Timeline of motor vehicle brands

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This is a chronological index for the start year for motor vehicle brands (up to 1969). For manufacturers that went on to produce many models, it represents the start date of the whole brand; for the others, it usually represents the date of appearance of the main (perhaps only) model that was produced.

This also gives an idea of what motor vehicles were appearing on the streets in each country around each date (allowing, too, for imports from other countries). Moreover, by showing which models were contemporary, it gives a first indication of how individual designers were being influenced by each other, and a flavor of the entrepreneurial spirit and dynamics of the pioneering days of motor vehicle manufacture.[1][2]

Within each year, and country of origin, the lists are structured according to the type of vehicle first introduced. These include the following types: steam, electric, hybrid electric, internal-combustion, touring car, roadster, tonneau, phaeton, cyclecar, light car, voiturette, runabout, high wheeler, buggy, tricar, motor quadricycle, motor tricycle, motorcycle, coach, bus, fire-engine, truck, tractor, racing car, avant-train.

Veteran era[edit]

Amédée père designed the Mancelle, which is regarded as the first automobile to be put into series production - 1878

1860[edit]

Thomas Rickett's steam powered car was particularly notable in the history of motor vehicle production in as much that several examples were made, and it was also advertised.

UK. Steam: Rickett

1861[edit]

USA. Steam: Ware Steam Wagon

1873[edit]

The Bollée family played a significant part in the history of motor vehicle manufacture; the father with his steam car, and one of his sons, in 1895, with an internal-combustion engine design.

France. Steam bus: Amédée Bollée

1883[edit]

1885 Benz Tri-Car

France. Steam: De Dion-Bouton (later internal-combustion, with a patent in 1889)

1884[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Delamare-Deboutteville

1885[edit]

Karl Benz's vehicle was the first true automobile, entirely designed as such, rather than simply being a motorized stage coach or horse carriage. This is why he was granted his patent, and is regarded as its inventor. His wife and sons became the first true motorists, in 1889, when they took the car out for the specific task of paying a family visit.

Germany. Internal-combustion: Benz

UK. Internal-combustion: Butler

USA. Electric: Armstrong Electric

Panhard-Levassor (1890-1895). This model was the first automobile to circulate in Portugal

1886[edit]

Russia. Motorcycle: Alexander Leutner & Co.

1887[edit]

UK. Motorcycle: New Imperial

1889[edit]

The first Daimler car was a converted carriage, but with innovations that are still adopted today (cushioned engine mountings, fan cooling, finned-radiator water cooling).[3]

France. Steam: Peugeot (later internal-combustion, and the first to be entered in an organised race, albeit for bicycles, Paris–Brest–Paris)

Germany. Internal-combustion: Daimler (DMG)

UK. Internal-combustion: Santler

USA. Internal-combustion rotary engine: Adams-Farwell

1890[edit]

Panhard and Levassor's design of a front-mounted engine established the layout of the majority of cars since then.

France. Internal-combustion: Panhard-Levassor

1891[edit]

The 1891 Buckeye Gasoline Buggy

USA. Steam: Black; steam tractor: Avery; internal-combustion: Buckeye gasoline buggy

1893[edit]

France. Electric (and later internal-combustion): Jeantaud

UK. Steam: Straker-Squire (also known as Brazil Straker)

USA. Internal-combustion: Elmore, Duryea

1894[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Audibert & Lavirotte, Berliet, Delahaye

UK. Electric: Garrard & Blumfield

USA. Electric: Electrobat

Morris and Salom in the 1894 Electrobat

1895[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Léon Bollée, Corre, Rochet-Schneider

UK. Internal-combustion: Knight, Lanchester

USA. Electric: Morris & Salom

USA. Internal-combustion: De La Vergne

1896[edit]

In the UK, the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 replaced the hugely restrictive Locomotive Acts of 1861, 1865 and 1878 (the so-called Red Flag acts) thereby finally freeing up the automotive industry in the UK (and, incidentally, was also the origin of the celebrations of the first London to Brighton Veteran Car Run). Knight had been convicted under the old act, the previous year, for not having a man precede his vehicle with a red flag, and Walter Arnold was the first person to be convicted, in January 1896, for exceeding the speed limit. Meanwhile, Serpollet was issued with what was effectively the first driving licence.

