, Alpina introduced the Alpina D10 Biturbo, the first six-cylinder diesel model produced by Alpina. The engine, a 3.0 liter twin turbocharged unit with 180 kW (245 HP) and 500 N⋅m (370 lb⋅ft) of torque, was based on the engine of the BMW 530d.[38]

Engines[edit]

The third generation of the B10 was built with both six-cylinder and V8 engines.

The six-cylinder engines with 3.2 and 3.3 liters displacement were based on the 528i and the 530i.[38] For the 3.3 liter engine the engine block was bored to increase displacement to 3298 cubic centimeters. The cylinder head was machined and a modified crankshaft was added, different pistons and camshafts were also used. A modified intake system enabled a higher rate of air flow, as well as a stainless steel exhaust system (Alpina-Bosal) with metal catalytic converters. The engine control unit was also completely revised, which increased the power to 206 kW (276 hp; 280 PS).[39]

The two V8 engines with 4.6 (B10 V8) and 4.8 liters (B10 V8S) come from the BMW 540i. Again, a larger displacement was achieved by boring the engine block, which, together with other modifications, increased the power to 250 kW (340 hp), then to 255 kW (347 hp) for the 4.6 liter engine,[40] and 276 kWh (375 hp) through an increased stroke with the 4.8 liter engine.[41]

Suspension[edit]

The original suspension from the BMW E39 has been reworked for the B10. Changes include modified springs and tuned shock absorbers from Sachs that help lower the car.

Technical Data[edit]

Model Engine Power Torque Years
B10 3.2 BMW M52
6-cyl
191 kW (256 hp)
@ 5900 rpm
330 N⋅m (240 ft⋅lbf)
@ 4300 rpm
8/1997–12/1998
B10 3.3 BMW M52
6-cyl
206 kW (276 hp)
@ 6200 rpm
335 N⋅m (247 ft⋅lbf)
@ 4500 rpm
2/1999–10/2003
B10 V8 M62B46
8-cyl
250 kW (335 hp) 470 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) 1/1997–10/1998
B10 V8 M62B46
8-cyl
255 kW (342 hp) 480 N⋅m (350 ft⋅lbf) 10/1998–9/2002
B10 V8S M62B48
8-cyl
276 kW (370 hp) 510 N⋅m (380 ft⋅lbf) 1/2002–5/2004
D10 Biturbo M57D30
6-cyl
180 kW (241 hp) 500 N⋅m (370 ft⋅lbf) 4/2000–10/2003

E60 B5[edit]

The BMW E60 and the 4.4-liter BMW N62 engine from the 545i serve as the basis for the Alpina B5. Compared to the E60, the B5 has larger brakes, a new suspension with Electronic Damper Control, a stainless steel silencing system with polished double tailpipes and the typical Alpina changes to the interior and exterior.

The B5 was made from February 2005 to September 2007 and the B5 S was made from September 2007 to May 2010.

Drivetrain[edit]

The N62B44's output is increased by means of a centrifugal supercharger. The supercharger is made by the company ASA, and is also called "Turbessor" because it is able to combine the advantages of turbocharger and supercharger. At low speeds, it spontaneously responds as a conventional displacement compressor, but it can also immediately provide the thrust of a turbo. It also reaches speeds of more than 100,000 revolutions per minute. As compared to the 545i performance has increased from 245 kW (333 PS; 329 hp) to 368 kW (500 PS; 493 hp),[42] torque was increased from 450 N⋅m (330 ft⋅lbf) to 700 N⋅m (520 ft⋅lbf).[42] The power is transmitted to the rear wheels by means of a six-speed automatic transmission (6HP26). As usual with Alpina, this was refined and has "Switch-Tronic".[43]

Technical Data[edit]

Alpina B5 Sedan Touring
Displacement 4398 cm³
Compression ratio 9,0:1
Horsepower 368 kW (500 PS; 493 hp) @ 5500–6000/RPM
Torque 700 N⋅m (520 ft⋅lbf) @ 4250–4850/RPM
Transmission 6-Speed Automatic "Switch-Tronic“
Top speed 314 km/h (195 mph) 310 km/h (193 mph)
Acceleration 0–100 km/h (62 mph) 4,7 s 4,8 s
Empty weight 1720 kg 1810 kg

