|Canton||Anglet and Bayonne-1|
|• Mayor (2014–2020)||Claude Olive|
|Area1||26.93 km2 (10.40 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|INSEE/Postal code||64024 / 64600|
|Elevation||0–76 m (0–249 ft)
(avg. 38 m or 125 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Toponymy
- 3 History
- 4 Administration
- 5 Demography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture and Heritage
- 8 Amenities
- 9 Notable people linked to the commune
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 Notes and references
Anglet commune is part of the urban area of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (B.A.B.) located south-west of the city and part of the Basque province of Labourd. The commune is 10% covered with pine forests, including those of Pignada, Lazaretto, and Chiberta. The sandy coast starts 200 km north at the Pointe de Grave on the shore of the estuary of the Gironde and ends in Anglet. It is punctuated by numerous seawalls cutting the shore. At Anglet the outline of the public maritime domain has been updated and a coastal reserve forty metres (130 feet) wide has been observed since 1978. With its many bays and inlets this area is a laboratory for monitoring techniques for studying coastal erosion.
The Anglet coast is about 4.5 km long and has 11 beaches from north to south:
- Beach of la Barre;
- Beach of lesCavaliers;
- Beach of les Dunes;
- Beach of l'Ocean;
- Beach of la Madrague;
- Beach of la petite Madrague;
- Beach of les Corsaires;
- Beach of la Marinella;
- Beach of les Sables d'or;
- Beach of Club;
- Beach of VVF (Village Vacances Famille).
The French Basque Coast designates the part of the Aquitaine coast between the Chambre d'Amour cave at Anglet and the Spanish border.
Anglet has an airport Aéroport de Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne some 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) south of the town accessible from the D810 road. It has flights to destinations across France as well as Europe.
During the winter season of 2013/2014 the A1, A2, C, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, and N (evening) Chronoplus bus routes operated by the Transdev agglomeration de Bayonne serve Anglet connecting it to other communes in the metropolitan area: Bayonne, Biarritz, Bidart, Boucau, Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, and Tarnos.
The commune is traversed by the following tributaries of the Adour:
- the Sarraoute
- the Artigou (as well as the tributary of this - the Zubiru with its own tributary the Hòssa)
- the Camoudiet (and its tributaries, the Aouassole and the Riu Tòrt)
- the Horc (with its tributaries - the Coumelade, the Mail, and the Canaou)
- the Prade (joined by the Horn)
- the Gaoube (and the Arm of the Gaoube)
- the Houillassat
- the Gaoubole
- the Hourclat
- the Larraoudille
- the Bon
- the Adour de Gripp (as well as its tributaries - the great Canabère, the Garet, the Picharotte, the Goutil de Thou, and the Aritz and its tributary the Goutil Sec)
- the May d'Escaret
- the Arrimoula
- the Adour de Lesponne (and its tributaries, the Cantalop, the Lhécou, the Riu Grand, the Brouilh, the Maouri, the Tos - and its tributaries: the Népoutre, the Arabède, and the Cétérou; the Narbeoz, the Beliou, the Binaros, the Glère - and its tributaries: the Great Garrot, the Lardezen, and the Hont Herèda)
- the Serris
- la Barre
- Bois Belin
- le Brise-Lames
- la Butte aux Cailles
- les Cavaliers
- la chambre d'Amour
- Château de Brindos
- Cinq Cantons
- les Corsaires
- El Hogar
- le Lazaret
- la Madrague
- le Pavillon Chinois
- Le Phare
- le Pignada
- Port du Soufre
- Quatre Cantons
- Refuge Notre-Dame
- les Sables d'Or
- Tour de Lannes
- Les Trois Croix
||Bay of Biscay||Bay of Biscay||Tarnos|
The origin of the name Anglet is Roman from the Latin angulus, "Land shaped like a wedge" or "low terrain or depression". This last hypothesis was confirmed by Jean-Baptiste Orpustan who indicated that the official name and the basque name derived from two distinct strains of the same origin: angellu, a diminutive of Angulu, and cited by L. Michelena who affirmed that "low terrain" applies to "all the sandy beach-front in the commune".