1896 Yakovlev-Frese

France. Steam: Gardner-Serpollet; internal-combustion: Clément-Gladiator, Dalifol, Darracq, Lorraine-Dietrich, Triouleyre; voiturette: Dalifol & Thomas, Goujon, Léon Bollée; motorcycle: Clément and Gladiator

Italy. Internal-combustion: Enrico Bernardi

Russia. Internal-combustion: Yakovlev-Frese

UK. Steam: Leyland; internal-combustion: Anglo-French, Arnold, Arrol-Johnston, Atkinson and Philipson; motorcycle: Excelsior, motor tricycle: Ariel

USA. Internal-combustion: Altham, Black, Electric & internal-combustion: Brewster, Haynes-Apperson

1897[edit]

Winton Motor Carriage Company First Auto Ad

France. Steam: Montier & Gillet; electric: Krieger; internal-combustion: Grivel, Juzan, Société Parisienne, Mors; voiturette: Decauville, Richard; avant-train: Amiot

UK. Steam: Toward & Philipson; Electric: Bushbury Electric, Neale; electric phaeton: Electric Motive Power; internal-combustion: Belsize; bus: Thomas Harrington

USA. Electric: Pope; Internal-combustion: Autocar, Oldsmobile, Plass, Winton

Czech Republic. Internal-combustion: Präsident (Tatra)

1898[edit]

Belgium. Internal-combustion: Delecroix, Métallurgique

France. Internal-combustion: Ailloud, Astresse, Auge, David & Bourgeois, De Dietrich, Lufbery, Poron, Tourey; voiturette: Le Blon, De Riancey; trucks and tractors: Latil; avant-train: Ponsard-Ansaloni

Germany. Electric: Kühlstein; internal-combustion: AWE, Wartburg

Italy. Internal-combustion: Ceirano GB & C; motor tricycle/quadricycle: Prinetti & Stucchi

UK. Electric: Oppermann; internal-combustion: Alldays & Onions, Grose, James and Browne, Madelvic, Star; tricar: Humber; motor tricycle/quadricycle: Arsenal, Eadie, Leuchters; motorcycle: Swift,

USA. Steam: American Waltham; electric: Riker; internal-combustion: Rutenber, St. Louis; buggy: Stearns

1899[edit]

Century Steam Surrey - C. R. Woodlin and WIlliam Van Wagoner in 1901

Belgium. Voiturette: Vivinus

France. Electric: Bouquet, Garcin & Schivre, Monnard; internal-combustion: Allard-Latour, Esculape, La Lorraine, Luc Court, Marot-Gardon, Raouval, Renault (including the first saloon car), Turcat-Méry; light car: Naptholette; voiturette: Andre Py, Cochotte, Populaire, Rouxel; alcohol fuelled: L'Alkolumine

Germany. Internal-combustion: Opel

Italy. Internal-combustion: Fiat

Russia. Electric: Kukushka

UK. Electric: Joel-Rosenthal; internal-combustion: Accles-Turrell, Geering; voiturette: Argyll; motor tricycle/quadricycle: Allard, Anglo-American; motorcycle: Coventry-Eagle, OK-Supreme, Quadrant, Royal Enfield

USA. Steam: Century, Grout, Kensington, Keystone, Kidder, Leach, Liquid Air, Locomobile, Mobile (pre Stanley Steamer), Strathmore, Victor Steam, Waltham Steam; electric: American Electric, Baker, Columbia (taxi), Electric Vehicle, Quinby, Stearns, US Automobile, Van Wagoner, Woods; internal-combustion: American, Black, Bramwell-Robinson, Gasmobile, Gurley, Holyoke, International, Media, Oakman-Hertel, Packard (Ohio), Quick, Sintz

Louis Renault in 1903

1900[edit]

Belgium. Hybrid: Pieper; internal-combustion: Nagant, Pipe; voiturette: Antoine

Canada. Electric: Canadian Motor

France. Internal-combustion: Ader, Ardent, Chenard-Walcker, Maillard, Nanceene, Otto; voiturette: Chainless, Soncin; motorcycle: Buchet, Castoldi

Germany. Internal-combustion: Adler, Albion; voiturette: AGG; motorcycle (later trucks): Phänomen

Italy. Internal-combustion: Isotta Fraschini

UK. Internal-combustion: Hewinson-Bell, Napier, Smith & Dowse; voiturette: Billings-Burns; motorcycle: Rex-Acme

USA. Steam: Tractobile, Kent's Pacemaker, Porter Stanhope, Skene, Steamobile; electric: Hewitt-Lindstrom, National; internal-combustion: Auburn, Canda, California, Eureka, Holley, Keystone, Knox, Lozier, Peerless, Rambler, Stearns-Knight; tractor: Samson; truck: Detroit

Charles J. Glidden on his 1902 world tour

1901[edit]

Canada. Light car: Queen

France. Internal-combustion: Charron, Corre La Licorne; voiturette: L'Ardennais, Guerraz, Henry-Dubray, Korn et Latil, Malliary; light car: Denis de Boisse