Note[edit]

In 2005, an Alpina B5 Touring was tested by Auto, Motor und Sport on the Nardò Ring. The B5 reached a top speed of 319 km/h (198 mph).[44]

Alpina B5 S[edit]

At the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show (IIA), Alpina presented the revised B5 S. [45]

Alpina B5 S

Engine[edit]

The motor's combustion process was optimized by changing the camshaft. This resulted in a significantly lower exhaust gas temperature, which is the basis for the performance increase. The power of the 4.4-liter V8 was thus increased by 22 kW (30 PS; 30 hp) to 390 kW (530 PS; 523 hp). The torque increased by 25 N⋅m (18 ft⋅lbf) to 725 N⋅m (535 ft⋅lbf). The B5 S takes the sprint to 100 km / h in 4.6s; The top speed increases to 317 km/h (197 mph).[42]

Transmission[edit]

One innovation is the ZF six-speed Sport-Switch-Tronic transmission. The switching time was reduced by 50% compared to the predecessor. The reaction time is 1/10 s. In manual mode, the driving feeling is similar to the shift dynamics of a dual clutch transmission.

Chassis[edit]

A further feature is the EDC suspension tuning with the company Sachs Race Engineering.

Technical Data[edit]

Alpina B5S Sedan Touring
Displacement 4398 cm³
Compression ratio 9,0:1
Horsepower 390 kW (530 PS; 523 hp) 5500/min
Torque 725 N⋅m (535 ft⋅lbf) 4750/min
Transmission 6-Speed Automatic "Switch-Tronic“
Top speed 317 km/h (197 mph) 313 km/h (194 mph)
Acceleration 0–100 km/h (62 mph) 4,6 s 4,7 s
Empty weight 1720 kg 1810 kg

F10 B5[edit]

Alpina produced two variants based on the BMW 5 Series (F10), the petrol-engined B5 and diesel-engined D5.

B5 Bi-Turbo[edit]

Alpina B5 Bi-Turbo Touring

The B5 is based on the 550i and is powered by an Alpina-modified version of the BMW N63 twin-turbo V8 engine. The original B5, which was unveiled at the 2010 Goodwood Festival of Speed, produced 373 kW (500 hp) and 700 N⋅m (520 lb⋅ft). The transmission is an 8-speed automatic.[46]

Alpina unveiled an updated B5 at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show. Power had been uprated to 397 kW (532 hp) and torque to 730 N⋅m (540 lb⋅ft).[47] During 2015, Alpina sold the B5 Bi-Turbo Edition 50, which marked the company's 50th year in operation. The Edition 50 uses an upgraded engine which produces 441 kW (591 bhp) and 800 N⋅m (590 lb⋅ft).[48] The standard B5 received this same engine for the B5's last year of production, 2016.[49][50][51]

D5 Bi-Turbo[edit]

The D5 Bi-Turbo is based on the 535d. It is powered by Alpina-modified version of the BMW N57 turbo straight-6 engine, which produces 257 kW (345 hp) and 700 N⋅m (520 lb⋅ft).[51]

7 Series based Alpinas[edit]

E38 B12[edit]

Alpina B12 6.0

Based on the BMW 750i and 750iL, Alpina released the B12 5.7 in 1995 and the B12 6.0 in 1999. In contrast to the cars they are based on, these models are not electronically limited to a top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph), but are able to reach top speeds of more than 280 km/h (174 mph) and 291 km/h (181 mph), respectively.[52] According to Alpina the B12 5.7 was the world's first vehicle with an electrically heated metal catalyst as standard.[53] The B12 5.7 has a 5.7 litre V12 and the B12 6.0 has a 6.0 litre V12.