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
|Anglet||1249 & 1253||Orpustan||
|Portu de Angleto||1291||Orpustan||
|Sanctus Leo d'Anglet||1761||Raymond||
||Cartulary||Mill, from the Basque Haritzaga meaning "place of oaks" (tauzins).|
||Cartulary||Hamlet, from a cave next to the sea.|
||Cartulary||Hamlet in 1863|
|Brindos||Villa que dictur Berindos||12th century||Raymond||
|Chiberta||Lac de Chiberta||1863||Raymond||
|Donzacq||Molendinum de Donzag||1246||Raymond||
||Cartulary||Mill, the Donzacq stream rose in Biarritz, passed through Anglet and Bayonne and then joined the Adour|
|Lo moly appelé Donzac||1539||Raymond||
|Moulin d'Hausquette||Molin de Fausquete||1259||Raymond||
|Moulin de Hausquete||1556||Raymond||
||"dépôt de mendicité" (Poorhouse)|
|Navariz||Le Fontaine de Navariz||1198||Raymond||
||Cartulary||Fountain at Montori|
|Le Pignada||Le Pinada||1863||Raymond||
|Refuge Notre-Dame||Le Refuge||1863||Raymond||
|Sutar||Villa quæ dicitur Huzater||12th century||Raymond||
||Chapter||the name of a place at the mouth of the Adour, called le Boucau on 28 October 1578|
- Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. (French)
- Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy
- Cartulary: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or (Book of Gold)
- Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne
- Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750
- Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne
- Saint-Claire: Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne
Based on discoveries made, the oldest land in Anglet dates back to prehistory (mid-Paleolithic) and Mousterian culture (from 100,000 to 35,000 BC). Various flint tools characteristic of the Mousterian period have been discovered. The use of splinters on both faces to make sharp points (scratcher, scraper) allows working on skins and making axes with wooden handles. Around Anglet, including the Tower of Lannes, Brindos, and Sutar, open air locations high above low swampy parts were preferred as in other parts of Basque Country (Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, Ilbarritz at Bidart, Duboscoa at Villefranque, Lahonce, Urt, and Bidache).
The prefecture of the Aquitaine region, considering the knowledge elements of the archaeological heritage of the commune currently identified in the archaeological database of the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs of Aquitaine issued an order for the following sites: Brindos, Cote 50, La Ballastière of Micoteau (Sutar), and Hondritz referenced as having Paleolithic occupation. The sites in the Rue du Colombier and the Tower of Lannes are referenced to as prehistoric sites of refuge which also refers to occupation in proto-historic times (Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age).
During the Roman era (towards 400 AD), Bayonne served as a castrum (in Novempopulania) for a cohort large enough for a rampart to be built (still visible in some places) surrounding an area somewhat excessive for an Army (seven hectares), but no remains indicate that there was a city (no theatre, no ruins of villas or baths, etc.). At that time, the regional Roman capital was "Aquae Augustae" (Dax) and the people living in the geographical area between Dax and Oiartzun (which included the commune of Anglet) called themselves Tarbelli. Furthermore, there is evidence that outside these walls, there were many potters who worked for the Roman cohort.
The history of Anglet actually appears from the Middle Ages where it was discovered that the core of the oldest settlement is located in a rural area called "Berindos" which is Brindos (mentioned in 1083). There are some remains of a mill, dating to the 12th century, which was used to grind corn (the Moulin de Brindos). Two grindstones for wheat and the mule barn are still present. It was also found that Berindos was a parish or at least included a church from the 12th century. This area is located south of the airport: its agricultural past has disappeared under residential urbanization and development.
The mill is now a ruin: saved from demolition in 2000 by a local association (Ardatza-Arroudet, Friends of the Mills of Basque and Béarn Country). A developer planned to replace it with a parking lot for a shopping area. Authorizations were granted at that time. However, what is probably one of the oldest (12th century) heritage buildings of the city remains although the house, as old as the mill, was destroyed in 1978. A fire destroyed part of the mill in 2011, creating a need for security in 2013.
In the parish of Brindos there are ancient lordships and noble houses: the Domain of Urcos (1149) and the Terra de Sincos (1141). Other areas of population also appear in the Book of Gold of Bayonne namely:
- a farm at Sutar (1083 spelled Huzater),
- Places at Irandatz and Andotz (1149)
- Nalbais/Naubeis (1083),
- Fausegi (1198),
There are also references to orchards and mills at Mufale/Aumufale (on the Anglet border) and at Balaison/Balichon. In the current area of Pontots/Beyries there is also Dames de Montori (not Montaury), a religious order of Saint-Bernard d'Esteyron (no relation to the Bernardines of the nineteenth century) who established themselves on the Route de Biarritz. They later moved to the right bank (which was perhaps their original monastery) and were dependent on the Bishop of Dax and not of Bayonne.
Anglet also had a port area, Fausquette/Hausquette, where resin, wine, cider (then called "pomade") and wheat (then called blat) were loaded. The Hausquette Mill cited in 1256 in the Book of Gold of Bayonne is located on the Maharin Stream near this port. The building is now a private house located at 181 rue de Hausquette still visible and referred to by the city as a "Route for walking and cycling - Streams and fountains - Discover the historic and natural heritage of Anglet".
In the Middle Ages, Bayonne was already a fortified city under English domination from the 12th to the 15th centuries. The population became more numerous and extended beyond the perimeter walls to settle in the suburbs surrounded by fields and vineyards where the suburb of Saint Léon was an extension from the gate of the same name. The chronicler Froissart stated that "the suburb (was) as important as the city". Saint Léon was organized around its church (Saint Léon) and extended to the "Port of Beyries" and "to the Arritzague Stream". The church dates back to 1089. Two parishes seem to have been identified: Saint Léon and Brindos. However, before the end of the 16th century, Bayonne was taken from the English by the Kingdom of France and the suburbs were demolished (Saint Léon, Marracq, and Beyris) as being too close and too prejudicial to the defence of the walled city, which concentrated within the confines of the existing small and large Bayonne (which explains the density and height of buildings in the centre of Bayonne). France was wary of Spain who tried several times to capture Bayonne (1523 and 1552).