Germany. Internal-combustion: Horch, Stoewer; motorcycle: NSU

UK. Electric: Electromobile; internal-combustion: Asquith, Imperial, John O'Gaunt, Sunbeam, paraffin fuelled: Ralph Lucas; cyclecar: Campion; light car: Ralph Gilbert; voiturette: Wolseley; motorcycle: Matchless, Singer

USA. Steam: Aultman, Binney & Burnham, Covert, Desberon, Hidley, Hudson, Reading Steamer, Stearns, White; internal-combustion: Altman, Apperson, Buffalo, Buffum, De Dion, Empire, Marion, Pierce-Arrow, Schaum; touring car: Austin; runabout: Stevens-Duryea; high wheeler: Holsman; motorcycle: Indian

1902[edit]

Belgium. Internal-combustion: Minerva

France. Internal-combustion: Motobloc, Richard-Brasier

Germany. Internal-combustion: Aachener, AEG, Argus, Beaufort, NAG; motorised tricycle/quadricycle: Cyklon

Russia. Electric: Dux

Spain. Internal-combustion: Anglada

UK. Steam: Vapomobile; internal-combustion: Abingdon, Armstrong, Karminski, Maudslay, Rover, Vulcan; voiturette: Esculapeus, tricar: Advance; motorcycle: Norton, Triumph

USA. Steam: Clipper, Hoffman, Richmond, Stanley; electric: Studebaker; internal-combustion: Blood, Brennan, Cadillac, Cameron, Cannon, Clarkmobile, Franklin (automobile), Gaeth, Hammer-Sommer, Kirk, Marmon, Reber; runabout: Glide (automobile), Smith, Standard Steel; touring car: Spaulding; light car: Greenleaf, Orient; buggy: American, Union; compound expansion: Eisenhuth; truck: Rapid

1903[edit]

Belgium. Internal-combustion: Excelsior

France. Internal-combustion: Ariès, Clément-Bayard, Delaunay-Belleville, Hotchkiss, Regal, Talbot; light car: Henry Bauchet

Germany. Internal-combustion bus/truck: Büssing

UK. Electric: Lems; steam (and internal-combustion): Albany; internal-combustion: Attila, Elswick, Kyma, Lea-Francis, Lee Stroyer, Standard, Vauxhall, Whitlock; avant-train: Adams; motorcycle: Chater-Lea, New Hudson, Wilkinson Sword

USA. Steam: Jaxon; internal-combustion: American Chocolate (Walter), Bates, Ford, Lenawee, Marble-Swift, Matheson, Vermont, Wilson; touring car: Acme, Berg, Logan, Michigan, Iroquois, Jackson, Phelps, Premier; roadster: Buckmobile; runabout: Dingfelder, Eldredge, Marr, Mitchell, Overland, Sandusky, Tincher

1904[edit]

Canada. Internal-combustion: Russell

France. Internal-combustion: Cottin & Desgouttes, Grégoire; voiturette: Lavie; motor tricycle: La Va Bon Train

Germany. Internal-combustion: Alliance, Wenkelmobil

Italy. Internal-combustion: Itala

Spain. Internal-combustion: Hispano-Suiza

UK. Electric: Imperial; internal-combustion: Arbee, Armstrong Whitworth, Ascot, Calthorpe, Chambers, Crossley, Croxted, Iden, Motor Carrier, Queen; voiturette: Achilles; light car: Gilburt; tricar: Garrard; motorcycle: Phelon & Moore, Zenith

USA. Steam: Empire Steamer; electric: Berwick, Marquette; internal-combustion: American, American Mercedes, American Napier, Christie, Cleveland, Corbin, Detroit Wheeler, Dolson, Lambert, Luverne, Maxwell, Moline, Orlo, Oscar Lear, Pierce-Racine, Queen, Sampson, Schacht, Sinclair-Scott (Maryland), Standard, Studebaker-Garford, Twyford Stanhope; touring car: Brew-Hatcher, Crane-Simplex, Crestmobile, Detroit Auto, Frayer-Miller, Jeffery, Pungs Finch, Richmond, Royal, Thomas, Upton; runabout: Courier, Fredonia, Northern, Pierce, Pope-Tribune; tractor: Holt

Brass era[edit]

1905[edit]

A De Dion-Bouton in 1905

France. Internal-combustion: Alliance, Brasier, Charlon, Couverchel, Delage, Eudelin, Rolland-Pilain, Sizaire-Naudin; touring car: Rebour; light car: Helbé, Urric; voiturette: Eureka; motorcycle: Herdtle & Bruneau