Model Engine Power[52] Torque Years[54] Production[55]
B12 5.7 V12 285 kW (382 hp) 560 N⋅m (413 lb⋅ft) 12/1995–08/1998 202
B12 6.0 V12 316 kW (424 hp) 600 N⋅m (443 lb⋅ft) 07/1999–07/2001 94

E65 B7[edit]

Alpina B7 Biturbo based on the E65 platform

For the E65 7 Series generation, the Alpina B7 was widely credited with being able to hold its own against top performing offerings from Mercedes (including AMG) such as the S600 and S63 AMG, Audi (particularly quattro's Audi S8), the Bentley Flying Spur, and Jaguar XJ Supercharged, while BMW's own top-of-the-line V12 760Li was considered uncompetitive.[56]

The E65 B7 uses a supercharged version of the 4.4-litre V8 found in the BMW 745i as the 750i and its 4.8-litre engine were not around when development began.[56] The 760Li's naturally aspirated 6.0-litre V12 was deemed too heavy to have a sporty offshoot.[4][57][58] The 2011 Alpina B7, with its twin-turbo 4.4-litre V8 engine and 6-speed automatic transmission, is less expensive and yet faster than its F01 stablemate, the 2010 BMW 760Li powered by a twin-turbo 6.0-litre V12 mated to an 8-speed automatic transmission. The B7's engine, derived from the BMW N63 that is found in the standard BMW lineup, matches the BMW 750i in fuel economy despite increased performance, plus its lighter weight than the 760Li's V12 engine gives the B7 considerably better weight distribution and handling than the 760Li.[1][2]

BMW of North America, LLC offered 800 Alpina B7s as limited edition models for 2007 and 2008, all of which quickly sold out.[59]

8 Series based Alpinas[edit]

E31 B12[edit]

B12 5.0[edit]

Alpina B12 5.0

The B12 5.0 was built from 1990 to 1994 and is based on the BMW E31 850i. It is powered by an Alpina modified BMW M70 V12 (shared with the E32 B12 5.0) producing 257 kW (349 PS; 345 hp) and mated to an automatic transmission.

B12 5.7[edit]

Alpina B12 5.7

The B12 5.7 was available from 1992 and is based on the 850CSi. It is powered by an increased displacement version of the BMW S70 V12 with a modified intake, crankshaft. camshafts and a stainless steel exhaust system as well as a six speed manual gearbox with an optional system called Shift-Tronic that automatically actuates the clutch when shifting and allows the vehicle to creep in traffic,[60] 32 B12 5.7s were equipped with Shift-Tronic.[61] it produced 306 kW (416 PS; 410 hp). The carbon-fiber hood has cooling vents and a NACA duct.

Technical Data[edit]

Model Engine Power Torque Years Production
B12 5.0 V12 257 kW (349 PS; 345 hp) 470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft) 6/1990-5/1994 97
B12 5.7 V12 306 kW (416 PS; 410 hp) 570 N⋅m (420 lb⋅ft) 11/1992-11/1996 57

Alpina V8 Roadster[edit]

Alpina V8 Roadster with hardtop in place

With production of the BMW Z8 completed by November 2002, for 2003 the Z8 production was replaced by the Alpina V8 Roadster.[62] The Alpina was a departure from the hard-edged sporting focus of the original car, and elements of the new grand touring intent were evident throughout this final edition. Instead of the original six-speed manual and 4.9 L (S62) engine featured in Z8's, the Alpina came only as an automatic, using a five-speed BMW Steptronic transmission mated to a 4.8 L Alpina-tuned V8 motor from the Alpina E39 B10 V8 S (BMW M62B48). In order to complete the car's transition from sports car to Alpina, relaxed suspension tuning was used. The standard Z8's run-flat tires on 18 in (46 cm) wheels were discarded in favor of conventional tires with softer sidewalls, on 20 in (51 cm) wheels. A new, softer grade of Nappa leather replaced the Z8's less supple specification, and special Alpina gauges were featured on the dash cluster. An Alpina steering wheel with three solid spokes replaced the original, which could not be retrofitted with shift paddles for the automatic. Gear selection was displayed in an Alpina-specific display mounted in front of the wheel.

Performance of the Alpina V8 differed from that of the standard car in that peak power was reduced to 375 hp (280 kW) while peak torque was raised to 383 lb⋅ft (519 N⋅m); this torque was available at significantly lower rpm than the original in order to enable more relaxed cruising. Curiously, the electronically limited top speed was officially raised to 161 mph (259 km/h).[62]

Only 555 of these Alpinas were built, 450 of which were exported to the U.S. market and only eight to the UK.[63] In the United States, this special edition of the Z8 was sold directly through BMW dealerships, marking a first for Alpina, whose cars had never been sold through retail channels in the U.S.

Gallery[edit]

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