In 1557, the Saint Léon church was demolished and transferred to its current location in 1564 in front of the current town hall of Anglet. As Manex Goyhenetche points out in his book on Anglet, the city was then "the surrounding countryside of Bayonne", "densely populated rural suburb of peasants". It was more than a single entity, but a set of different districts including religious buildings (chapels) which have disappeared today. It was a large rural territory dominated by a topography of landforms (plateaus and terraces) and lower parts (Barthes and streams) covered various agricultural operations, woods, orchards, vineyards, and mills which lived on agriculture and cattle.
The rivalry between Anglet and Bayonne
Bayonne then had a monopoly on trade and fishing in the whole basin of the Adour from Biarritz to Capbreton. Bayonne tried to master the marshy strip of land that was once on the left bank of the river when the natural mouth of the Adour was much further north (located in the 10th century at Cape Breton then, after yet another quirk of the River, at Vieux Boucau in 1310-1578). The major event of this period was the diversion of the Adour. Trade in Bayonne declined due to the remoteness of the river mouth and especially the silting of the Adour that prevented large vessels enter the estuary. Louis de Foix, an engineer sent by the king, succeeded, after many efforts using local labour, in diverting the river to allow an exit for the Adour only five or six kilometres (3.1 or 3.7 miles) from Bayonne.
Rivalries and conflicts between Anglet and Bayonne continued for the jurisdiction and rights over this sandy strip of land that was now cut in half, with one part north of the Adour and not solely on the left bank of the river, which complicated the situation even more. A war of justification of the boundary marks and rights therefore intensified between the two cities to see who could enjoy the sands of Gauseirans where were identified as "Les Pignadas". The name of Gauseirans/Betenave would be resumed in Gibraltar and then "basquised" to Chimberta and Chiberta.
In the texts of the city of Bayonne, it says to maintain the rights to the land and demand the sand. Conversely, England on its side tried to justify the demarcation, especially those "north of the river", and showed grazing agreements from 1395 and 1525 before the diversion ("to Betenave, located in the vast space of Gauseirans containing the sand and pignadas attached "to the farm lands" of Anglet"). This did not deter the rivalry that continued throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and finally ended in settlement agreements.
Besides the issue of communal boundaries, the rivalry was exacerbated by the antagonism of behaviour between the Bayonne bourgeoisie and the Anglet peasantry. At that time, the lords, nobles and bourgeois of Bayonne bought land at Anglet but fled from community measures and obligations (particularly in terms of taxation). Despite careful control of the people and the obstinacy of the peasants, some aristocrats from Bayonne won a fight which was not played on equal terms.
At that time, many of the inhabitants of Anglet were herdsmen who sought ox carts to bring fertilizer to their land from the stables of Bayonne. These oxen were used to transport goods between Bayonne, Saint Jean de Luz and Spain as well as to maintain their vineyards, corn, or wheat fields. In the pignadas, the resin or "gem" is harvested from pine trees for producing candles or to allow the caulking of ships as well as for making soap, perfume, and many household goods. Plastic and synthetic products would destroy his employment and his crop. There were also plantations of cork oak used for many purposes (corks but also very fashionable for planting in the 19th century).
During the Revolution and the Empire there was "a double movement of land grabbing and dilapidation of heritage" to convert land under cultivation at the expense of the old houses of Anglet who used communal land for their flocks. In 1812, an image of the town is provided by the Mayor of the time: "a population of 1965 souls (...) houses are distant from each other without any rallying point that the church (Saint Léon) provided". At Anglet, most of the people were small farmers although some wealthy Bayonne people settled in the commune such as the binder and lithographer Jean Bernain who bought "Quintau" in 1787.
The difficulties were compounded by the wars of the Revolution and the billeting of troops "at extraordinary and necessary expense occasioned by the cavalry (Napoleonic), the train of artillery, and the troops of the line" who stayed during their passage to the Spain. The same then occurred in 1814 by Wellington's British troops during the fighting that devastated the Blancpignon forest, then returning to Spain to face the routed Napoleonic army routed (who took refuge within the walls of Bayonne). Part of the population abandoned Anglet in 1813 and 1814 to escape to the north or south. In 1822 cholera struck Anglet.
In March 1815, during the disorders caused by the Hundred Days and after the Battle of Waterloo, a Spanish army commanded by the Earl of Labisbal made a brief foray beyond the Bidassoa to Anglet and Ustaritz. These troops made a fighting retreat after an intervention by Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, with the Spanish monarch Ferdinand VII.
19th century, the transformation of Anglet, a rural area in an urban space
In 1838/39, Father Cestac acquired the property Châteauneuf to install the institution of Our Lady of refuge and create a community of servants of Mary away from the city and the critics (they collected young prostitutes wishing to exit). This property now has the last agricultural land between Chiberta forest and the Boulevard BAB. Father Cestac did not have much money which forced him to work the land with his community who were unaccustomed to working the land. The nuns founded a school, cultivated and cleared most of the land surrounding the Refuge, which grew considerably. Beyond the corn fields, near the forest, there are greenhouses where they still maintain today decorative flowers and gardens (on the other side of the Avenue de Montbrun). Some of them wanted to go further in their work of prayer and meditation, namely absolute silence. These were the Bernardines who settled in the area about a kilometre from the Refuge near the greenhouses. Next to the Bernardine convent is the cemetery for Bernardines and the Servants of Mary with more than 300 graves in sand - all symmetrically aligned and decorated with a shell cross. This site is unique in France. Each year, they are rebuilt during the season of Lent because the weather erodes them. Nearby there is also a chapel of straw with a sand floor (Our Lady of Solitude), symbol of the greatest austerity of their religious faith.