Germany. Steam: Altmann; internal-combustion: Ehrhardt, Hansa, Hexe, Solidor

Italy. Internal-combustion: Diatto, Zust

UK. Electric: Alexandra, Ekstromer; internal-combustion: Adams, Austin, Edismith, Riley, Sunbeam-Talbot, Talbot; light car: One of the Best; tricar: Anglian; motorcycle: Velocette

USA. Electric: Rauch and Lang; internal-combustion: Aerocar, Ardsley, Ariel, Cartercar, Corwin, Crown, Harrison, Haynes, Silent Knight, Pullman, Rainier, Selden, Soules, Stoddard-Dayton; touring car: Detroit-Oxford, Diamond T, Gas-au-lec, Lambert, REO, USA Daimler; roadster: Walker, Western; light car: Bell, buggy: Deal, Hammer; motorcycle: Excelsior-Henderson, Harley-Davidson, Shawmobile

1906 American Simplex touring car

1906[edit]

Belgium. Internal-combustion: Imperia; hybrid: Auto-Mixte

France. Internal-combustion: AM, Ampère, Antoinette, Lion-Peugeot, Unic; light car: Doriot, Flandrin & Parant; voiturette and motorcycle: Alcyon

Germany. Internal-combustion: AAG

Italy. Internal-combustion: Aquila Italiana, Fial, Peugeot-Croizat, SCAT, SPA, Standard

UK. Internal-combustion: All-British, Ladas, Marlborough, Rolls-Royce; light car: Jowett; tricar: Addison, Armadale; dual-control car: Academy; hybrid bus: Tilling-Stevens; motorcycle: Dot

USA. Steam: Doble, Ross; electric: Babcock; internal-combustion: ALCO, American, American Simplex, Apollo, Atlas, Bliss, Car de Luxe, Deere, Dorris, Dragon, Frontenac, Hol-Tan, Jewell, Kissel, Model, Moore (Ball-Bearing Car); touring car: Heine-Velox, Moon; roadster: Colburn; light car: Janney; high wheeler: ABC, Black, McIntyre, Success

1907[edit]

Belgium. Internal-combustion: Springuel

Canada. Internal-combustion: McLaughlin

France. Internal-combustion: Ariane, Jean-Bart, Lahaussois, Lutier, Marie de Bagneux, Prod'homme, Sinpar, Sixcyl; voiturette: Couteret, Obus, La Radieuse; voiturette tricar: Guerry et Bourguignon, Lurquin-Coudert; tricar: Austral, Mototri Contal; hybrid: AL; amphibious: Ravailler; racing car: De Bazelaire

UK. Internal-combustion: Dalgliesh-Gullane, Hillman; truck: Commer; motorcycle: Douglas

USA. Electric: American Juvenile Electric, Detroit Electric; internal-combustion: Allen Kingston, Anderson, Carter Twin-Engine, Continental, Corbitt, Fuller, Griswold, Maryland, Kiblinger, Oakland, Regal, Speedwell; high wheeler: Eureka, Hatfield, Single Center, Staver; roadster: CVI; runabout: Albany, Colt Runabout, Kermath, Marvel, Nielson

Brennabor Typ A1, 1908

1908[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Le Pratic, X; phaeton: Siscart; voiturette: Roussel

Germany. Internal-combustion: Allright, Brennabor, Fafnir, Lloyd

Italy. Internal-combustion: Lancia, Marca-Tre-Spade, Temperino

Russia. Internal-combustion: Russo-Balt

UK. Internal-combustion: Arno, Sheffield-Simplex, Valveless; touring car: Argon; light car: Alex; motorcycle: Premier

USA. Internal-combustion: Bendix, Coates-Goshen, Correja, Cunningham, De Luxe, General Motors, Gyroscope, Havers, Imperial, Paige, Sears, Velie; touring car: Moyer; high wheeler: Cole, De Schaum, DeWitt, Hobbie Accessible, Michigan; runabout: Simplo; cyclecar: Browniekar; buggy: Davis

1909[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Bugatti, FL, La Ponette, Le Zèbre

Italy. Racing car: Brixia-Zust; motorcycle: Della Ferrera

Netherlands. Internal-combustion: Entrop

UK. Internal-combustion: Pilot

USA. Internal-combustion: Abbott-Detroit, Anhut, Black Crow, Crow-Elkhart, Cutting, EMF, Everitt, Fuller, GJG, Hupmobile, Inter-State, Lion, Pilot; touring car: Crawford, Fal-Car, Piggins, Standard Six; roadster: Coyote, Hudson, Kauffman; runabout: Brush; small car: Herreshoff, Hitchcock, KRIT; light car: Courier; buggy: Paterson; raceabout: Mercer; racing car: McFarlan; truck: Chase, Sanford-Herbert

Brillié-Schneider Autobus running for the Compagnie Générale des Omnibus, Paris

1910[edit]