Early in 1870 it was decided to build a racetrack on the sands of Chiberta to develop a new area of recreation and tourism on the current site of La Barre like its neighbour biarrot. This racecourse included fifty hectares of land previously used for the cultivation of vines and some market gardening, while crystallizing a divide between tourism development then reserved for the elite and the peasants, still rooted in the rural world. Its creation was due to a cousin of the mayor of Bayonne, Felix Labat, supported by an Englishman, Lord Howden, a former Spanish ambassador and owner of the Château de Caradoc in Bayonne. The racecourse and shopping places became the most fashionable distraction on the Basque coast. This was the rendezvous of all the "elite" of the time who came to show themselves in the elegant galleries.
In 1877 the BAB (Bayonne Anglet Biarritz) railway line of "American railway" (steam tram) type was inaugurated. It served Anglet through the "Five Cantons" halt near the Villa Marie Antoinette. However, it was critical that the new railway crossed rural roads in the commune by unmanned level crossings (causing many accidents) while avoiding the administrative centre of Saint John. The concern was not to serve the people of Anglet but to link Bayonne to Biarritz.
It was not until 1888 that a new line (BLB) connected Bayonne to Biarritz along the National Route N10 and strengthened the intersection located in the Saint John district. BLB quickly became more attractive than the BAB, especially because of its coverage of Saint John - the administrative district - and the Marracq High School stop in Bayonne where many students were enrolled from Anglet.
In 1884-1885, the first bathing establishment opened its doors on the House of Love beach wishing to compete with the baths in Biarritz. Swimmers had at their disposal: seventy-five cabins, a wide assortment of bathing suits, and a swimming coach who personally watched over them.
On 9 January 1924 the town was hit by a "tsunami" that destroyed the racetrack (it never succeeded in recovering from this disaster). The bathing establishment, also hit hard, was rebuilt 30 metres (98 feet) away.
It was not until the mid 1920s that the company BALF (Biarritz-Anglet-Forest) acquired 150 new hectares to create the Chiberta Golf Course (1927). In 1928 a second bathhouse was created at the House of Love, with a saltwater pool, a dozen "cabanas" (cabins with private bathrooms), and a large hall (the whole occupies 15,000 m2). Its art deco style is signed Anatole Durruty. This property attracted the biggest names in high society of the time (the Baroness de Rothschild, the Maharajah of Jasdan, the Grand Duke Dimitri, the King and Queen of Spain, the Prince of Wales, Buster Keaton etc.) and caused a real buzz for the performances, sporting events, galas and world exhibitions. This was the golden age of Anglet.
In 1929, the city was classified as a "resort". The three cities, Bayonne, Anglet, and Biarritz agreed to the creation of an airport offering international services which was located two-thirds in the commune of Anglet.
The VFDM railway line (Voies Ferrées Départementales du Midi) which links Bayonne to Hendaye via la Barre was built from 1913 to 1927 [ ref. desired]. Traversing the woods and countryside Chiberta and overlooking the beaches of the House of Love, the "coast tram" quickly became a tourist line and was also popular with families and local residents. The line closed in 1948 due to a growing disaffection related to the crisis of the 1930s.
The chapel of the House of Love, created by Napoleon III became obsolete. Father Sabes was able to mobilize funds from High Society parishioners which allowed him to build a new church, Saint Mary's, in 1932 which became a listed church in 2014 - the first historical monument in Anglet.
Post-Second World War: continuing urabnization
Postwar, urbanization continued because of the space available and attractive prices, unlike Bayonne or Biarritz. From 1970 to 1980 Anglet absorbed 70% of subdivision projects in the metropolitan area against 10% for Biarritz. The "thirty glorious years" spared no area of the commune, when only a few years past it had farmland, parks, ancient marshes (object of fervour a few centuries earlier). There were real estate programs of all kinds (subdivisions, condominium buildings, shops, industries, business area, highways, 2x2, etc.). Even areas reserved for high society changed in the democratization of holidays and mass tourism. The rural past of the town was relegated to memory.
During the 1960s and 70s, the pool of prestigious bathing establishments underwent violent storms that damaged them and eventually lead to their demolition in 1977. The pier was consolidated and the building became a community centre. Today the buildings have been renovated and renamed Space Ocean.
Urban planning was done without a large-scale organizational plan, torn between two neighbouring communes. It was not until 1972 that the agglomeration created a first instance of intercommunal dialogue and today the urban community of Côte Basque-Adour (CAFB).
|The Gascon motto for Anglet is Mar e pinhader per m'ajudar which means "Sea and Forest will help me" (pinhader in Gascon is a forest of marine pines which are shown on the arms
Anglet town is the seat of two cantons: Anglet-Nord and Anglet-Sud which do not include any other commune.
List of Successive Mayors
|1897||Albert Le Barillier|
|1999||2001||Alain Lamassoure||UDF||Vice President of the UDF
Advisor to the Court of Auditors
|Vice-President of CABAB
Vice-President of Côte Basque-Adour agglomeration
|2014||2020||Claude Olive||UMP||General Councillor for Anglet-Nord Canton|
(Not all data is known)
The town is part of six intercommunal structures:
- the agglomeration of Côte Basque-Adour;
- the public agency for local management;
- the inter-communal association for management of the Txakurrak centre;
- the association to support Basque culture;
- the Joint association for the usage of the Nive;
- the energy association for Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
It is also a member of the Eurocity Basque Bayonne - San Sebastian.
In 2009 the commune had 37,661 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Once oriented towards agriculture (the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone designation of Ossau-iraty) and in particular vegetable crops, Anglet now has, thanks to its location within the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz urban area, a broader economic scope.
The commune also hosts agri-food sector enterprises who are among the top fifty largest in the department:
- the bayonnaise meat company (beef meat production);
- SAS TDA (production and preserving of meat);
- Mandion SA (industrial production of fresh bread and pastry);
- the Abbatoir Company of Basque Country (production and preserving of meat);
- SARL Sonath (production of bakery products).
- BAB2 is a shopping centre located in Anglet, with a Carrefour hypermarket of 13,000 m2 surrounded by some 90 smaller shops. The Carrefour hypermarket is the largest hypermarket in Pyrénées-Atlantiques and the third largest in Aquitaine based on turnover. The magazine Surf Session is based in Anglet.
Culture and Heritage
Winds and Tides was a lively review of poetry in Anglet which was organised by Jeanne Monteil and Jean-Léopold Dumontier-Béroulet from 1976 to 1992.
Anglet and the neighbouring communes of Biarritz and Bayonne can be seen at different times and through different points of view as either Gascon or Basque. The majority of people in this area spoke Gascon according to the Linguistic Atlas of Gascony (ALG) (1954-1966) and investigations on the limits of the Basque language by Lucien Bonaparte in 1863. At the same time some areas could be described as Basque (no doubt as a result of Basque campaigns in surrounding areas). Since the 20th century the French language has been the majority language.
The commune has several buildings that are registered as historical monuments:
- The Town Hall (1935). The town hall has two remarkable pieces of furniture:
- The Villa Arguia (1927)
- The Villa El Hogar (1924)
- The Villa Gomez, a former building for bridges and roads, has an item that is registered as a historical object:
- a Writing desk and Armchair (1938)
Paul Campagne (1870-1941) and his wife Julienne Moussempès (1879-1956) were owners of the famous Hotel de l'Angleterre in Biarritz and in 1900 built a second home called "Marnoger" whose name comes from the names of their three children Marcel (1901-1918), Nora (1902-1956) and Roger (1905-1945) based on plans by architect Raymond Larrebat Tudor (1859-1943). This sumptuous house and its park renamed "Beatrix Enea" are part of the municipal heritage of Anglet which was acquired in 1985: the municipal city services are housed there.
During the urbanization of the late 19th and early 20th century architecture in Anglet was dominated by a model which took as a reference a Labourd farm, typical of the Basque Country, modelled from Villa Arnaga to Cambo-les-Bains. This model was called Néobasque. This movement was very popular at the beginning of the 20th century. Another type of architecture, the "chalet" for permanent and popular housing in a commune where the population increased sharply and lost its original rural character. Its purpose was residential and had no connection with what was later called the vacation home.
The vacation home is found along the coast, between the Biarritz golf course and Anglet near Chiberta and Chambre d'Amour. These vacation homes had an architectural style called eclecticism. There is no model and each house is influenced by and mixes various styles. Some houses are Moorish style, some are Mediterranean, others Norman-style English, and some are unclassifiable. Neo-Basque challenged this style of architecture.
Around 1930, in the works of the Gomez brothers and architect William Marcel (see the works in the Paulmy Alleys in Bayonne), the model evolved into the "casa torre" which is typical of the neighbouring provinces of Navarre and of Gipuzcoa. The El Hogar home was of this style and was a milestone in the architecture of the time. The house was made for an old Béarn native who made his fortune in Chile and so had a high sensitivity to Hispanic architecture which inspired its architect. William Marcel also designed the new town hall in Anglet in the "New Spanish" style where (1935) is clearly displayed. In 1950, the labourdine neo-Basque-type house still remains as the predominant model and reference for appreciating a building well integrated into its environment.
The city has seven churches: Saint-Michel, Holy Trinity, Saint-Léon, Saint-Bernadette, Our Lady of Refuge, Saint-Joseph, and Saint-Marie.
One wall of the former Dominican monastery of Couillioure was classified as an historic monument in 1928.
The Church of Notre-Dame-du-Refuge of the Congregation of the Servants of Mary contains one item that is registered as an historical object:
- Painting with frame: Father Cestac
- The cave of the Chambre d'Amour is part of the heritage of the commune.