Canada. Internal-combustion: Gareau

France. Internal-combustion: Ageron, Damaizin & Pujos, Margaria, Mathis, Plasson; light car: Simplicia; cyclecar: Bédélia

Germany. Internal-combustion: Ansbach, Apollo, Audi

Italy. Internal-combustion: Alfa Romeo, Chiribiri

UK. Steam: AMC; internal-combustion: Morgan, Siddeley-Deasy; cyclecar: GN

USA. Electric: Grinnell; internal-combustion: Alpena, Cavac, De Mot, Flanders, Great Eagle, Kline Kar, Lexington, Maytag-Mason, Parry, Spaulding, United States; touring car: Carhartt, Chalmers, Detroit-Dearborn, Etnyre, Faulkner-Blanchard, Great Southern; tonneau: Henry, Midland; roadster: Ames, King-Remick, Penn; runabout: Empire; cyclecar: Autoette; high wheeler: Anchor Buggy; buggy: Aldo

1911[edit]

Canada. Internal-combustion: Clinton

France. Cyclecar: Enders

Germany. Internal-combustion: Excelsior-Mascot, Podeus; rotary valve: Standard

Italy. Motorcycle: Benelli

1912 Aberdonia Landau

UK. Internal-combustion: Aberdonia, AGR, Airedale, GWK, Newton-Bennett, Roper-Corbet; cyclecar: Alvechurch, Autotrix, Lambert; motorcycle: Beardmore, Coventry-Victor, Levis, Rudge-Whitworth, Villiers

USA. Electric: Hupp-Yeats, Century, Dayton Electric; internal-combustion: America, Ann Arbor, Chevrolet, Day, Gaylord, Jonz (The American), King, Komet, Marathon, Overland OctoAuto, Nyberg, Pilgrim of Providence, Rayfield, Stutz, Virginian, Willys; tractor: Mogul; fire-engine: Ahrens-Fox,

1912[edit]

Canada. Internal-combustion: Amherst

France. Electric: Anderson Electric, internal-combustion: Albatros, Alda, Arista, Cognet de Seynes, Hédéa, La Roulette, SCAP; light car: Luxior, truck: Laffly, avant-train: Ponts,

Hungary. Internal-combustion: Raba

Italy. Internal-combustion: Storero

The Imperia-Abadal model was manufactured by Imperia under Abadal license

Spain. Internal-combustion: Abadal

UK. Steam: Sheppee; internal-combustion: ABC; cyclecar: Adamson, Arden, Chota, Coventry Premier, Crouch, Hampton, HCE, Tiny, Tyseley; motorcycle: NUT, Sunbeam

USA. Electric: Argo Electric, Buffalo Electric, Church-Field; internal-combustion: Anna, Briggs-Detroiter, Crane & Breed, Pathfinder, Standard; touring car: Miller, Westcott; light-car: Lad's Car, Little; tricar: American Tri-Car, motorcycle: Cyclone; truck: Brockway, Palmer-Moore

1913[edit]

1913 Russo-Balt S-24/40

Belgium. Internal-combustion: Alatac

France. Internal-combustion: Ajax, Alba, Alva, Rougier; cyclecar: Jouvie

Spain. Cyclecar: David

UK. Internal-combustion: Morris, Perry, Woodrow, WW; light car: Ace, Lucar; cyclecar: Armstrong, Athmac, Baker & Dale, Bantam, BPD, Britannia, Broadway, Carlette, Dallison, Dewcar, LAD, Lester Solus, Vee Gee, Warne, Wilbrook, Wrigley; motocycle: Montgomery

USA. Electric: American Electric; internal-combustion: Allen (Ohio), Allen (Philadelphia), Chandler, Flyer, Grant, Lyons-Knight, Monarch; cyclecar: Car-Nation, Coey, Detroit Cyclecar, Downing-Detroit, Dudly Bug, Gadabout, JPL, Little Detroit Speedster, Little Princess, Twombly; touring car: Keeton; roadster: Saxon, Scripps-Booth; sports car: Duesenberg; motocycle: Bi-Autogo

1914[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Ascot, Donnet-Zedel; light car: Nardini

Japan. Internal-combustion: DAT

UK. Internal-combustion: Trojan, Utopian; light car: Bifort, cyclecar: Bradwell, Buckingham, Carden, Hill & Stanier, Imperial, Projecta, Simplic; motocycle: ABC

USA. Electric: Ward; internal-combustion: Ajax, American, Benham, Dile, Keystone, Light, Monroe, MPM, Partin, Willys-Knight; touring car: Alter; roadster: Metz, Vulcan; light car: Fischer, Lincoln; cyclecar: Argo, Arrow, Biesel, CAC, Cricket, Davis, Dodge, Engler, Excel, Hawk, Logan, LuLu, Malcolm Jones, Mercury, Motor Bob, O-We-Go, Xenia