- The Izadia Ecological Park (literary root meaning "the being, the nature" in Basque) was inaugurated in November 2007 in the area of la Barre. It is an urban park of 14 hectares and is one of the last vestiges of a "dune environment" coastline. In this park, one of the ambitious project is the reinstatement of the original species and therefore the removal of endemic species, such as Pampa reeds to cite one example. It includes a lagoon, lakes of brackish water, an expanse of sedge marsh, and marine bulrushes. There are also more arid environments encountered such as heath and Helianthemum sand grass. 200 plant species have been identified. Among them there are 7 heritage species with national, regional or departmental protective statutes: Œillet de France (Dianthus gallicus) is protected at the national level; Bellardie (Bartsia trixago), Maritime Ruppia, and Lotus are protected at the regional level; and Glaux (Lysimachia maritima) and Clypéole (Clypeola jonthiaspi) is protected at departmental level. Finally, there is the iconic Centaurea with dense flowers for which the park is the only known location in France. More than 4700 birds were observed in 2012 of 103 different species. Among these species, 60 are protected including 16 classified in the red list of threatened birds species of France.
- The Pignada is a forest of 220 hectares representing 10% of the city area. This is the largest green space in the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz agglomeration. The Anglet forestry domain is divided between various pine, pignada (the largest with more than 200 hectares), chiberta (a coastal pine forest which is now urbanized in an upscale subdivision between la Barre and Chambre d'Amour), and the Lazaretto (a pinewood between Blancpignon and Adour). The forest is popularly called the Chiberta Forest. It is an urban forest because it is surrounded on all sides by various suburban districts. It is mostly a pine forest mixed with cork oak, ferns, and other broom. Until the early Middle Ages, the Anglet coastline resembled a sort of "no man's land": a sanded area of dunes and heath so pines were planted to reduce the spread of sand to the interior (planted from 1630 to 1640). Vineyards were once planted on these sands. Napoleon III revived the planting with a grant of 90,000 francs to plant 300 hectares of pine trees. At the beginning of the 20th century, it resembled the Landes mountains. It was exploited for the wood and resin. Of the 450 hectares that had a pine forest in the last century and a half, there remains more than 220 hectares.
- Montaury Park is located south of the NR10, part of the heart of the city project, is an urban park next to the scientific campus of the University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour. There is exotic vegetation: roses, hydrangeas, palms, and exotic ferns mixed with the existing vegetation of the park. Water is sprayed into basins with intermittent jets. There are children's games and walks.
- The Latchague Valley in Anglet. Landscaped retention ponds have been made to store rainwater from exceptional rainfall events which can occur each month, 10 years, or 30 years, and to regulate them. This park was created after the floods on the site in 2005. A little over 3 hectares, there is a landscaped path around the edge of the water from the Rue Latchague to the Rue Bahinos.
In its prize list of 2012, the National Council of Cities and Villages in Bloom of France awarded four flowers to the commune in the Contest of cities and villages in bloom.
The town has many public kindergartens (Camiade, Jules Ferry, Aristide Briand, Jean Jaurès, Evariste Galois, and Tivoli), two colleges (Endarra college and the private Stella Maris college), two schools (Technological School of Cantau and the Sainte-Anne school) and an ikastola (Angeluko ikastola). Furthermore, a Building Institute, an art school and a unit of the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts are present in the commune.
In 2010 the commune of Anglet was awarded the label "Internet City @@@@".
Sports and sports facilities
- Aikido: the Aikido Dojo of Angloy is the 20th largest club in France in number of members with more than 560 active members;
- Basketball: the ACBB is a mixed club with the pennant team playing in the National 2 Championship of France;
- Riding: the Equestrian club of the Basque coast already had its 50th year in 2006 and is an association under the law of 1901. With almost 500 active members it is the 2nd largest club in Aquitaine;
- Football: the Genêts d'Anglet play in the CFA;
- Golf: The commune has two golf courses: the Chiberta Par 71 Course which provided a test of skills at qualifications for the Open de France in 2005; and the Golf du Phare which was created in 1888 and is located in the communes of Anglet and Biarritz;
- Ice hockey, figure skating and ice dancing at the rink of la Barre. The ice hockey team of Anglet Hormadi Élite competes in Division 1;
- Figure skating: the French Figure Skating championships in 1981 took place at the rink at la Barre for 3 events: men's singles, women's singles and artistic couples;
- Basque pelota: The commune hosts the Hardoytarrak club created by Gilen Zaldunbide. Facilities are: three walls at left (El Hogar, Orok, Les Cigales, and Orok Bat), a wall at left in the open (in the forest of Lazaretto), three free places (Haitz Péan, Hardoytarrak, and Orok Bat), three trinquets (El Hogar, Haitz Péan (trinquet and board trinquet), Oroc Bat);
- Inline hockey: the Artzak d'Anglet won the silver medal in the European Cup in 2006 and 2010. They became champions of France in 2011;
- Rugby union: the Anglet Olympique advanced to the second federal division;
- Skateboarding: The town has a skatepark on the seafront (in front of the la Barre beach). It has an "L" shaped curb and rounded on the inside, an area of 1.80 metres (5.91 feet) in height, a pyramid, a spine, a rail, a flat-bar, a double table (small 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) high, large around 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) high), and a triple spine (with a triangular top). It also includes three concreted hollows. The skatepark occupies a space approximately 200 metres (660 feet) long and about 50 metres (160 feet) wide;
- Surfing and board sports: the various beaches host many male and female international competitions. Anglet is a spot known around the world (the city hosted the board sports championship of France in the summer of 2005, the Quiksilver Air Show, the O'Neill Pro, the O'Neil Angel's Challenge, the KanaMissCup, the Coupe de France Open Bodyboard, the Wake n'Ski Tour, and the OP Royal Single Trophy. The Anglet Surf Club is the biggest club in France with over 1,200 members. It also has many champions in its ranks such as Thomas Bady, Romain Laulhé, Tim Boal, and Caroline Sarran.
- Louis Edouard Cestac, born in Bayonne in 1801 and died in Anglet in 1868, was a priest and founder of the Congregation of the Servants of Mary;
- Elise Cestac, born in Bayonne in 1811 and died in Bayonne in 1849, was the sister of Louis Edouard Cestac and co-founder of the Congregation of the Servants of Mary;
- Henri Gavel, born in 1880 in Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise and died in 1959 in Anglet, was a French linguist specialising in Occitan and Basque;
- Jean Mendiondou, born in 1885 in Oloron-Sainte-Marie, died in 1961 in Anglet, was a French politician;
- Jean Larribau, born in 1889 in Anglet and died in 1916 in Belgium, was a French rugby player and held the position of scrum half for the national team and Biarritz Olympique;
- Lucien Lelong, born in 1889 in Paris and died in Anglet in 1958, was a French fashion designer who was very popular in the years 1920-1950.
- Clement Duhour, born in 1912 in Anglet and died in 1983 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, was a singer, actor, director and French producer. He participated in the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1932 as an athlete;
- Pierre Baldi, born in Anglet in 1919, was a painter;
- Jeanne Monteil, born in Bayonne in 1924 and died in Bayonne in 1999, was a poet and host of the Winds and Tides events;
- Robert Baulon, born in Boucau in 1930 and died in Anglet in 2011, was a rugby player who played with the French team from 1954 to 1957 as a third line centre or wing;
- Raoul Sangla, born in Anglet in 1930, is a journalist, writer and independent French director;
- Ramuntxo Camblong, born in 1940 in Macaye, is a French politician, Municipal Councillor of Anglet from 2001 to 2008;
- Lucien Pariès, born in 1947 in Anglet and died in 1998 in Aix-les-Bains, was a French rugby union player, fly half for Biarritz Olympique from 1964 to 1973 then for the Racing Club of Narbonne from 1974 and for the French Team;
- Claire Noblia, born in Anglet in 1942, is a female politician, President for the French Basque Country of the EAJ-PNV from June 2008 to July 2009;
- José Miguel Beñaran Ordeñana, born in 1949 in Arrigorriaga (Biscay, Spain), is a theoretical Marxist-Leninist and revolutionary leader for Basque independence (Euskadi ta Askatasuna). He was killed on 21 December 1978 in Anglet by the explosion of a bomb placed in his car by the Basque Spanish Battalion.
- Guy Forget, tennis player and captain of the French Davis Cup team
- Town of Anglet official site (French)
- Surf School Anglet (Gliss experience) (French)
- ANGELU in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia (Spanish)
- Official Tourist website for Anglet (French)
- Anglet on Google Maps
- Anglet on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute (IGN) website (French)
- Anglet on the 1750 Cassini Map
- Anglet on the INSEE website (French)
- INSEE (French)
Notes and references
- At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 , the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
- Inhabitants of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, Dictionary of place names - Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 2009, Archives and Culture, ISBN 978-2-35077-151-9 (French)
- Euskaltzaindia - Academy of the Basque language (Basque)
- Google Maps
- Chronoplus Timetable Winter 2013-2014, consulted on 23 November 2013. (French)
- Géoportail, IGN (French)
- Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
- Bénédicte Boyrie-Fénié, Toponomic Dictionary of the communes of Landes and Bas-Adour, éd. Cairn, 2005, p. 255 (French)
- Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4 (French)
- Manuscript from the 14th century in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Cassini Map 1750 - Asson
- Chapter of Bayonne in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- The open-air prehistoric site of Lestaulan, Maignon district (Bayonne) - Sutar (Anglet), Claude Chauchat (French)
- Prehistory in Basque Country North and South of Landes, R. Arambourou (French)
- History of Anglet – From its origins to modern times, Manex Goyhenetche, p. 9, "The Age of Population Centres" (French)
- E. Passemard, Bulletin of the Prehistoric Society of France, 1920, Volume 17, No. 12, pp. 286-291 (French)
- Claude Chauchat, Paleolithic Industries in the Bayonne region of Périgordien formerly Asturian 3rd cycle Bordeaux III (French)
- Order W AZ.09.64.11 - Prefecture of Aquitaine - Administrative and Financial procedures in preventive archaeology (French)
- Bayonne – City of Art and History, Dominique Duplantier (French)
- Book of Gold of Bayonne, Father Bidache, (French).