1914 Xenia

1915[edit]

Canada. Internal-combustion: Gray-Dort, Regal

UK. Internal-combustion: Atalanta; sports car: Aston Martin

USA. Electric: Menominee, hybrid electric: Owen Magnetic, internal-combustion: All-Steel, Apple, Biddle, Bour-Davis, Briscoe, Dort, Elcar, Herff-Brooks, Hollier, Ross, Smith Flyer, light car: Bell, Harvard, cyclecar: Koppin, racing car: Frontenac,

1916[edit]

Russia: AMO

USA. Electric: Belmont; internal-combustion: Aland, American Junior,[4] Auto Red Bug,[4] Bush, Daniels, Dixie Flyer, Hackett, HAL, Jordan, Liberty, Sun, Yale; touring car: Barley, Marion-Handley,

Germany: BMW

1917[edit]

The Moose Jaw Standard

Canada. Internal-combustion: Moose Jaw Standard

UK. Cyclecar: Gibbons

USA. Internal-combustion: Able, Amalgamated, American, Anderson, Columbia, Commonwealth, Piedmont, Shad-Wyck, Templar; touring car: Harroun, Nelson, Olympian; light car: Gem; truck: Nash,

1918[edit]

Italy: trucks OM

UK. Internal-combustion: All British Ford; motorcycle: Cotton

USA. Steam: Bryan, internal-combustion: Essex; motorcycle: Ner-a-Car

1922 Castle Three

1919[edit]

France. Internal-combustion: Avions Voisin, Butterosi, Citroen, Leyat, Salmson; cyclecar: ASS, Soriano-Pedroso

Germany. Internal-combustion: AGA, Anker

UK. Internal-combustion: Alvis, Angus-Sanderson, Armstrong Siddeley, Ashton-Evans, Bentley, Dawson, Eric-Campbell, Maiflower, Ruston-Hornsby, Willys Overland Crossley; cyclecar: Aero Car, Ashby, AV, Castle Three, Economic, Tamplin; motorcycle: Brough Superior, Coventry-Victor, Dunelt, Duzmo

USA. Internal-combustion: Amco, Argonne, Climber, Du Pont, Graham-Paige; truck: Huffman

Vintage era[edit]

1920[edit]

Belgium. Light car: ALP

1922 Gardner Roadster

France. Electric: Electricar; internal-combustion: Janémian, Jouffret, Radior; cyclecar: Able, Ajams, Astatic, La Comfortable, De Marçay, Elfe, Kevah, Santax; sports car: Fonlupt

Germany. Internal-combustion: Joswin, Selve; touring car: Steiger

UK. Internal-combustion: Aeroford, Cubitt, Galloway, Palmerston, Payze; light car: Albert; cyclecar: Allwyn, Archer, Baughan, Bell, Black Prince, Blériot-Whippet, Bound, Cambro, CFB, Winson; sports car: Sports Junior

USA: Ace, Alsace, Aluminum, Astra, Binghamton Electric, Carroll, Colonial, Colonial/Shaw, Friend, Gardner, Gray Light Car, LaFayette, Lorraine, Mason Truck, Sheridan, Standard Steam Car, Stanwood

1921[edit]

Canada: Brock Six, London Six

Birmingham Motors demonstration in 1921

France: Amilcar, Ballot, Bernardet, Coadou et Fleury, Colda, Le Favori, Georges Irat, Hinstin, Janoir, Madoz, Quo Vadis, Le Roitelet, Solanet

Germany: Alfi, Arimofa, Atlantic, Pawi, Rumpler Tropfenwagen, Zündapp

Italy: Ansaldo, Aurea, IENA

Japan: Ales

UK: Amazon, Barnard, Scott Sociable, Skeoch

USA. Steam: Coats, Davis, internal combustion: Adria, Aero Car, Ajax, Automatic, Birmingham, Colonial, Davis Totem, Durant, Earl, Handley-Knight, Jacquet Flyer, Kessler, Wills Sainte Claire

1922[edit]

Canada: Colonial

France: Astra, Bucciali, Induco, JG, Vaillant

Germany: Juho, Komet

UK: Abbey, Abingdon, Albatros, Alberford, Aster, Atomette, Autogear, Baby Blake, Bean, Bow-V-Car, Christchurch-Campbell, Clyno, Frazer Nash, Gwynne, Packman & Poppe, Wigan-Barlow, Xtra

USA. Steam: Alena, American Steamer, Endurance, internal combustion: ABC, Anahuac, Ansted-Lexington, Checker, DAC, Dagmar, Detroit, Gray, Jewett, Kess-Line 8, Rickenbacker, Star, Stewart-Coats

1923[edit]

Belgium: ADK, De Wandre, Juwel

Canada. Steam: Brooks

France: Bell, Henou, Willème

Germany: Alan, Kenter, Pilot, motorcycle: BMW

UK: Astral, Urecar

1925 Flint B-40 Touring

USA: Flint, Rugby

1924[edit]

Czech Republic: Skoda

France: AEM, AS, Le Cabri, De Sanzy, Elgé, Jean Gras, Jousset

Germany: Amor, Ehrhardt-Szawe, Tempo

Japan: Otomo

UK: HRD, Morris, Paydell

USA. Steam: American; internal-combustion: Chrysler, Junior R, Pennant

1927 Brocklebank Six

1925[edit]

Belgium: Jeecy-Vea

France: Heinis, Jack Sport

Germany: Hanomag, Sablatnig-Beuchelt, Seidel-Arop

Italy: Amilcar Italiana, Maggiora, Moretti

UK: Brocklebank, Invicta, Jappic, McEvoy, MG

USA: Empire Steam Car, Ajax, Diana

1926[edit]

France: Alma, Arzac, Chaigneau-Brasier, Constantinesco, Lambert, Ratier, SAFAF, Sensaud de Lavaud, Tracta

Germany: Daimler-Benz, Gutbrod, Mercedes-Benz

UK: Arab, HP, Marendaz, Swallow

USA: Ansted, Divco, Dodgeson

1927 Falcon-Knight Model 10 Touring

1927[edit]

France: Rosengart, Silva-Coroner

UK: Arrol-Aster, Avro, Streamline (Burney Car)

USA: Falcon-Knight, Graham-Paige, LaSalle

Sweden: Volvo

1928[edit]

Germany: BMW, DKW

UK: Ascot, Vincent

USA: DeSoto, Plymouth

1930 Michel Irat

1929[edit]

France: Alphi, Michel Irat

Germany: Borgward

Italy: Ferrari

Soviet Union. Motorcycle: Izh

Spain: National Pescara

UK: Alta

USA: American Austin, Blackhawk, Cord, Roosevelt, Ruxton, Viking, Windsor

Pre-war years[edit]

1930[edit]

Belgium: Astra

France: AER, Virus

Germany: Ardie-Ganz

Soviet Union: KIM

1931 Austin 7 Swallow saloon

1931[edit]

Germany: Maikäfer

Soviet Union: ZIS

Japan: Datsun

UK: Squire

USA: De Vaux, Hoffman (Detroit automobile)

1932[edit]

Italy: Nardi

Poland: Polski Fiat

Soviet Union: GAZ

UK: Vale Special

USA: Allied, De Vaux Continental, Jaeger

1933[edit]

France: Tracford

Germany: Standard Superior

UK: André, Railton

USA: Continental

1934[edit]

1934 Bungartz Burtz

France: Simca

Germany: Auto Union, Bungartz Butz

Japan: Ohta Jidosha

UK: Aveling-Barford, British Salmson, Rytecraft

1935[edit]

France: Talbot-Lago

Germany: Henschel

UK: Autovia, Batten, Jensen, Reliant

USA: Stout Scarab

1936[edit]

France: Darl'mat, Monocar

UK: Allard, HRG, Lammas, Lloyd, Skirrow

1937[edit]

France: Ardex, Danvignes

Germany: Volkswagen

UK: Atalanta

1938[edit]

France: DB, Rolux

UK: Nuffield

War years[edit]

1939[edit]

Soviet Union: SMZ

USA: Albatross, Crosley, truck: Peterbilt

1940[edit]

UK: DMW

1941[edit]

Soviet Union: UAZ; motorcycle: IMZ-Ural

1942[edit]

Brazil. Trucks: F.N.M.

1943[edit]

Soviet Union. Trucks: Ural

1945[edit]

Soviet Union. Motorcycle: Dnipro

UK: Bristol, Healey

USA: Kaiser-Frazer

Post-war years[edit]

1947 Cisitalia 202 Cabriolet

1946[edit]

France: Chappe et Gessalin, Mochet, Rovin

Germany: Messerschmitt

Hungary: Csepel

Italy: Bandini, Cisitalia, Stanguellini; Trucks: Astra

Soviet Union: Moskvitch; motorcycle: ZiD

Spain: Pegaso

UK: Cooper

USA: AMI, Frazer

1947[edit]

Canada: Studebaker

France: Aerocarene, Alamagny

Italy: Innocenti, Lambretta, Maserati, O.S.C.A.