- History of Anglet – From its origins to modern times, Manex Goyhenetche, p. 23 (French)
- Inventory of Heritage under Article L123 1, 7° of the Urbanism Code — PLU of Anglet. (French)
- Book of Gold of Bayonne, Father Bidache, p. 26/27, "Lordly Domain of Berindos and tenures" (French)
- Ardatza-Arroudet Friends of the Mills of Basque and Béarn Country - The Moulin de Brindos (French)
- Blog by Jean-Pierre Voisin - Assistant Mayor of Anglet in charge of Urbansism 2008-2014 (French)
- Manex Goyhenetche, History of Anglet - From its Origins to modern times, P. 256 & P. 282 (French)
- Book of Gold of Bayonne, Father Bidache, p. 30, "Domains of Urcos and Berindos" (French)
- Manex Goyhenetche, History of Anglet - From its origins to modern times, Chapter II, "The Topographic and Socio-economic configuration of Anglet according to medieval documentary sources", p.23 to p.26 (French)
- Small Contribution to the History of Anglet, Alfred Lassus (French)
- Anglet, the city of six steeples. Its history, Mme Dufetel (French).
- Manex Goyhenetche, History of Anglet - From its Origins to modern times, p. 251-252, "Inventory of old rural buildings" (French)
- 3.3 Inventory of Heritage under Article L123-1,7° of the code of Urbanism, p. 24 (French)
- History of Anglet — From its origins to modern times, Manex Goyhenetche, p. 28, "The Topographic and socio-economic configuration of Anglet according to documentary medieval sources" (French)
- Book of Gold of Bayonne, Pau 1906, Bidache. J, Registres gascons. (French)
- Anglet Streams and Fountains (French)
- Eugène Goyhenetche, Bayonne and the Bayonne region (French)
- History of Anglet — From its origins to modern times, Manex Goyhenetche, p. 71, Chapter II, "The changes during the 16th century" (French)
- History of Anglet – From its origins to modern times, Manex Goyhenetche, Chapter III, "The chronic discord with Bayonne", p. 79 (French).
- Autrefois Anglet, Éditions Atlantica, Philippe Salquain, p.60-62 In the Forest of Cork Oaks p.66/68/70 Harvest of resin in the Pignadas. (French)
- History of Anglet – From its origins to modern times, Manex Goyhenetche, p. 182 (French)
- P. Hourmat, The invasion of French Basque Country in 1813-1814, Bulletin of the Basque Museum, 1st and 2nd trimesters, 1967. See also D. Halty, Episodes of Napoleonic War in Basque Country, éd. Cairn. (French)
- The Basques, Philippe Veyrin, Arthaud, 1975, 1st edition 1947, ISBN 2-700-30038-6 (French)
- Olden Day Anglet, Éditions Atlantica, Philippe Salquain p. 186/188/190, The Nuns of Our Lady of Refuge (French)
- The sand cemetery of the monastery of Saint Bernard at Anglet (64) (French)
- A cemetery of sand at the Refuge in Anglet (French)
- The chapel of straw of the monastery of Saint Bernard at Anglet - descriptions and photos (French)
- Old Time Anglet, Éditions Atlantica, Philippe Salquain p. 108/110/112, Bab Station/the BAB arrives at Anglet/the 5 cantons Station (French)
- Olden Day Anglet, Éditions Atlantica, Philippe Salquain, p. 114, The Tramway crosses the country (French)
- Olden Day Anglet, Éditions Atlantica, Philippe Salquain, p. 33, House of Love - The celebrated and highly frequented swimming pool (French)
- Olden Days Anglet, Éditions Atlantica, Philippe Salquain, p. 122/124/126, The Basque Coast Tram/The Fontaine Laborde Station/The Chiberta Stop (French)
- Anglet (64): The Church of Saint Mary becomes the first classified monument in the town - Published 25 February 2014 at 15:21 - Journal SUD OUEST (French)
- List of Mayors of France
- Intercommunality of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Cellule informatique préfecture 64, consulted on 12 November 2011 (French)
- National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
- Anglet Town website - Economics page (French)
- 2007 Report of the Guyenne and Gascogne Company (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée EA00000003 Town Hall (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000897 Buffet (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000895 Table (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée EA00000002 Villa Arguia (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée EA00000001 Villa El Hogar (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000754 Writing desk and armchair (French)
- Architectural Memorial p.67, 3.3- Inventory of Heritage under Article L123- 1,7° of the code of Urbanism (French)
- Anglet - Architecture archives of the Basque Coast, Ballades architecturales, p. 60, El Hogar (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084310 Dominican Monastery of Couillioure (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000495 Painting with frame: Father Cestac (French)
- Izadia Ecological Park website (French)
- Municipal Journal No. 72 Dossier: The Pignada - green lungs of BAB (French)
- Towns and Villages in bloom website, consulted on 21 February 2013.
- Anglet town website - Children's page (French)
- Anglet Town website - Montaury university park page (French)
- Dojo Angloy Aikido (French)
- Equestrian Club of the basque coast website (French)
- Anglet Surf Club (French)
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