Soviet Union. Trucks: Minsk Automobile Plant

UK: Ambassador, Ausfod, Buckler

USA: Airscoot, Davis, Playboy

1948 Tucker Torpedo

1948[edit]

France: J-P Wimille

Germany: Fend Flitzer

Italy: Fimer, Iso Rivolta, Siata

Soviet Union. Trucks: BelAZ

UK: EMC, Land Rover, Rochdale, Thundersley Invacar

USA: Autoette, Keller, Tucker Sedan

1949[edit]

France: Atlas

India: AUTOPRD

Soviet Union: RAF

Japan. Motorcycle: Honda

UK: Dellow, Jaguar Cars

USA: Aerocar, Airway, Glasspar G2; scooter: PMC

1950[edit]

France: Autobleu

Germany: Fuldamobil, Kersting-Modellbauwerkstätten, Kleinschnittger, Staunau

Spain: SEAT

UK: Marauder, Paramount

USA: Muntz

1951[edit]

France: Atlas, Automobiles Marathon, Le Piaf, Reyonnah

Germany: Glas

Poland: FSO

Soviet Union. Trucks: KAZ; motorcycle: Minsk

UK: Arnott, Russon, Turner

USA: Nash-Healey

1952[edit]

France: Martin-Spéciale, Poinard

Germany: Brütsch, Champion

Soviet Union: PAZ

UK: Austin-Healey, BMC, Greeves, Lotus

USA: Allstate, Woodill

1953[edit]

Germany: EMW

USA: Eshelman, Fina-Sport

1954[edit]

France: Alpine, Facel Vega

Spain: Serveta

UK: Astra, Fairthorpe, Rodley, Swallow Doretti

USA: AMC, Studebaker-Packard

1955[edit]

Belgium: Meeussen

France: Saviem, VELAM

Germany: Goggomobil, Zwickau

Italy: Autobianchi

Soviet Union: LAZ, LuAZ

UK: Ashley, Elva

USA: Tri5's

1956[edit]

France: Arista

Germany: Heinkel Kabine

Soviet Union: ZiL, KAG; scooter: TMZ, Vyatka

UK: Berkeley, Tourette

USA: Auto Cub, Devin, Dual-Ghia

1957[edit]

France: Arbel, Atla

Germany: Neckar, Trabant

UK: Peerless (Warwick), Scootacar, Tornado

USA: Aurora, Hackney

1958[edit]

Soviet Union: KAvZ; trucks: BAZ, KrAZ

UK: Gill, Frisky

USA: Edsel, Streco Turnpike Cruiser

1959[edit]

India: Vehicle Factory Jabalpur

Soviet Union: LiAZ

UK: Bristol Siddeley, Gilbern, Marcos

USA: Argonaut, Nu-Klea Starlite

Classic era[edit]

1960[edit]

India: Ideal Jawa

UK: Ausper, Brabham, Rickman

USA. Replica veteran car: Gaslight

1961[edit]

Germany: Amphicar

Soviet Union: ZAZ

UK: Diva

1962[edit]

Canada: Acadian

France: Automobiles René Bonnet

Soviet Union: AvtoKuban

Japan. Motorcycle: Kawasaki

USA: Apollo

1963[edit]

Italy: ATS, Scuderia Serenissima, Lamborghini

UK: Bond, Gordon-Keeble

USA: Exner Revival Cars; trucks: Marmon

1964[edit]

Italy: ASA

Soviet Union: ErAZ

USA: Fiberfab

1965[edit]

France: Matra

India: Heavy Vehicles Factory

Italy: Ferves

Soviet Union: IzhAvto

Spain: IPV

UK: Jago, Peel

1966[edit]

Bulgaria: Bulgarrenault

Italy: Bizzarrini

Soviet Union: Lada; trucks: MoAZ

Romania: Dacia

UK: Norton-Villiers, Trident, Unipower

1967[edit]

Thailand: Thai Rung

UK: Quasar-Unipower

USA. Trucks: Diamond Reo

1968[edit]

Italy: Autozodiaco, LMX Sirex

Turkey: Tofaş

UK: Piper

USA: Savage GT

1969[edit]

Soviet Union. Trucks: Kamaz

UK: Enfield

Electric Era[edit]

2003[edit]

USA. Tesla Motors

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Burgess Wise (2000). The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles, BookSales Inc, 560pp, ISBN 978-0-7858-1106-0.
  2. ^ G.N. Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1. 
  3. ^ P. Roberts (1973). A Picture History of the Automobile, Ward Lock Ltd, London, UK. ISBN 0-7063-1301-1.
  4. ^ a b Horvath, Dennis E. "Indiana Built". Cruise-IN.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.